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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Dec 1999
Volume 28, Issue 5 - Oct 1999
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Aug 1999
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Jun 1999
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Apr 1999
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
Selecting the target year
Protein Nutritional Qualities of Fish Meat Extracts and Their Residues
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 277~284
To confirm the food quality of conventionally processed fish extracts, protein quality of boiled crucian carp(Carassius carassius) and bastard halibut(Paralichthys olivaceus) extracts and their residues were evaluated. For the both fish extracts, some of the essential amino acids were lowered significantly but two times more proline and glycine were detected in extracts than those in raw fish meats. Boiling(100oC, 5 hours) caused 1.8(crucian carp)~2.4(bastard halibut) times more total free amino acid contents in fish extracts as compared to those in original fish meats. Taurine, glutamic acid, proline, lysine, and ammonia were the predominant free amino acids released in fish extracts. In vitro digestibility of boiled fish extracts were lower at a level of 4~6% than those of raw fish meats. Fish extraction residue had a higher in vitro digestibility and had a 60% lower level of TI than that of original fish meats. 18(bastard halibut)~ 24%(crucian carp) of available lysine was reduced in boiled fish extracts but a remarkable variation was not noted between extracts and residues. PERs and NPRs of fish extracts were significantly lower than those of casein, while those values of extraction residue were slightly higher as compared to those of control(ANRC casein). In vivo apparent digestibility exhibited a similar trend to in vitro digestibility. Hematological properties in serum of rat fed with fish extracts and residue were not changed significantly but the serum cholesterol concentration were reduced in rats fed fish extraction residue comparing with those of control. These results suggest that body weight loss due to fish extracts may not affect physiological changes.
Chemical Composition of Glycoprotein from Urechis unicinctus
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 285~291
To confirm the food quality of Urechis unicinctus which have been favored as a special raw seafood in southern area in Korea, the chemical composition of Urechis unicinctus and those glycoprotein were studied. Freeze dried Urechis unicinctus was composed of more than 70% of crude protein and 15% of total carbohydrate. The amino acids such as glycine(18.69%), glutamic acid(12.50%) and aspartic acid(9.37%) were noted as major components of total amino acids. The predominant free amino acids were alanine(32.98%), glycine(27.50%), asparagine(19.65%) and taurine(8.29%), and the sum of them were more than 88% to total free amino acids, so they may cause unique taste of Urechis unicinctus with sweetness. As the basis of sugar composition analysis, 56.35% of glucose and 30.49% of N acetylglucosamine were contained respectively, and they might also play an important role in a sweet taste. The leading carbohydrate moiety of glycoprotein from Urechis unicinctus was identified as glucose and N acetylglucosamine similarly to raw muscle, and they occupied more than 50% of total sugar content. Fucose(18.32%) and D glucuronic acid(12.31%) also detected in higher levels com pared to raw muscle. The total amino acid profile of glycoprotein showed a similar trend to raw muscle protein but glycine was detected a significantly lower than that in raw muscle. The glycoprotein from Urechis unicinctus was composed of 4 kinds of subunits, i.e. 25kDa, 20kDa, 18kDa and 12.5kDa of molecular weights through the SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. On the basis of the IR spectrum of absorptions appeared in 1,240cm-1 and 850cm-1, the glycoprotein had sulfate groups.
Comparison of Biochemical Characteristics of Myofibrillar Protein from Fresh Water Fish and Sea Water Fish
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 292~298
Myofibril and actomyosin were prepared from red muscle and white muscle of fresh water fish and sea water fish, and their biochemical characteristics and SDS PAGE patterns of myofibril were compared. SDS PAGE analysis showed that electrophoretic patterns of myofibril were similar be tween white muscle and red muscle, while difference of 30kDa component of myofibril was detected between fresh water fish and sea water fish. When myofibril were treated with trypsin, difference in hydrolysis of heavy chain was observed between white muscle and red muscle. In activities of Ca ATPase, Mg ATPase, EDTA ATPase and ATPase activity pH curve, myofibrillar protein from fresh water fish showed higher specific activity than those from sea water fish.
Comparison of Volatile Flavor Components of Korean Aromatic Rice and Nonaromatic Rice
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 299~304
To compare the composition of volatile flavor components of two different types of rice, the volatile flavor concentrates isolated from brown rices Hyangnambyeo(aromatic cultivar) and Dongjinbyeo (normal cultivar) were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A total of components, including 16 hydrocarbons, 16 aldehydes and ketones, 15 alcohols, 4 acids, and 10 miscellaneous components were identified positively or tentat ively. Among them, n pentanol was the most abundant component in both samples and Hyangnambyeo contained more aldehydes and alcohols than Dongjinbyeo. 2 Acetyl 1 pyrroline which is chiefly responsible for the character istic odor of aromatic type rice was high in Hyangnambyeo compare to Dongjinbyeo, but these were detected as minor component.
Fractionated Volatile Flavor Components of Soybean Paste by Dynamic Headspace Method
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 305~311
The volatile compounds of soybean pastes(home made soondoenjang, commercial doenjang) were classified into basic, acidic and neutral fractions by dynamic headspace method. The fractionated flavor isolates were analyzed and identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Each peak area of the flavor components was quantified at its ratio to the peak area of internal standard. Sixty one compounds from home made soondoenjang, and forty three compounds from commercial doenjang were identified. The different distribution of volatile compounds between the two soybean paste samples was observed. Ten pyrazines and benzothiazole were identified in the basic fraction of home made soondoenjang. On the other hand, trimethylpyrazine was the only one of nitrogen containing compounds in the commercial doenjang, which was made from soybean(28.3%), wheat(22.2%) and alcohols. The factors which influenced the levels of these identified compounds were considered to be the starting materials of soybean paste. Alcohols, esters and aldehydes in the neutral fraction of both samples were seemed to be characterisitic soybean paste flavor and showed much higher quantities than those of the basic or acidic fractions. Furfural in the commercial doenjang was the highest content (45.28ppm) among all of the compounds identified in the samples.
Identification of Aroma-Active Compounds in Korean Salt-Fermentaed Fishes by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis 1. Aroma-Active Components in Salt-Fermented Anchovy on the Market
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 312~318
Volatile compounds in salt fermented anchovy on the market were analyzed by vacuum simulta neous distillation solvent extraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/olfactometry(V SDE/ GC/MS/O) and aroma extract dilution anlaysis(AEDA). Predominant odorants(Log3FD
8) in sample were ethyl methylbutanoate(candy like/sweet) and 2 ethyl 3,5 dimethylpyrazine(nutty/baked potato like). Besides these compounds, 6 odorants such as ethyl 3 methylbutanoate(sweet/floral/ candy like), 3 methylbutanal(dark chocolate like), (Z) 4 heptenal(rancid/fish like), (methylthio) propanal(soy sauce /baked potato like), (E,Z) 2,6 nonadienal(melon /cucumber like) and (E,E) 2,4 decadienal(fatty/cooked soybean like) were potent in odor value of salt fermented anchovy. Seven amino acids having high taste value in sample were glutamic acid, aspartic acid(sour and umami taste), lysine, alanine(sweet), histidine, valine, and methionine(bitter).
Identification of Aroma-Active Compounds in Korean Salt-Fermented Fishes by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis 2. Aroma-Active Components in Salt-Fermented Shrimp on the Market
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 319~325
Volatile flavor compounds in Korean salt fermented shrimp on the market were analyzed by vacuum simultaneous distillation solvent extraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/olfac tometry(V SDE/GC/MS/O) and aroma extract dilution anlaysis(AEDA). A total of 32 volatile com pounds were detected by GC/O analysis. Of these, 18 were positively identified, and composed of S containing compounds(5), aldehydes(4), ketones(3), N containing compounds(3), ester(1), alcohol(1) and aromatic hydrocarbon(1). Predominant odorants(Log3FD
4) in salt fermented shrimp were 2,3 butanedione(sour/buttery), 1 octen 3 one(earthy/mushroom like), dimethyl trisulfide(cooked cabbage /soy sauce like) and 2 acetylthiazole(grainy/nutty). Predominant free amino acids were aspartic acid, glutamic acid(sour and umami taste), arginine, methionine(bitter) and lysine(sweet and bitter) in evaluation of taste value.
Characteristics of Useful Components in the Leaves of Baechohyang(Agastache rugosa, O. Kuntze)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 326~332
In order to develope useful components and to apply in food additives, various components in the leaves of baechohyang were determined according to picking date. Moisture and ash were reached to 74~82%, 1.5~3.4%, respectively, and major sugars were fructose, glucose, sucrose, and maltose. Glutamic, aspartic acid, and leucine constituted the main component amino acids and their contents were relatively higher in the samples of summer and young leaves. Among free amino acids, histidine showed the highest components and methionine were the lowest. Potassium, calcium, and sodium were main mineral components. The content of ascorbic acid were 6.6~9.2mg% and seasonal variations were negligible. Muture leaves contained more polyphenols as much as 108~181mg% and the amount of bound fractions were much more. Periodic evaluation of phenolic compounds were made and major components of bound fractions were caffeic, syringic, and ferulic acid.
Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Turnip
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 333~341
This study was conducted to investigate physicochemical and functional properties of turnip. The concentrations of antocyanin in the rind of root was 3.24mg%, which was about 3.5 times higher than those in the flesh. Among free amino acids in each part of turnip, glutamic acid showed the highest concentrations(132.5mg%) in the root followed by alanine(25.0mg%), valine (23.3mg%), and serine (20.7mg%). Contents of minerals in the root of turnip were 395.7mg% for potassium, 187mg% for calcium, 53.6mg% for phosphate, and 40.7mg% for magnesium. According to dynamic heasdspace analysis, dimethyl disulfide was the most abundant flavor components from the juice of fresh turnip and other volatile components such as dimethyl trisulfide, 1 hexanal, 2 methyl 1 butamine, and 1 penten 3 ol were also identified. From the blanched turnip, however, 3 isothiocyanato 1 propene and 4 isothiocyanato 1 butene were mainly detected. Fresh and blanched turnips were extracted with water or 70% acetone to investigate percent yield. The concentrations of total polyphenols in the extracts of fresh turnip were higher than those of blanched turnip. The nitrite scavenging effects of water and 70% acetone extracts from fresh or blanched turnip were decreased as pH was increased. Between two water extracts, the 30oC water extracts showed the higher values of electron donating ability than 95
Nitrite Scavenging Effect of Methaol Fraction Obtained from Green Yellow Vegetable Juices
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 342~347
The objectives of this study were to investigate biological activities such as nitrite scavenging effect of water and methanol fractions obtained from each green juice(Angelica keiskei, kale, carrot) under different pH conditions, and antioxidant vitamin contents in green juice made of green yellow vegetables. The result shows that nitrite scavenging effect of each green juice was 14.0~91.2% in model system. The methanol fraction provided higher effect than the water fraction. The nitrite degradation was the highest at pH 1.2. Nitrite scavenging effect of methanol fraction obtained from kale juice was 91.2% at pH 1.2 which was the highest among tested samples in this experiments. Consequently, extracts of kale juice were shown to provide the greatest functional properties among the vegetables tested. Contents of vitamine E and C in the extracts of kale were higher than the others.
Enhancement of Human Lysozyme Secretion with Permeabilizing Agents from the Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 348~352
We have intended to accelerate the secretion of human lysozyme(HLY) with permeabilizing agents from the cultivated cells of the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The five agents CaCl2, Tween 80, ethanol, Triton X 100, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide(CTAB) were used as permeabilizing agents. Treatments of the yeast cell with CaCl2, Tween 80, and ethanol were effective to increase the secretion from the yeast cells. Especially, treatment of 10% ethanol increased the extracellular HLY activity by 38.6% at 30oC for 48 h in culture broth. But Triton X 100 and CTAB unexpectedly didn't play a role in increase of HLY secretion. Recovery of a foreign protein by permeabilizing agents is easier than by osmotic shock, and is less expensive than enzymatic digestion.
The Quality Comparison of Apple Vinegar by Two Stages Fermentation with Commercial Apple Vinegar
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 353~358
We produced the apple vinegar with only apple fruits, no adding sugar and others through two stages fermentation(alcohol fermentation and acetic acid fermentation). At the first stage, apple wine contained 5% alcohol was produced at the 5th day. And through the second stage, acetic acid fer mentation, apple vinegars of which total acidity is 5.88% were produced. In comparision with com mercial vinegars for physicochemical quality, it was the lowest in total acidity. But contents of oxalic, tartaric, malic, citric, succinic acid in it were higher than other vinegars. Especially the content of malic acid in it was higher 5 times than other vinegars. Malic acid was known that it was abundant in apple fruits. Also the contents of free amino acids were distinctly high such as 21.97mg% in two stages fermented apple vingars. Potassium content in it was higher 4 times than other vinegars. So it was supposed that two stages fermented vinegar had much higher quality than commercial vinegars.
Effects of Scutellaria baicalensis G., Lithospermum erythrorhizon Extracts and Ozone-treated Crab Shell on Fermentation of Baechu Kimchi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 359~364
The studies were carried out to investigate antimicrobial activity of mixed extracts of Lithospermum erythrorhizon and Scutellaria baicalensis G. and crab shell against lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi. The effects of Lithospermum erythrorhizon and Scutellaria baicalensis G. extracts and crab shell on shelf life of kimchi were also investigated. The growth of heterofermentative and homofer mentative lactic acid bacteria was inhibited by 95% ethanol extracts of Lithospermum erythrorhizon and Scutellaria baicalensis G. The pH of kimchi containing 1% of mixed extracts Lithospermum erythrorhizon. and Scutellaria baicalensis G., and crab shell was lower than control during fermentation for 25 days of 10oC. The viable cells of the kimchi samples were lower than that of control during fermentation. The sensory qualities of the kimchi samples were a little inferior to the control during shelf life of kimchi.
Effect of Hot Water Extract of Natural Plants on the Prolongation of Optimal Fermentation Time of Kakdugi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 365~370
To investigate the effect of natural plants on the prolongation of optimal fermentation time of kakdugi, various kakdugies, added with hot water extract from 105 kinds of natural plants(68 medicinal plants and 37 vegetables), were fermented at 20oC until optimal fermentation time. In case of control without addition, the time required to reach the optimum acidity(0.6% lactic acid) was 60 hr. Among 105 kinds tested, 48 plant(42 medicinal plants and 6vegetables) extracts decreased the acidity after 60 hr fermentation to less than 50% of control. In addition, these extracts extended the optimal fermen tation time(>120 hr) by more than 2 folds. Moreover, among the above 48 kinds, 12 sorts of extracts raised the hardness of kakdugi, by more than 30%, compared to control. And the number of lactic acid bacteria in kakdugi added with the above 12 kinds was not smaller than that of control. In sensory test, 8 kinds of medicinal plants(including Phyllostachys edulis) were found to be acceptable. Based on these results, it is suggested that kakdugi added with 8 kinds of medicinal plants was adequate in the prolongation of optimal fermentation time of kakdugi.
Antimicrobial Activities of Chopi(Zanthoxylum piperitum DC.) Extract
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 371~377
In order to evaluate the antimicrobial function of natural herb extracts as antimicrobial agent or packaging material for the preservation of foods and greenhouse produce, the water extract of chopi (Zanthoxylum piperitum DC.) was prepared and its antimicobial activity was determined. In the paper disk test its antimicrobial activity was increased in proportion to its concentraion. The growth of microorganisms was completely inhibited above 500ppm of its concentration. It showed wide spectrum of thermal(40 to 180oC) and pH(4 to 10) stabilities. In the electronic microscopic observation(TEM and SEM) of microbial morphological change it showed to decrease the activation of physiological enzymes and to lose the function of cell membranes. Even in the activation test of galactosidase, it seemed to weaken the osmotic function of cell membranes remarkably in comparison with chloroform and its activation corresponded to 40~50% of toluene. Zanthoxylum piperitum DC. extract seemed to be an excellent antimicrobial for the inhibition of food borne microorganisms as well as the pre servation of greenhouse produces.
Sanitizing Effect of
-Irradiation on Fresh Vegetable-extract Juices
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 378~382
The sanitizing effect of irradiation on the fresh vegetable extract juices was investigated. Total bacteria, coliform bacteria and total ascorbic acid were determined during the storage periods at 4oC. Chlorophyll, carotenoid, tannin, electron donating ability and peroxidase activity were determined immediately after irradiation. Results showed that the viable cells were detected below the level of 105 CFU/ml during 12 days with doses of 3 and 5 kGy. Total ascorbic acid and tannin contents increased immediately after irradiation. However, irradiation didn't affect chlorophyll and car otenoid contents, electron donating ability, and peroxidase activity. It was considered that irradiation was effective in sanitizing fresh vegetable extract juices.
Noodle Making Characteristics of Buckwheat Composite Flours
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 383~389
To determine the optimum condition for buckwheat noodle making, we prepared noodle from com posite flours of buckwheat, wheat and corn starch, and those physical properties and sensory evalua tion were investigated. The weights of cooked noodle became lower with increasing buckwheat content level indicating that elution of its components to soup was high. Wheat flour in the composite flours probably caused to drop gelatinization temperature and maximum viscosity compared to buck wheat flours. Corn starch in the composite flours increase gelatinization temperature and maximum viscosity compared to buckwheat flours. From the result of farinogram, buckwheat flour lower water absorption ability, and increased dough development time compared to composite flours. Adhesiveness of the cooked noodle with wheat flour was decreased. Cohesiveness of the cooked noodle was decrea sed with increasing buckwheat flour level. In sensory evaluation, chewing and softness of noodle with 100% buckwheat flour was evaluated the best. In taste, BW1 and BSW1 noodles showed slightly higher preference although there was no significant differences.
Studies on the Development of Processed Foods of Greenhouse Horticultural Commodities in the South Area (1) Effect of Brine Concentration on the Quality of Cucumber Pickle
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 390~395
The cucumber pickles(pieces types), soaked at 10, 15, and 20% brine concentrations, were fermented for 7 days at 25oC. The pH of sample in 10% brine was lowered faster than that of others. To reach pH 3.7, it took 4 days(10%) , 6 days(15%) and 7 days(20%), respectively. The salt permeated into cucumber rapidly, and it took only 1 day to reach maximum content, thereafter salt contents were maintained constant. The titratable acidity and turbidity of cucumber pickle liquids were increased with fermentation time. Sensory evaluation showed that taste and smell of fresh cucumber, color and texture were decreased, while yeast moldy smell and acidic taste were increased as fermentation proceeded. Higher scores were obtained in acidic taste and smell, yeast moldy taste and smell in case of fermented sample in 10% brine for 4 days. It was concluded that the quality of cucumber pickle was influenced by the salt concentrations of brine.
Manufacture of Citron Jelly Using the Citron-extract
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 396~402
To increase the utilization of citron(Citrus junos), manufacturing conditions of citron jelly were studied. Citron extract was diluted 7 fold for jelly processing and it's pH was 2.64. Due to the low pH of citron extract, 2.5∼3.0% of pectin was added which was slightly higher than the amount for ordinary jelly process. To reduce the loss of citron flavor and vitamin C, it was heated for 10 min. and found to be enough for proper hardness of jelly. Agar and gelatin was used as jellying agents to improve the physical properties of pectin jelly. From the result of compression curve analysis, addition of 5% and 7% of gelatin were more effective in jelly texture than agar in 1.5% and 2.5% pectin jelly, respectively. Sucrose was replaced by glucose and oligosaccharide; galactooligosaccharide, fructooligosaccharide and isomaltooligosaccharide. From the sensory evaluation analysis, 30% of sucrose and 30% of isomaltooligosaccharide in jelly was evaluated as superior to other sugars.
Processing, Quality Stability and Utilization of Approved Sardine Surimi for Surimi-based Products
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 403~408
This study was conducted to investigate chemical properties, quality stability and utilization of approved sardine surimi(ASS) which is developed our laboratory. The product yield of the ASS was about 3 times higher than that of usual sardine surimi(SS). The proper addition concentration of sodium bicarbonate was 0.1% for the neutralization of the ASS. The content of salt soluble protein nitrogen in the ASS was about the half of that in the SS, while the content of water soluble protein nitrogen was 2.4 times higher in ASS. The total amount of free amino acids in the ASS was about 11 times higher than that of the SS. Predominant free amino acids in the ASS were histidine, taurine, glutamic acid and alanine, and those four amino acids occupied 94% of total amount of free amino acids. During cold storage at 21oC for 6 months, the quality of ASS was more stable than that of SS in judging from changes of water soluble and salt soluble protein nitrogen, AV and POV. Quality of fish burger, fish sausage and fried fish paste processed in accordance with commercial processing preparation using the ASS or SS exclusively and mixtures which other white meat fish surimi(alaska pollack, hair tail and sole) were proportionallly added to each of two types of sardine meat were evaluated. In case of fish burger, the product processed from the ASS only were superior.
Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Soluble Ginseng Components Using Microwave Extraction System under Pressure
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 409~416
Microwave extraction system equipped with closed vessels was applied to confirm its capability of extracting ginseng solubles including saponin, which was monitored to optimize extraction con ditions by response surface methodology. Total yield increased with the decrease in particles size and more extraction steps. Soluble components were completely extracted by operating the system within 6 min per one step, which should be repeated by 3 or 4 times. Optimized conditions for maxi mum extraction of response variables(total yield, crude saponin) were 40~50% of ethanol concentration, about 140oC of extraction temperature, and within 6 min of the extraction time. The extraction effi ciency of total yield was dependent on the decrease of ethanol concentration, while crude saponin content was favored on the higher degree of ethanol concentration. According to the temperature guideline, below 90oC of extraction temperature, the optimal ranges of extraction conditions were predicted as 30~50% of ethanol concentration and 2.5~6.5 min of extraction time. Estimated values of total yield and crude saponin were in good agreement with experimental values.
Degradation and Preparation of Blend Films Using Natural Polymers Chitosan and Algin
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 417~422
Algin and chitosan are known as biodegradable natural polymers. PVA is useful for the production of water soluble packaging, paper, textile sizes. PVA/Algin and PVA/chitosan films were prepared by solution blends method in the weight ratio of chitosan, algin for the purpose of useful biodegradable films. Thermal and mechanical properties of blend films such as DSC, impact strength, tensile strength and morphology by SEM were determined. As a result, The ratio of 10.0wt% PVA/chitosan films were similar to PVA at thermal and mechanical properties. PVA/Algin films were found that phase separation was occured as more than 25wt% increasing the blend ratio of algin. PVA/Algin films were observed to be less partially compatibility than 10wt% increasing the blend ratio of algin by DSC, mechanical properties and SEM. Blend films were completely degraded pH 4.0 better than 7.0, 10.0 in the buffer solution. Also, they were rapidly degraded in the enzyme( glucosidase) solution better than pH solution by enzymolysis.
Mechanical Properties of Polyethylene Films Containing Hydroxypropylated Potato Starch
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 423~428
Potato starches were hydroxypropylated with 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0% propylene oxide(PO) to improve mechanical properties of starch polyethylene film. Starch polyethylene cast films were prepared that contained 5% or 10% of the hydroxypropylated potato starch. Mechanical properties of these films were measured and compared to those of the films containing native potato starch. DS(degree of substitution) increased proportionally as propylene oxide concentration increased. Relative crystallinity in X ray diffraction patterns was decreased and starch granule observed by scanning electron micro scopy was destroyed by severe hydroxypropylation. In color properties of films, b value was not significantly different in the films but 5% starch polyethylene films with 2.5 PO starch showed the lowest L and a value. Tensile strength and strain energy of the films except the film containing 10.0 PO starch were higher than those of the containing native starch.
Analysis of Variables Influencing the Pressure Build-up and Volume Expansion of Kimchi Package
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 429~437
A mathematical model was established for estimating changes in pressure and volume of permeable kimchi packages. The model comprises the CO2 gas production from kimchi and permeation of O2, CO2 and N2 through the permeable film or sheet. Using the developed model, the effects of various packaging variables on the pressure and volume changes were analyzed for rigid and flexible packag es of kimchi(3% salt content) at 15oC, and then effect of storage temperature was also looked into. In case of rigid pack of 400g, using the plastic sheet of high CO2 permeability and initial vacuumizing can help to relieve the problem of pressure build up. The lower fill weight can further reduce the pressure, but will result in higher packaging cost. For the flexible package of 3 kg, highly permeable films such as low density polyethylene(LDPE) and polypropylene can reduce the volume expansion. Higher ratio of CO2 permeability to O2 and N2 permeabilities are effective in reducing the volume expansion. Increased surface area cannot contribute to reduction of volume expansion for highly permeable flexible packages of kimchi. For the impermeable packages, pressure and volume at over ripening stage (acidity 1.0%) increase with decreased temperature, while those at optimum ripening stage(acidity 0.6%) change little with temperature. Pressure of permeable rigid LDPE package increases with tem perature at any ripening stage, and temperature affects the volume of flexible LDPE package very slightly. Experimental verification of the present results and package design with economical consid eration are needed as a next step for practical application.
Resistance of Hen항s Egg Yolk Immunoglobulins in Livetin to Digestive Enzymes
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 438~443
A livetin solution(LS) containing yolk immunoglobulins(IgY) was separated by treating the egg yolk with natural gum, carrageenan. Carrageenan has been used as a food ingredient. Relative absorbance of IgY LS after proteolysis was investigated. IgY LS was fairly stable to pepsin digestion at pH 3.0. However, IgY LS appeared to be susceptible to pepsin digestion at pH 2.0, showing 18% of relative absorbance and complete breakdown H chain after 30 min exposure. Relative absorbance of IgY LS was considerably high after exposure to trypsin and chymotrypsin for 8 hr. IgY LS showed especially good stability to chymotrypsin digestion.
The Radioprotective Effect of Sam-Ryung-Baek-Chul-San (San-Ling-Bai-Shu-San) as a Prescriptions of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Irradiated Mice
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 444~451
We performed this study to determine the radioprotective effect of Sam Ryung Baek Chul San (San Ling Bai Shu San), as a prescription of traditional Oriental medicine, and its major ingredients. Jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation, and apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells were investigated in irradiated mice with high and low dose of rays. Sam Ryung Baek Chul San administration before irradiation increased the formation of endogenous spleen colony(p<0.05) and reduced the frequency of radiation induced apoptosis(p<0.05). In the experiment on the effect of ingredients of Sam Ryung Baek Chul San, the result indicated that the extracts of Panax ginseng, Poria cocos and Coix lacryma jabi might have the major radioprotective effects. Although the mechanisms of these inhibitory effects remain to be elucidated, these results indicated that Sam Ryung Baek Chul San might be a useful radioprotector, especially since it is a relatively nontoxic natural product.
Antimutagenic Effect of the fruiting Body and the Mycelia Extracts of Coprinus comatus
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 452~457
The inhibitory effect of Coprinus comatus on the mutagenicity in Salmonella assay system and SOS chromotest were studied. In Ames test, the ethanol and water extracts and the cultured mycelia fractions of Coprinus comatus did not show any mutagenicity, but the Coprinus comatus ethanol extracts showed inhibitory effects of 8 0∼90% on the mutagenicity induced by indirect mutagen of benzo(a)pyrene(B(a)P) and aflatoxin B1(AFB1) in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. The antimutagenic effect increased with increasing concentration of the ethanol extract toward N methyl N' nitro N nitrosoguanidine(MNNG). However, the water extracts inhibited about 40∼50% against direct and indirect mutagen. The cultured mycelial filtrate of Coprinus comatus, the fractionⅡ, showed antimutagenic effect of 90% on MNNG and 25∼50% on B(a)P and AFB1. In SOS chromotest, the ethanol extracts of Coprinus comatus showed antimutagenic effect of 65∼81% on SOS function induced by 4 NQO, and the cultured mycelia fractionⅡ showed low inhibitory effect of 20∼50%.
Growth Suppression Effect of Traditional Fermented Soybean Paste(Doenjang) on the Various Tumor Cells
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 458~463
Methanol extract and its fraction of traditional fermented soybean paste(doenjang) from Soonchang area were studied for growth suppression on the various tumor cells and suppression components, by using HPLC and GC were analysed. Hexane fraction of methanol extract was indicated 79%, 76%, 67%, 66%, 78% of growth suppression on L1210, P338D1, HepG2, WiDr and SNU 1 tumor cells, respectively. Ethylacetate fraction of methanol extract also showed 81%, 75%, 75%, 76% and 82% of growth suppression on the same tumor cells, respectively. Peak 8 obtained from HPLC of ethylacetate fraction indicated 81%, 77%, 77%, 75% and 79% of growth suppression on the same tumor cells and identified as a genistein, by comparing with standard one by HPLC analysis. Hexane fraction of methanol extract contained oleic acid, linoleic acid and palmitic acid.
Effects of Zn Intake on Immune Responses in High Fat Diet-induced Obese Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 464~470
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of zinc intake on immune responses in high fat diet induced obese rats. The immune status was assessed by the measurements of immunoglobulins (IgG, A, and M) production by SRBC(sheep red blood cell) with mitogen in vivo. The delayed type hypersensitivity(DTH) response was also measured as an index of cell mediated immunity. The re sults are summarized as follows : 1) There were no significant differences in the feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency ratio of obese rats by the different dietary zinc levels. 2) White blood cell (WBC) counts were significantly affected as the dietary zinc levels decreased. The capacity of Ig M production in obese rats was significantly higher in normal zinc group than that of low and high zinc group. Cell mediated immune response evaluated by means of DTH testing has also been found to be highly impaired by zinc deficiency and overload. From these observations, it was suggested that adequate levels of zinc may promote the immune function of obese individuals. The relationship and its functional role of the zinc in obesity remains to be further studied.
Effects of Total Dietary Restriction on the Contents of Thiobarbituric Acid-Reactive Substance and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Liver and Kidney of Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 471~476
The effects of total dietary restriction(100% restriction of energy intake) on thiobarbituric acid reactive substance(TBARS) contents and intracellular antioxidant enzymes activities in the liver and kidney of young male Sprague Dawley rats were studied. The TBARS contents were reduced in both liver and kidney, up to 77% and 79% of the control rats, fed ad libitum, respectively at 7 days after dietary restriction . Superoxide dismutase(SOD) activities in the liver and kidney of rats were increased significantly by total dietary restriction. However, the activity of catalase in kidney was decreased 27% at 6 days after dietary restriction, but this enzyme activity did not change in liver. The changes of glutathione peroxidae(GSHPx) and catalase activities in the liver and kidney of rats with dietary restriction were not significant. These result suggested that dietary restriction reduce the free radical induced by tissue damage, as determined by TBARS content, in both the liver and kidney but the changes of activities of antioxidant enzymes may not be a contributory factor in reducing oxidative damage to tissue.
Effects of Chitin and Chitosan on Lipid Metabolism in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 477~483
The effects of chitin and chitosan on the contents of plasma and liver lipids and the fecal excretion of neutral and acidic steroids were investigated in rats fed with atherogenic diet. Dietary chitin did not affect plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol, while chitosan diet de creased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Plasma content of triglyceride was reduced signif icantly by chitin diet but not by chitosan. Increases in fecal weight were observed in rats fed with either chitin or chitosan, and the increase was greater with chitosan than with chitin. Dietary chitosan resulted in an increase of fecal excretion of neutral steroids without any changes in the excretion of acidic sterols. Putting the results together, dietary chitosan reduces plasma cholesterol probably due to the reduction of cholesterol absorption. The decrease in plasma triglyceride level by dietary chitin requires further research to understand the mechinism.
Annual Changes in Cholesterol Intake and Serum Cholesterol Level of Korean from 1962 to 1995 Year
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 484~491
To estimate annual changes in age adjusted mean of serum cholesterol and cholesterol intake in Korea during the past years, data from 21 literatures regarding for serum cholesterol level of Korean or National Nutrition Survey Reports from 1962 to 1995 were extracted for this study. Age standardization for mean serum cholesterol level was adjusted being based on Korean population composition in 1995. Mean of Korean serum cholesterol level depicted an increasing tendency from 1962 to 1995. Magnitude of changes in mean of serum cholesterol was big in the age old groups over 60th decade, but sex difference in the pattern was not observed. The estimated mean cholesterol intake was higher in the urban population than those of rural's and it increased linearly from 1969 to 1995. Major food sources for cholesterol were egg(39.3%), anchovy(8.3%), seafoods(35.2%) meat(13%) in 1995. From the results, it was estimated that mean serum cholesterol and daily cholesterol intake of Korean would be 178 mg/dl and 278mg/day in 1995, respectively.
Relation between Vitamin A and
-Carotene Intakes and Serum Total Carotenoids Levels in Smoking College Students
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 492~500
The aim of this study was to assess the association between total vitamin A, retinol and carotene intakes and serum concentration of total carotenoids in Korean male smokers and nonsmokers. Food frequency and nutrient intakes of 64 healthy college students were estimated by the 24 hour recall method and food frequency questionnaire and analyzed by smoking status. Serum total cartenoids and lipid profiles were measured in 28 smokers and 36 nonsmokers. The mean total vitamin A, retinol and carotene intakes of smokers were not significantly different from nonsmokers. However, carotene intakes of the smokers who have smoked more than 5 packyears were significantly lower than those of nonsmokers. Smokers consumed green yellow leafy vegetables more often(P=0.005) and fresh fruits less often(P=0.017) than nonsmokers. The serum total carotenoids of smokers consuming the same amount of retinol and carotene as nonsmokers, 1.79 g/ml, were 17% lower than nonsmokers, 2.15 g/ml(P<0.05). The lipid profiles including total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and triglycerides of smokers were not significantly different from nonsmokers, however, the concentration of HDL cholesterol of smokers were significantly higher than that of nonsmokers. The serum carotenoids concentration was positively associated with fruit consumption frequency in smokers, and also was positively associated with green yellow leafy vegetable consumption frequency in non smokers. There were no correlations between dietary and serum carotenoids for smokers as well as nonsmokers. It was concluded that smoking could be inversely related to the serum concentration of carotenoids at constant carotene intakes and smokers might require more carotene to reach the same concentration comparable to nonsmokers.
Approximate Amounts of Capsaicin Intakes Determined from Capsaicin Contents in Powdered Soups of Korean Instant Noodles and Hot Peppers
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 2, 1999, Pages 501~504
In order to get a quantitative information of capsaicin intakes derived from Korean daily spicy food, capsaicin contents in powdered red hot peppers and powdered soup of Korean instant noodles were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Capsaicin contents were 0.03~0.33mg/g in the powdered hot pepper, 3.67~5.50mg/g in the powdered soup with most spicy taste, 2.15~3.14 mg/g in the soup with medium level of spicy, and below 1.5mg/g in the soup with mild taste of Korean instant noodles. From the results, it was estimated that the amounts of daily intake of capsaicin from hot pepper were about 0.38~4.95mg/day, and capsaicin intakes from one pack of Korean instant noodles were about 10~60mg.