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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Dec 1999
Volume 28, Issue 5 - Oct 1999
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Aug 1999
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Jun 1999
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Apr 1999
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
Selecting the target year
Changes in Chemical Composition of Jujuba Leaf during Growth
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 505~510
The seasonal variations of chemical composition of jujuba leaf were studied by analyzing general composition, amino acid composition, fatty acid composition, mineral, phenol, condensed tannin, flavonoid contents. Fresh jujuba leaf contained 4.42~6.31% protein and 4.31~5.71% fat on wet basis. Jujuba leaf was rich in aspartic acid, glutamic acid and leucine, but methionine was a limiting amino acid. Four kinds of free sugar, i.e. glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose were found in jujuba leaf. The contents of fructose and glucose increased during growth, while the contents of disaccharides, sucrose and maltose, decreased. The main fatty acids of the leaf were palmitic acid, linoleic acid, stearic acid and oleic acid. Jujuba leaf was rich in K, Na and Ca, however, the amounts of Fe, Mn and Cu were low. The contents of Ca and Na increased during growth but the content of Mg decreased. The content of total phenolic compound was 0.83~0.89% and the content of condensed tannin was 0.40~0.45%. Two major flavonoids such as rutin and isoquercitrin were detected and their contents were 103.8~125.2mg/kg and 26.2~40.0mg/kg, respectively.
The Effect of Fig Conserve Additive on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Beef Obtained from Various Breeds
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 511~519
To prevent the denaturation of ficin(EC 126.96.36.199) that is a proteolytic enzyme in fig(Ficus carica L.), fig conserve was heated to 55oC. The fig conserve was added as a tenderizer to native Korean cattle beef(KCB), dairy cattle beef(DCB), castrated dairy cattle beef(CDCB), and imported beef(IB). The composition of free amino acids, hydroxyproline content, shear force, cooking loss, morphological changes and sensory evaluation were then investigated to observe the effect of tenderizing beef with fig conserve. Free amino acids and cooking loss of treated beef were higher than those of control, whereas hydroxyproline and shear force were lower. Glutamine in treated beef decreased relatively but asparagine increased. Hydroxyproline was found, in increasing order of abundance, in DCB, CDCB, IB and KCB. By portion, loin was higher than tenderloin in free amino acids, hydroxyproline and shear force but was lower in cooking loss. Observation with a light microgram revealed a surprising loss of muscle fiber in treated beef. In sensory evaluation of uncooked beef, the control was redder than the treated beef(p<0.01~p<0.05). Treatment with fig conserve increased the juiciness of both cooked CDCB and IB(p<0.001) and decreased their hardness(p<0.01~p<0.001).
Changes of chemical and Antioxidative Characeristics of chlorophylls in the Model System of Mustard Leaf Kimchi during Fermentation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 520~525
Changes of chemical and oxidative/antioxidative characteristics chlorophylls(CHLs) and their derivatives in the model system of mustard leaf kimchi(MLK) were investigated. During fermentation of MLK(at 15oC, for 25days, 2.3
0.1% salt content) pH and total acidity were decreased/increased from 5.6 and 0.4%(initial day) to 3.6 and 1.07%(final day) resceptively. Activities of lipoxygenase and peroxidase were decreased gradually, however, these of chlorophyllase was increased in the first 10 days of fermentation. CHLs of MLK in the initial stage of fermentation were degraded rapidly and all CHLs and chlorophyllides were converted to pheophytins and pheophorbides in the final stage. Deg radation effects of CHLs(a & b) and their derivatives(pheophytins a & b) fractionated from MLK and carotene on the autoxidation and lipoxygenase oxidation of linoleic acid were observed, and also stronger antioxidative activities of CHLs and pheophytins were shown in their autoxidation/enzymtic oxidation of linoleic acid.
Isolation and Identification of Antimicrobial Agent Producing Microorganisms and Sensitive Strain from Soil
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 526~533
Two species of antimicrobial agent producing bacteria and one sensitive strain were isolated from soil. Those were identified as B. subtilis, B. licheniformis, and Curtobacterium sp. by morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics. These were designated as B. subtilis cx1, B. licheniformis cy2 and Curtobacterium sp. cf3, respectively. Antimicrobial agent produced by B. subtilis cx1 showed high antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria including of B. subtilis, Curtobacterium sp., L. mesenteroids, Staphy. aureus, S. faecalis and even gram negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa. Antimicrobial agent from B. licheniformis cy2 showed slightly lower antimi crobial activity than that from B. subtilis cx1. These two strains showed maximum production of antimicrobial agents at 30oC for 9~21hr cultivation. Curtobacterium sp. cf3 showed more sensitive activity than a sensitive strain of B. subtilis ATCC 6633 which was same genus or species with the B. subtilis cx1 and B. subtilis cy2, when the antimicrobial agent producing strains, B. subtilis cx1 and B. subtilis cy2, were directly applied onto these sensitive lawns.
Physico-chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Cakes Added Sea Mustard and Sea Tangle Powder
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 534~541
This study was undertaken to examine the effect of sea tangle and sea mustard on physiochemical and sensory characteristics of cakes and the possibility commercialization of these functional cakes. The moisture contents of cakes prepared with sea tangle and sea mustard were higher than those of control, and a positive correlation between water holding capacity(WHC) and moisture contents was observed(r=0.836). As addition level of sea tangle and sea mustard was increased, volume of cakes were decreased, whereas hardness was increased slightly and color became deep. Hardness was strongly correlated to the volume of cakes(r= 0.914). Visual observation by photomicrography showed that, as addition level of sea mustard and sea tangle was increased, formation of air cells were prohibited and thus volume of cakes was decreased. The microstructural observation by scanning electron microscopy(SEM) showed that air cells of cakes were well developed up to 5% addition of sea tangle powder. As a result of the sensory evaluation for the cakes prepared with sea tangle and sea mustard, no significant difference was observed between control and those addition levels up to 5%. Flavor was proved to be the most important factor in determining overall acceptability and hedonic hardness score was inversely correlated to the objective hardness value(r= 0.853).
Quality Changes of Yoghurt Added with Microencapsulated Iron during Storage
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 542~546
Uncoated, ethyl cellulose(EC) coated or methacrylic acid copolymer(MAC) coated ferrous sulfate was added to the yoghurt made from whole milk powder and quality changes of those yoghurt were observed. Among treatments uncoated ferrous sulfate added yoghurt showed the lowest quality in the view of pH, total acidity, total counts of lactic acid bacteria, and sensory characteristics. Quality change of MAC comparing to control was lower than that of EC. MAC and EC showed higher TBA value than no iron added or uncoated iron added one during storage. From sensory evaluation, MAC was not signif icantly different from control in color and off flavor after one day storage(p>0.05), however significant difference was observed in off flavor after 7 day storage(p<0.05). From above results, MAC coated ferrous sulfate added yoghurt showed better quality than uncoated or EC coated ferrous sulfate added one during storage.
Effects of Oligosaccharides on Physical, Sensory and Textural Characteristics of Sponge Cake
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 547~553
Effects of oligosaccharides substituted for sucrose on the sponge cake quality were investigated. Fructooligosaccharide and isomaltooligosaccharide were used as oligosaccharides. Oligosaccharides decreased batter specific gravity, and increased cake specific volume and expansion ratio, showing that oligosaccharides had higher foaming ability and foam stability than sucrose. Oligosaccharides darkened the crust and crumb color of cakes. Addition of oligosaccharides made cakes darker, softer, more moist and more acceptable as perceived by panels. The acceptability was significantly correlated with crust and crumb color, softness, moistness and flavor(p<0.01). The textural characteristics including hardness, chewiness and gumminess of cakes were decreased by replacing sucrose with oligosaccharides. The hardness, gumminess and chewiness among sensory characteristics were negatively correlated with acceptability(p<0.05). Therefore, oligosaccharides should be a good alternative for sucrose in cake making because the sponge cake quality was greatly improved by partial repacement of sucrose with oligosaccharides.
Flow Properties of Traditional Kochujang : Effect of Fermentation Time
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 554~558
Flow properties of traditional kochujang at various fermentation times(0~12 weeks) were determined with rotational cylindrical(RC) and serrated plate plate(PP) viscometer. Magnitudes of consistency index(K) of power law model and Cassson parameters(yield stress and viscosity) measured by PP viscometer were higher than those using RC viscometer. All kochujang samples during fermentation were much shear thinning with values of flow behavior index(n) as low as 0.2~0.34. K value and Casson yield stress measured by PP viscometer had good correlations(r=0.94; r=0.91) with fermentation time. No significant changes in flow model parameters measured by RC viscometer were observed for kochu jang during fermentation. Magnitudes of flow model parameters measured by PP viscometer more closely correlated with fermantation times of kochujang than did RC viscometer.
Sensory Properties and Optimization of Tangsuyuk Batter Ingredients
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 559~565
This study investigated the effects of tangsuyuk batter ingredients on sensory. The optimal condition was evaluated by using RSM(response surface methodology). Five ingredients(wheat flour, corn starch, sodium bicarbonate, alum, water) were used as independent variables, coding 36 experimental trials. The resulting sensory scores(flavor, fracture, color, overall acceptability) were used as dependent variables. Each dependent variable showed significant differences(p<0.05). When the amount of sodium bicarbonate was increased, the sensory scores for flavor and fracture also increased. Sensory scores for color also increased when the amount of sodium bicarbonate was increased and the amount of alum decreased. Overall acceptability scored higher when the amount of sodium bicarbonate was increased. This is therefore indicates that sodium bicarbonate is likely a very important ingredient in the batter. The effects of each ingredient on sensory were thus investigated. The optimum ratios of wheat flour, corn starch, sodium bicarbonate, alum and water were predicted to be 27.55%, 19.34%, 0.27%, 0.19% and 52.65% respectively.
Effects of Storage Temperatures and Heating Methods on the Textural characteristics of Wheat Flour Gels and Loaf Bread
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 566~571
Effects of storage temperature at 18oC and 5oC for 9 days and heating conditions on textural char acteristics in strong wheat flour gels were investigated using a Instron after microwave (2450MHz, 700W). Heating condition did not affect the texture property in the wheat flour gels, but the frozen storage was very effective to prevent the hardening of the samples. Hardness, adhesiveness, and gumminess in the wheat flour gels decreased in increasing moisture content from 45% to 55%, but there was little change in cohesiveness. The storage at room temperature for 2 hours resulted in increased hardness in the heated wheat flour gels. PE wrap package of the wheat flour gels prevented weight loss by 3~6% and hardening effectively. Sugar, or sugar and shotening resulted in increased hardness in loaf bread. The hardness and weight loss in loaf breads were markedly changed by the heating time with microwave. The most critical time point was around 4 minutes following the heating.
Processing and Quality properties of Chestnut Paste
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 572~578
This study was conducted to investigate processing condition and characteristics of chestnut paste. The kinds of chestnut powder processed with blanching and drying of raw material were four named RH(not blanched, hot air dried), RF(not blanched, freeze dried), BH(blanched, hot air dried) and BF(blanched, freeze dried). Blanching affected the reduction of drying time in chestnut. Water absorption index of the blanched samples were higher than the nonblanched. Blanching affected the viscosity of pastes when water was added to process paste also, but drying methods did not affected to it. The proper ratio of water to the powder to process paste was 1.3 to 1.5 times in RH and RF, whereas 2.7 times in BH and BF by sensory evaluation. Soluble tannin content of paste was higher in RF and RH paste than BF and BH. Vitamin C content was the highest(88.49mg/100g) in RF paste and reducing sugar content was the highest in RF paste. Hunter's L and a values were the highest in BF and RH pastes, respectively, among the all paste samples. Volatile compounds detected from chestnutpastes were hydrocarbons, alcohols, phenols, ketones. The major volatile compound in all the pastes was 2,6 bis(1,1 dimethylethyl) 4 methyl phenol.
Identification of the Proteins Expressed at Optimum Marbling in Hanwoo Loin
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 579~585
Proteins from the loin tissues age ranged from 0 to 24 months of ten Korean cattle were extracted, separated and compared on two dimensional(2 D) gels to identify the proteins whose expression is highly correlated to marbling. We also compared the difference of loin proteins between castrated and non castrated bull cows on two dimensional gels. As the marbling in the loin of the cattle is optimized at 18 to 24 months, eight proteins expressed significantly higher level in 24 month than in 0 or 6 month were selected in terms of isoelectric points(pIs) and molecular weights. Using these values, we searched the Swiss Prot database via the ExPASy molecular biology server with TagIdent program. The proteins with the nearest molecular weights and isoelectric points were selected from the lists. These possible candidates were confirmed by N terminal microsequencing of the eight selected proteins. Three proteins, myoglobin, hemoglobin and ATPase, whose N termini were not blocked could be microsequenced and found to be exactly matched to the selected candidates. It is suggested that the proteins increasingly expressed in marbling periods can be involved in meat color, lipid transport and flavor improvement.
Comparative Effects of Microwave-Assisted Process Under Atmospheric Pressure Condition and Conventional Process on Extraction Efficiencies Ginseng Components
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 586~592
Microwave assisted extraction(MAE) is known as a more environmental friendly process with economic advantages in terms of less time, less solvent, less energy and less wastes than the current time consuming reflux method. It was applied to develop a rapid extraction method for soluble ginseng components that are major materials used for the processing of ginseng products. In a comparative study between pre established MAE(ethanol 60%, power 80 W, process time 4 min
5) and current extraction method(ethanol 80%, temp. 85oC, time 8 hr
5), MAE was more efficient than the current method to obtain an extract yield(soluble solid), but it was insufficient to extract individual ginsenosides, total phenols, reducing components and acidic polysaccharides. MAE with 80% ethanol by 5 times showed, however, that its extraction efficiency on soluble solid, crude saponin, major ginsenosides, and the other components was equal or superior to that of the current method, indicating that ethanol concentration is one of the critical parameters influencing the MAE process. The quality of ginseng extracts from MAE was assured by evaluating the corresponding standards and by comparing TLC and HPLC patterns with the control.
Physiological Activity of Zizyphus jujuba Leaf Extracts
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 593~598
This study was designed to investigate the possible utilization of Zizyphus jujuba leaves as a source of functional ingredients. The physiological activity of different solvent fractions prepared from ethanol extract of Zizyphus jujuba leaves were analyzed. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect was very high in all fractions except chloroform fraction. The very high electron donating ability was observed in the ethylacetate fraction and the effect was similar to 0.1% tocopherol. Nitrite scavenging effect of all fractions was more than 40% even at low concentration of 1mg/ml and was increased with increasing concentration. Angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity was appeared in ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions only at high concentraton.
Antimutagenic Effects of Water Extracts of Persimmon Leaf Tea, Green Tea and Oolong Tea on Reversion and Survival of Selected Salmonella Tester Strains
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 599~606
Water extracts of persimmon leaf tea(PLTE), green tea(GTE) and oolong tea(OTE), at the con centration used for human consumption, were examined for inhibitory effects on the mutagenicity of major classes of dietary and environmental mutagens including indirect acting mutagens, B[ ]P (benzo[ ]pyrene), IQ(2 amino 3 methylimidazo[4,5 f]quinoline), 2 AA(2 aminoanthracene) in the presence of S9 mix and direct acting mutagen, 4 NQO(4 nitroquinoline 1 oxide) without S9 mix, using the modified Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. PLTE, GTE and OTE showed very potent and concentration dependent antimutagenic effects against indirect acting mutagens B[ ]P and IQ. At the maximum concentration(16,200 g/plate) of each tea extract, number of colonies decreased in a dose dependent manner up to 82~100%. Similar inhibition of PLTE, GTE and OTE were seen at higher concentration in the mutagenicity of the 2 AA following an initial increase in the activity at lower concentration. However, the mutagenicity of the direct acting mutagen 4 NQO were not suppressed at lower concentration of the three tea extracts, and higher concentration of the tea extracts enhanced mutagenic activity of the mutagen. There were no differences in the mode of antimutagenesis between PLTE, GTE, and OTE, in both Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains against the same mutagen. In conclusion, the water extracts of persimmon leaf tea, green tea and oolong tea possess marked antimutagenic potential against a variety of important dietary and environmental indirect acting mutagens, but the activity was not observed against the direct acting mutagens. These results suggest that the mode of inhibitory action may not have resulted from direct interaction between tea extracts and the mutagens, but rather from indirect metabolic inactivation of mutagens by tea extracts.
Effect of Portulaca oleracea Extract in Removing Nicotine Component of Tobacco
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 607~612
Cigarette smoking is the potential risk factor for lung cancer and chronic pulmonary disease, as well as inflammatory bowel disease and reproductive malfunction. Nicotine and tar have been im plicated as a major factor in the pathogenesis of the diseases. Nicotine increases heart rate and blood pressure due to stimulation sympathetic neurotransmission and tar also accounts for the severe damage of peridontal diseases and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Portulaca oleracea, which contains significant amount of K+, noradrenaline and dopamine as well as various nutrients, has been used for many medicinal purposes and one of which is the detoxification of insect or snake toxins. The purpose of this study was to investigate the action of Portulaca oleracea extracts on the reduction of harmful materials of tabacco. The reduction percentages were measured in the presence and absence of each solvent extract of Portulaca oleracea using reversed C18 column of HPLC. Nicotine reduction effects were obtained from aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts of Portulaca oleracea as 89%, 55% and 51%, respectively. The results suggest that the polar extracts of Portulaca oleracea affects the reduction of nicotine which is responsible for many diseases.
Effect of Tea Fungus/Kombucha Beverage on Lipid Metabolism in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Male Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 613~618
This study investigated the effect of tea fungus/kombucha(TF) beverage on body weights, pancreas weights, serum glucose and lipid concentrations of both normal and diabetic male rats. Sprague Dawley male rats weighing
were randomly assigned to one control and five streptozotocin(STZ) diabetic groups. Diabetic groups were divided into D control(TF free water), 20% TFD(20% TF in water), 40% TFD(40% TF in water), 20% TFSD(20% TF disinfection in water) and 40% TFSD(40% TF disinfection in water) according to the level of TF supplementation. Diabetes was experimentally induced by intraperitoneally administration of STZ in citrate buffer(pH4.3) after 3 week feeding of four experimental water. Animals were sacrificed at the 4 week of diabetic state. The diabetic groups showed significant decrease of body weight(-29.4~48.6g) compared with the control group(72.4g). Pancreatic weights relative to body weights in all diabetic groups were heavier than those of the control group. The levels of fasting serum glucose were higher in all diabetic groups than that of the control group. The concentrations of triglyceride in serum was lower in 20% TFD and 20% TFSD groups than in those D control group. The levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol in serum and atherogenic index were significantly decreased in all(20 or 40%) TFD and TFSD groups than in those D control group, but those were similar to control group. The levels of HDL cholesterol in serum was similar to all groups, but HDL cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio were significantly increased in all(20 or 40%) TFD and TFSD groups than in those D control group. Liver triglyceride concentration of the all diabetic groups significantly decreased compared with the control group. Liver total cholesterol and phospholipid were not affected by TF and TFS feeding. The results indicated that tea fungus/kombucha beverage feeding improved the cholesterol, triglyceride and atherogenic index levels in diabetic rats.
Effects of Cakes Containing Sponge Oligosaccharides on Blood Lipids and Intestinal Physiology in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 619~624
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oligosaccharides(fructo or isomalto ) contained in sponge cake on blood lipids and intestinal physiology in rats. The experimental diet was mixed with 30% sponge cakes. Normal male Sprague Dawley rats weighing about 530g were randomly assigned to three groups and placed experimental diets and deionized water at free access for 25 days. Rat in control group received a diet mixed with sponge cake containing sucrose only at 21.58g/100g diet and rats in the other two groups received diets mixed with sponge cakes of which 40% sucrose was replaced with each oligosaccharide. The results obtained were as follows: No significant differences in efficiency of food, liver weight and intestinal length were observed among groups. The cecal contents and cecal wall weights were increased more in fructooligosaccharide(FO) group than control. The pH of cecal contents decreased significantly in two oligosaccharide groups. The water contents of fresh feces in FO group were the highest and the those of two oligosaccharide groups were higher than that of control. Dry fecal weight increased significantly in isomaltooligosaccharide(IMO) group. Total serum cholesterol concentration was significantly lower in FO group. Serum triglyceride(TG) was not significantly different among three groups at p<0.05, but serum TG of FO group was lower than those of other groups. In conclusion, 40% replacement of sucrose with oligosaccharides in sponge cake may have beneficial effects on lipid metabolism and intestinal function in rats.
effects of Safflower Seed(Carthamus timctorious L. Powder on Lipid Metabolism in High Fat and High Cholesterol-Fed Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 625~631
A study was carried out to investigate the effects of safflower seed powder on the improvement of lipid metabolism in high fat and high cholesterol fed rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats of 10 weeks old, weighing 325
5g, were divided into two groups; the control group(C group, high fat(10% lard) and high cholesterol(1% cholesterol)) and safflower seed group(S group, 10% safflower seed powder), they were fed experimental diets for 6 weeks. Food intake, body weight gains and organ weight had little differences between the groups. Concentration of lipoprotein in serum was remarkably lower in S group than in C group. Serum cholesterol levels were significantly lower in S group(72.94
4.08 mg/dl) than in C group(89.41
4.19mg/dl). The level of serum HDL cholesterol was higher in S group than in C group. The level of serum LDL C was significantly lower in S group than in C group. The ratio of HDL cholesterol to total cholesterol were higher in the S group than in the C group, too. The value of atherogenic index(AI) was determined to be low in S group. The content of liver triglyceride and cholesterol in the S group was lower than that of C group. ACAT activities which involves in cholesterol esterification in liver, was not significantly different between two groups.
Effect of Rhus chinensis Gall Extract on Liver Function, Plasma Lipid Composition and Antioxidant System in Rats with High Fat Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 632~637
The purposes of this study is to investigate the effect of Rhus chinensis gall extract on liver function, plasma lipid composition and antioxidant system in the obese rats with high fat diet for seven weeks. Thirty two male rats of Sprague Dawely strain were divided into four groups. they are normal group (basal diet), control group(high fat diet), III group(high fat diet with Rhus chinensis gall extract 25mg/kg body weight per day) and IV group(high fat diet with Rhus chinensis gall extract 250mg/kg body weight per day). Rats in III group and IV group were administered with Rhus chinensis gall extract accordingly. Weight gains showed a tendency to decrease in rat with Rhus chinensis gall extract group but showed no differences among treatment groups. Food intake and Food efficiency ratio were not significantly different among treatment groups. Plasma total cholesterol showed a tendency to decrease in Rhus chinensis gall extract group. HDL cholesterol showed a tendency to decrease in 25mg/kg of Rhus chinensis gall extract group. However, in the 250mg/kg of Rhus chinensis gall extract group, these values showed no significant difference compared to the control group (p<0.05). GPT activities showed no significant difference among treatment groups. GOT activities showed a tendency to decrease in the groups of Rhus chinensis gall extract groups. Lipid peroxide level was significantly higher in control group than those of normal group. In Rhus chinensis gall extract groups, lipid peroxide level showed a tendency to decrease, but glutathione peroxidase activity was progressively increased. Results of our research in this paper show that Rhus chinensis gall extract might improve liver function, antioxidant system and plasma lipid composition in rats with high fat diet.
-Irradiated Beef Feeding on Preneoplastic Hepatic Lesion, Cytochrome P450 System and Microsome Glucose 6-Phosphatase Activity in Rat Hepatocarcinogenesis
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 638~645
This study was done to investigate effects of
irradiated beef feeding on the formation of gluta thione S transferase placental form positive(GST P+) foci, lipid peroxidation, cytochrome P450 system and microsomal glucose 6 phosphate activity in diethylnitrosamine(DEN) initiated rat hepatocarci nogenesis. Weaning Sprague Dawley male rats were fed the diet containing
irradiatied ground beef at the dose of 0, 3, 5kGy as a 20% of protein source for 8 weeks. One week after feeding, rats were intraperitoneally injected twice with a dose of DEN(50mg/kg BW). As a promoter, 0.05% phenobarbital was fed in drinking water from one week after DEN treatment until the end of experiment. At the end of 8th week, rats were sacrificed and hepatic GST P+ foci, microsomal malondialdehyde(MDA) and conjugated diene contents were determined. In addition, cytochrome P450 content and the activities of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase and glucose 6 phosphatase were also measured. There was no significant effect by gamma irradiation on microsomal MDA content, conjugated diene, cytochrome P450 content and activities of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase and glucose 6 phosphatase. However with DEN treatment, microsomal MDA content and conjugated diene contents were significantly changed. Cytochrome P450 content was also significantly increased while microsomal glucose 6 phophatase activity was significantly decreased with DEN treatment. However activity of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase was not affected. An interesting finding in this study was that the number and area of hepatic GST P+ foci of the rats fed gamma irradiated beef were significantly(p<0.05) lower than those of the control. Such a lowering effect on GST P+ foci formation was highest at the dose of 3kGy than others. Overall results suggest that the consumption of low dose of gamma irradiated beef does not affect the formation of lipid peroxide, cytochrome P450 system and membrane stability.
-Irradiated Beef Feeding on Antioxidative Defense System in Experimental Hepatocarcinogenesis
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 646~653
This study was done to investigate the effect of
irradiated beef feeding on antioxidant vitamin levels and defense enzyme activities in diethylnitrosamine(DEN) initiated rats. Weaning Sprague Dawley male rats were fed the diet containing
irradiated ground beef at the dose 0, 3, 5 kGy as a 20% of protein source for 8 weeks. One week after feeding, rats were intraperitoneally injected twice with a dose of DEN(50mg/kg BW). As a promoter, 0.05% phenobarbital was fed in drinking water from one week after DEN treatment until the end of experiment. At the end of 8th week, serum level of vitamin C, serum and hepatic levels of retinol and tocopherol were determined. In addition, activities of cytosolic glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S transferase, catalase and hepatic superoxide dismutase(SOD) were measured. By
irradiation, there was no significant effect on serum and hepatic levels of vitamin C and tocopherol except a significant decreasing effect on hepatic retinol level. There was also no significant effect on the activities of enzymes involved in antioxidative defense system, However, DEN treatment led to a significant increase in activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione S transferase while the activity of glutathione peroxidase was decreased. The activities of hepatic SOD and catalase were not changed by DEN treatment. Overall results indicate that the consumption of low dose of
irradiated beef does not affect antioxidative defense system.
effects of Vitamin E on the Antioxidative Defense System of Kidney in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 654~662
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin E on the antioxidative defense system of kidney in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Sprague Dawley male rats weighing 100
10g were randomly assigned to one normal and three STZ induced diabetic groups, which were subdivided into vitamin E free diet(DM 0E group), 40mg vitamin E per kg diet(DM 40E group) and 400mg vitamin E per kg diet(DM 400E group). Vitamin E level of normal group was 40 mg per kg diet. Diabetes was experimentally induced by intravenous injection of 55mg/kg of body weight of streptozotocin(STZ) in citrate buffer(pH 4.3) after 4 weeks feeding of experimental diets. Animals were sacrificed at the 6th day of diabetic states. There were no significant on body weights, food intakes, and food efficiency ratio before the diabetic occurrence. But after the injection of STZ, body weights and food efficiency ratios were significantly decreased and the food intakes was increased. Kidney weights were significantly increased in diabetic groups compared to normal group. However, there were no significant differences among the diabetic groups. Plasma insulin levels of diabetic groups were significantly decreased, whereas, blood sugar levels were increased compared to that of normal group. There were no significant differences among diabetic groups in plasma insulin and glucose levels. Activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD) in DM 0E and DM 40E groups were signi ficantly decreased by 33% and 27%, respectively, compared to normal group. But that of DM 400E group was increased by 35% compared to DM 0E group. Activity of glutathione peroxidase(GSHpx) in DM 0E group was decreased by 20% compared with normal group. GSHpx activity in DM 400E group was increased by 29% compared to normal group. The contents of vitamin E in kidney were 58% and 49% lower in DM 0E and DM 40E group, respectively, than normal group. There was no significant difference in renal vitamin E contents between DM-400E group and normal group. The contents of superoxide radical(O2 ) in kidney were 150% and 98%, respectively, higher in DM 0E and DM 40E groups than normalgroup. DM 400E and normal groups were similar levels in their superoxide radical contents of kidneys. These results indicate that vitamin E functioned as chain breaking antioxidant in kidney such as in other tissues.
Effects of Vitamin E on the Microstructural Changes of Renal Tissue in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 663~669
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin E on the histochemical change of kidney tissue in diabetic rats. Sprague Dawley male rats weighing 100
10g were randomly assigned to one normal and three STZ induced diabetic groups, which were subdivided into vitamin E free diet(DM 0E group), 40mg vitamin E per kg diet(DM 40E group) and 400mg vitamin E per kg diet(DM 400E group). Vitamin E level of normal group was 40mg per kg diet. Diabetes was exper imentally induced by intravenous injection of 55mg/kg of body weight of streptozotocin(STZ) in citrate buffer(pH 4.3) after 4 weeks feeding of experimental diets. Animals were sacrificed at the 6th day of diabetic states. The contents of thiobarbituric acid(TBARS) in kidney were increased 119%, 84% and 33% in DM 0E, DM 40E and DM 400E groups, respectively, compared to normal group. That of DM 400E group was decreased 39% compared to DM 0E group. Content of 2 microglobulin in urine in DM 0E, DM 40E, and DM 400E groups were increased by 248%, 181%, and 164%, respectively, compared to normal group. The diabetic groups showed the regressive lesion such as renal tubule, intumescence of epithelial cell, vacuolization. The results of the observation through electronic microscope showed the mitochondria shape of proximal tubule epithelial cell, irregular array, increase of ribosome, and irregular arrangement of small villosity, etc. These types of changes appeared severer in DM 0E group than in DM 400E group. These results indicate that the TBARS productions on kdney in STZ induced diabetic rats were increased, consequently those leaded to damage of renal tubule and minuteness structure. But a large quantity vitimin E supplementation was suppressed in TBARS production and improved in peroxidative damage of renal tissue so that relieved degenerative changes of renal tubule epithelial cell.
Effects of Exercise and/or High Fat Diet on Carnitine and Carnitine Palmitoyltransfersase-I mRNA Levels in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 670~676
The effect of exercise and/or high fat diet on carnitine status and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I(CPT I) level were investigated in Weanling Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were fed an AIN 76 diet or a modified high fat AIN diet, supplemented with 35% corn oil, for 31 days. During the 31 day period half of the animals in each dietary group were exercised on a treadmill for 90 minutes per day. Carnitine concentrations were determined in plasma and liver and CPT I mRNA levels were measured by Northern blot analysis with CPT I cDNA probe in livers of rats. Exercise rats gained less weight than non exercised rats during the study for high fat diet group. Exercise rats had a higher plasma acid soluble acylcarnitine and acid insoluble acylcarnitine concnetrations than non exercised rats for normal diet group. Exercise or high fat diet increased liver carnitine concentration, but a mixed effect was not shown. In exercised rats, CPT I mRNA levels increased significantly relative to those of nonexercised rats. CPT I mRNA levels also increased when compared high fat fed rats with those of normal diet fed rats. These data suggest that there is a correlation between carnitine concen trations and CPT I mRNA levels and that CPT I can be regulated at the transcriptional level by exercise and/or high fat diet.
Bone Growth and Calcium Metabolism in Mouse Affected by Dietary Calcium and Calcium-regulating Hormone Administration
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 677~684
This study has dealt the effect of Ca regulating hormones and dietary Ca levels on Ca metabolism. Animals(BALB/c mice) were divided into three dietary groups(high and medium Ca and Ca free) and hormones including parathyroid hormone(PTH), calcitonin(CT), cholecalciferol(Vit D) were i.p. injected. After feeding experimental diets for five weeks, mice were anaethetized and sacrificed by heart puncture. We found that femur growth of mouse was slightly increased by high dietary Ca without showing statistical significance comparing to low dietary Ca group. The combination of PTH and CT showed the same effect when dietary Ca was high. At the same time, total mineral retention in bone was most affected by dietary Ca. In general, high Ca diet elevated Ca level in the serum. When dietary Ca was low, PTH stimulated Ca release from the bone into the serum, which was shown to be inhibited by CT treatment. Comparing to the control, PTH, Vit D and CT together tended to inhibit serum Ca level at high and medium dietary Ca. PTH and Vit D inhibited Ca reserve in the liver at all dietary levels of Ca. Both PTH and Vit D stimulated bone Ca retention when dietary Ca was low, but this effect was reversed when dietary Ca was high. When PTH, Vit D and CT were administered together, bone Ca level was greatly enhanced at low dietary Ca than at high dietary Ca, which suggests that these hormonal cooperation is needed for proper bone density maintenance especially when dietary minerals are not sufficient.
Effects of Carassius carassius Hot-Water Extracts on Serum Insulin-like Growth Factor-I(IGF-I) and IGF-Binding Proteins in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 685~690
The insulin like growth factors(IGFs) are bound to several binding proteins(IGFBPs) that appear to regulate IGF transfort, receptor binding, and its action. The concentrations of these peptides are regulated by quantity and nutritional quality of dietary proteins. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two diets, which differed in their protein source, Carassius carassius(CC), Carassius carassius hot water extract(CCHE), for 4 weeks. Body weight was significantly increased in the CC group(74.14
12.00 to 266.31
36.62g; p<0.01). Likewise, IGF I concentration of CC group(101.76
15.90 ng/ml) was significantly higher than that of CCHE group(38.50
11.20ng/ml; p<0.05). By western immunoblot analysis, especially IGFBP 1, 2 levels are increased, whereas IGFBP 3 level was de creased in CCHE group. After extraction of browning material from each samples, the extractive was filtered and absorbance at 420nm was measured. The absorbance of CCHE group was significantly higher than that of CC group. These results suggest that IGF I can be employed as an index of protein metabolism, particulary as a simple index in the assessing the status of protein nutrition.
Biological Activities of Hydrocooked Bastard halibut Extracts
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 691~697
The pharmacological effects of hydrocooked(110oC, 5 hours) extracts of Bastard halibut have been investigated. All of the hydrocooked extracts showed the measurable contractile effect on the isolated rat duodenum and decreased the normal blood pressure in anesthetized rat. The hydrocooked extracts also exhibited a dose dependent relaxation on the isolated rat aorta precontracted with phenylephrine. Only RM 60 fraction of these extracts had the cytotoxic effect against MCF7 cell(human breast adenocarcinoma cell line), but the other fractions showed neither antibacterial activity nor antitumor activity. Although fish extracts fed group of rat maintained their original body weight, there were no notable changes in the hematological parameters, except that the levels of high density lipoprotein was significantly increased. These results suggest that the hydrocooked extracts of bastard halibut may contain a variety of bioactive materials.
The Radioprotective Effect of Kuei-Pi-Tang as a prescription of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Mice
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 698~704
In this study, we evaluated the radioprotective effects of Kuei Pi Tang and its ingredients, as a prescription of traditional Oriental medicine. The jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation, and apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells were investigated in mice irradiated with high and low dose of
rays. In the mice administered with Kuei Pi Tang extract before irradiation, the jejunal crypts were protected significantly(p<0.005) and the frequency of radiation induced apoptosis was reduced(p<0.05). In the experiment on the effects of the ingredients of Kuei Pi Tang, the results indicated that the extract of Dangui(Angelica sinensis), Suanzaoren(Zizyphus valgaris), Rensan (Panax ginseng), Fuling(Poria cocos) and Muxiang(Saussurea lappa) might have a major radioprotective effect. Although the mechanisms of this inhibitory effect remain to be elucidated, these results indi cated that Kuei Pi Tang might be a useful radioprotector, especially since it is a relatively nontoxic natural product.
Iron Bioavailability in Iron-fortified Market Milk
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 705~709
To evaluate iron bioavailability in iron fortified milk, in vitro and in vivo method were used. Low molecular weight components(ILC) from milk was isolated and iron was added, then soluble iron from ILC iron complex was determined. Each iron sources and extrinsically labelled with FeCl3 was used for measuring absorption rate of iron from ILC radiolabelled iron complexes as radioiron absorption into the blood one hour after injection into ligated duodenal loops of iron deficient rats. Iron absorption rate was in the order of ferrous lactate(25.56%)
ferrous sulfate(19.67%) when 100ppm iron was used. In separate experiments, iron fortified milks with each iron sources were gavaged into iron deficient rats. When 25ppm iron was added to milk, the order of iron absorption was ferrous sulfate(12.52%)>ferrous lactate(8.07%)>ferric citrate(6.52%) (p<0.05). When 100ppm iron was added to milk, absorption rate was decreased compared to the treatments with added 25ppm of iron. Absorption rate of ferrous sulfate(5.34%) from milk added 100ppm iron was highly lowered, but ferric citrate(6.45%) was not significantly changed. The absorption rate of ferrous lactate(5.82%) was 70% of 25ppm iron added milk.
A Study on Hyperlipidemia in Koran -Specially Related to Hematological Characteristics and Risk Factors of Hypercholesterolemia-
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 710~721
This study was conducted to investigate the hematological characteristics and risk factors of hypercholesterolemia(HC) in Korean. 344 adult men who took the annual health check ups at D or J hospitals were participated in this cross sectional study. The subjects were grouped by plasma total cholesterol level into three groups: normal cholesterolemic(n=139), borderline hypercholesterolemic (n=93) and hypercholesterolemic(n=112) groups. The data of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP), hemoglobin, plasma glucose, albumin and cholesterol levels were collected from medical records. The levels of plasma triglyceride(TG), HDL C, phospholipid, insulin, apo A and apo B were measured. The levels of plasma LDL C, VLDL C and atherogenic index(AI) were calculated. The subjects with HC had significantly higher SBP and DBP, albumin, TG, phospholipid, HDL C, LDL C, VLDL C and apo B level than those of the normal subjects. The relative and attributable risks on HC were 1.59 and 0.18 for hypertension(SBP/DBP
160/95), 2.08 and 0.35 for hypertriglyceridemia (TG
400mg/dl). Plasma total cholesterol level was positively correlated with several hematologic parameters: age(r=0.1242, p<0.05), DBP(r=0.1194, p<0.05), albumin(r=0.2029, p<0.001), plasma TG(r= 0.3829, p<0.001), phospholipid(r=0.6036, p<0.001), LDL C(r=0.8572, p<0.001), HDL C(r=0.2399, p< 0.001), AI(r=0.3116, p<0.001), apo B(r=0.2602, p<0.05) and Lp(a)(r=0.1372, p<0.05). However, plasma total cholesterol level was negatively correlated with the levels of Apo A1(r= 0.2922, p<0.001), and ABR(r= 0.3598, p<0.001).
Evaluation of Factors Associated with Healthe and Diet of Preschool Children by Nutritional Status
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 722~731
The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors associated with health and diet by nutritional status. The subjects were the children aged 2 to 6. Physicians and nurses measured children's anthropometries and examined their blood and urine. Interviewers questioned children's food habits to their mothers. 24 hour recall was done for children with their mother. The nutritional status was classified to 'underweight', 'normal weight' and 'overweight' by weight for height(median±1 S.D.) of the reference population. The number of subjects in each group(under, normal, over) was 25, 130 and 49. Factors including anthropometry and hemoglobin concentration were not significantly dif ferent by the nutritional status. The birth weight of children was correlated positively to mothers' BMI. Z scores of weight for height were related to the birth weight positively by the analysis of variance. The children of the underweight group used nutritional supplements more frequently than those of normal and overweight group. The nutrient intakes of normal weight group were higher than those of low and overweight group. Particularly, the intakes of energy, carbohydrate and calcium were significantly high among the groups. In terms of number of foods, food groups and dishes consumed per day, the children of the normal weight group ate more diversely than other groups but the differences were not significant. In conclusion, the children of normal weight group had similar characteristics with other groups but had more desirable dietary intakes than other groups in this study. Because the diet of children may be different by the nutritional status, nutrition education for children should be conducted according to the characteristics of each group's diet.
A Comparison of Eating and General Health Practices to the Degree of Health Consciousness in Pusan College Students
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 732~746
This study investigated college students' health status, health attitudes, and eating and general health practices. They then were compared to the students' degree of health consciousness. Four hundred college students in Pusan participated in this study, of which 203 were young men and 197 young women. While college students considered that they were generally healthy, there were a number of negative health factors, such as fatigue and stress, particularly amongst the young women. They were not particularly concerned about or active in taking care of their health. There were, for example, problems of smoking and drinking among the young men, and a lack of exercise among female students. Female had more eating problems than male frequency and consistency in the quantity of meals, overeating, and snacking. On the other hand, women seemed to show more possibilities for improving the food habits. Health status did not appear to co vary significantly with the degree of health con sciousness. However, the higher the level of health concern, the more interest in health information and weight gain anxiety students had, and the more active measures in health care they took. Students who had high or moderate concern for health practiced more desirable eating habit than students who lacked this concern. In conclusion, educational programs which can increase concern for health among college students should be prepared in order to maintain their bodily health now and in the future. If such programs were developed with gender differences in mind, making college students take a positive attitude towards health issues and management of their own health, it would be more effective.
A Study on the Management of Food Waste in Elementary School Foodservices
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 3, 1999, Pages 747~754
Food waste in school foodservices is an important factors in managing expense and in evaluating the acceptance of served meals. This study was undertaken to investigate the management of food waste and the opinion of dietitians in one hundred fourty nine elementary school foodservices, in Pusan, Korea. When serving places were compared, the classroom generated more leftover and plate waste than those of lunchroom(p<0.05). In rank for generating raw waste, the residue from vegetables was the highest in first order. Fruit, eggs, fish, and shell fish also left the most raw waste, respectively, in descending order. The residue that generated the most plate waste in the first and the second order was from soup and pot stew, and vegatables side dishes, respectively. The treatment process of food waste which was the most common in school foodservices was the fertilization by processing machine in order to make recyclable fertilizer(52.1%). Food waste at 30.8% of foodservices was processed for live stock feed. At 92.3% of investigated foodservices, food waste water was drained through a round net basket. Before treating as a waste, food residue was recycled at only 41.9% of foodservices. The main utilization of food residue was the production of soap from used oil. Most dietitians in school foodservices recognized that treating food waste was not so inconvenient, although, the problems of odor and hygiene were not solved. They also thought that the liquid residue(54.1%) and oil(30.4%) among food waste were primarily responsible for resulting environmental pollution.