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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Dec 1999
Volume 28, Issue 5 - Oct 1999
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Aug 1999
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Jun 1999
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Apr 1999
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
Selecting the target year
Effect of Sterilizing Method on the Quality Change of Iron Fortified Market Milk during Storage
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 755~759
To evaluate the effect of sterilizing method on the quality of iron fortified market milk, HTST(high temperature, short time) or LTLT(low temperture, long time) method was adopted after addition of 100ppm ferrous sulfate, ferric citrate, ferric ammonium citrate, or ferrous lactate in market milk. Sterilized iron fortified market milk was stored at 4oC and then pH, lipid oxidation, color change, and sensory quality were observed. The range of pH change in iron fortified market milk sterilized by HTST or LTLT was 6.51~6.74. The order of pH was control>ferric ammonium citrate>ferrous lactate>ferrous sulfate>ferric citrate. Oxygen consumption of ferric ammonium citrate and ferric citrate was lower than ferrous lactate and ferrous sulfate. This trend was same in HTST and LTLT method, but generally oxygen consumption was lower in iron fortified market milk sterilized by LTLT method than by HTST. In total color change, ferrous lactate treatment was closer to control than other treatments. Also sensory characteristics of ferrous lactate treatment was showed better quality than other treatment. From these results, LTLT method was more suitable than HTST method for iron forti
Changes in Physiochemical Properties of Kochujang by Red Ginseng Addition
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 760~765
Changes in physiochemical properties of Sunchang sikhe kochujang, the most famous traditional kochujang, by red ginseng addition(1, 2 and 5% red ginseng on the total weight basis) were investigated. Measurements of physiochemical parameters such as reducing sugar content, alcohol content, amino type nitrogen content and color difference value were conducted during fermentation at 25oC for 120 days. Alcohol content was increased from the begining of fermentation, reaching at the highest level after 90 days of fermentation and then slowly reduced. Alcohol content of red ginseng kochujang was generally higher than that of control kochujang after 90 days of fermentation. Crude protein content of control kochujang and red ginseng kochujang were reduced during fermentation whereas amino type nitrogen content were gradually increased during fermentation. Amino type nitrogen content of red ginseng kochujang appeared to be slightly lower than that of the control kochujang. The reduction in amino type nitrogen content of red ginseng kochujang was negatively related to the level of red ginseng addition. Among color difference values, L and b value of both control kochujang and red ginseng kochujang were reduced by 30 days from the begining of fermentation and then started to be increased.
Sensory Evaluation and Changes in Microflora and Enzyme Activities of Red Ginseng Kochujang
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 766~772
In order to improve funtionality of kochujang, red ginseng powder(1, 2 and 5% red ginseng on the total weight basis) was added to the raw material of kochujang. Changes in moisture content, microflora and enzyme activities were investigated in control kochujang(Sunchang kochujang) and red ginseng added kochujang during fermentation at 25oC for 120 days. Kochujang samples fremented for 90 and 120 days were subjected to sensory evaluation test. As the fermentation progressed, the moisture content and titratable acidity were gradually increased whereas pH was decreased. However, red ginseng had no effects on those changes. Bacterial count was maintained at the level of 107 CFU/g during fermentation. The level of yeast count was 104 CFU/g at the early stage of fermentation and increaed to 107 CFU/g after 60 days of fermentation and then maintained at 107 CFU/g. Red-ginseng had no effects on bacterial and yeast counts of kochujang. Amylase activity was gradually reduced during fermentation. Amylase activity was increased until 60 days of fermentation and then reduced by 90 days of fermentation. Acidic protease activity was slightly reduced at the initial stage of fermentation and then rapid increased. Acidic protease activity was at the highest level after 120 days of fermentation. Red ginseng did not alter those enzyme activities of kochujang. There were no differences in sensory properties between kochujang samples fermented for 90 and 120 days of fermentation. The addition of red-ginseng did not affect such sensory properties of kochujang as color, odor, hot taste and salty taste, but overall preference appeared to be improved by red ginseng addition.
Changes of Vitamin C and Fermentation Characteristics of Kimchi on Different Cabbage Variety and Fermentation Temperature
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 773~779
This study was conducted to determine the changes in the contents of vitamin C and fermentation characteristics of kimchi on different Chinese cabbage variety(Koreangji Yureum: KY, Kalak Shin Il Ho: KS) and fermentation temperature(5oC, 15oC). Kimchi were fermented at 5oC and 15oC for 140 days and 25 days respectively. In all samples, total acidity increased, and the pH, total sugar and reducing sugar content decreased as the fermentation proceeded. Also, the number of lactic acid bacteria reached the maximum at the optimum fermenting stage. On the other hand, total ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid and ascorbic acid from individual kimchi solid tissue significantly decreased with fermentation periods, however, increased kimchi liquid at the 7day in KS 15(kimchi prepared with Kalak Shin Il Ho at 15oC), KY 15(kimchi prepared with Korangji Yureum at 15oC) and at the 65day in KY 5(kimchi prepared with Korangji Yureum at 5oC) respectively. Therefore, different fermentation temperature as well as variety affected ascorbic acid contents and chemical characteristics of kimchi.
Changes in Fermentation Characteristics of Kimchi Added with Leek
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 780~785
The effect of addition in different amounts of leek(4, 8, 12% respectively) during fermentation of kimchi was investigated. Fermentation characteristics such as pH, acidity and total reducing sugars as well as microbiological properties were determined. During fermentation, pH was more slowly lowered in kimchi added with leek than in control and titrable acidity of these kimchi was lower than that of control. Viable cells of total bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in these kimchi were higher than that of control during fermentation. Content of total reducing sugars was higher than that of control. Three kinds of reducing sugars such as fructose, glucose and galactose were detected and the dominant one appeared to be fructose. These results suggested that addition of leek seems to retard fermentation of kimchi due to their anti microbial actvity.
Extension of Shelf-life of Kakdugi by Hot Water Extracts from Medicinal Plants
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 786~793
To investigate the effects of medicinal plants on the shelf life of kakdugi, various kakdugies, added with hot water extract from 62 natural plants, were fermented at 20oC for 15 days. In case of control without the addition, the shelf life required to reach the acidity of 1%(as lactic acid) was 7 days. Morethan two fold extension of shelf life was observed with twenty seven extracts, of which six extracts maintained the hardness of kakdugi higher than that of control over the entire fermentation time. And the number of lactic acid bacteria in above kakdugies was not remarkably different from that of control, and the color(a value) of the liquid of kakdugi, added with Chaenomeles lagenaria, Moringa oleifera, Peaonia lactiflora or Citrus tangerina extract, was similar to that of control. In sensory test, the extracts from the above plants except Moringa oleifera were found to be acceptable. It is suggested that the addition of above three extracts may lead to extension of shelf life of kakdugi, based on the acidity, hardness, color and sensory test.
Characterization of Yakju Prepared with Yeasts from Fruits 1. Volatile Components in Yakju during Fermentation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 794~800
This study was carried out to obtain the basic information for improving the flavor quality of yakju. Three kinds of yakju were prepared with different yeast strains to investigate the effects of those strains on flavor components. A total of 23 strains were isolated from fruits such as apple, pear, persimmon and citron and two strains were excellent in producing ethanol and flavors. They were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae S 2 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae S 6 from morphological cultural test and physiological quality. Yakju A, B and C were prepared with S 2, S 6 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae IFO 1950, respectively. Flavor components of yakju were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectr ometry. A total of 57 peaks were detected and 13 compound were identified. They were 4 alcohol, 2 esters, 7 acids and miscellaneous compounds.
Characterization of Yakju Prepared with Yeasts from Fruits 2. Quality Characteristics of Yakju during Fermentation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 801~804
Quality characteristics of yakju prepared by different yeast strains such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae S 2, Saccharomyces cerevisiae S 6 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae IFO 1950 were investigated during fermentation. The pH in all kinds of yakju was gradually decreased until 6 days and then it was constant. In stage of fermentation, acidity of yakju made of Saccharomyces cerevisiae S 6 was higher than others. At the beginning stage of fermentation, ethanol contents were in the range of 0~2% increased to 9.5~11.5% after 10 days. Yakju made of Saccharomyces cerevisiae S-2 showed higher ethanol contents than others. Free sugars in yakju were found to be glucose and maltose. The contents of free sugars were decreased until 6 days and they were not detected. The content of ethanol in yakju showed the highest value at the 6th day and those of yakju A, B and C were 11.9, 9.5, 10.9%, respectively. Main organic acids in yakju were citric acid and lactic acid. The content of citric acid in yakju B was higher than others.
Effect of Yam on the Growth of Lactic Acid Bacteria
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 805~809
The growth of Lactobacillus casei in milk was enhanced by adding yams. Addition of 1% yam(raw or dry) promoted the cell growth and acid production in fermented milk. The milk containing 1% yams formed the complete curd by lactic acid fermentation at 37oC for 19hr while the milk without yams showed the incomplete curd formation. The crude mucilage extracted from a raw yam also enhanced the cell growth as well as the acid production. Addition of mucilage(0.08%) showed the similar effects with adding heat treated yam(1%). The milk fermented by adding various yams showed the high scores for sensory evaluation comparing with the milk fermented without yams. The fermenting ability of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus kefir and Leuconostoc mesenteroides was evaluated by adding 1% of a dry yam in milk. A dry yam also enhanced the cell growth of L. acidophilus resulting in the high acid production. The viable cell counts of L. casei, L. acidophilus and Leuc. mesenteroides except L. kefir were increased by adding 1% of a dry yam.
Monitoring on Pectinase Treatment Conditions for Clarification of Persimmon Vinegar
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 810~815
The pectinase treatment conditions for clarification of persimmon vinegar were optimized and monitored by response surface methodology. In clarification of persimmon vinegar by pectinase treatment with variations in temperature, time and concentration, coefficients of determinations(R2) of the models were above 0.91(p<0.05) in turbidity, browning color intensity and tannin content. The turbidity of persimmon vinegar was decreased along with an increase of pectinase treatment temperature. The minimum value of turbidity by pectinase treatment was 0.0021(absorbance at 660nm) in 49.38oC of pectinase treatment temperature, 73.08min of pectinase treatment time and 55.57ppm of pectinase concentration. The minimum value of browning color intensity by pectinase treatment was 0.27(absorbance at 660nm) in 48.39oC, 71.74min and 65.69ppm. The minimum value of total tannin contents by pectinase treatment was 43.72mg/100 ml in 40.05oC, 66.02min and 65.26ppm. The optimum conditions of pectinase treatment that satisfies the least common multiple of turbidity, browning color and tannin content were 40~50oC, 60~70min and 55~70ppm.
Purification and Characterization of the Inhibitory Principle aganist Pancreatic Cholesterol Esterase from Ephedra herba
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 816~821
Cholesterol esterase(pCEH, pancreas cholesterol ester hydrolase, E.C.126.96.36.199) which is secreted from pancreas has been known as an important lipase for cholesterol uptake. cholesteryl acyl esters from a diet must be hydrolyzed to free cholesterol and fatty acid by cholesterol esterase before the absorption in small intestine. For the development of inhibitory substances from natural source, we screened many extracts of oriental herbs for the inhibition of cholesterol esterase in vitro. The ethanol extract of Ephedra herba showed strong inhibitory activity. Solvent fractionation and silica gel column chromatography with the extract lead to the purification of the inhibitory principle in Ephedra herba. Crystallized inhibitor was identified as ( ) ephedrine by using UV, FT IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and GC/Mass. These results suggest that ( ) ephedrine can be used as a potential lead compound for the development of inhibitor for cholesterol uptake by cholesterol esterase inhibition.
Isolation and Identification of Antimicrobial Compound from Dandelion(Taraxacum platycarpum D.)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 822~829
Antimicrobial activity of dandelion(Taraxacum platycarpum D.) was investigated. Methanol extract of dried dandelion was fractionated to hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, butanol and aqueous fraction. Ethylacetate fraction among these fractions showed the highest inhibitory effect on the microorganisms such as B. subtilis, L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, E. coli and V. parahaemolyticus at
. Ethylacetate fraction was further fractionated into 13 fractions by silica gel column and thin layer chromatography(TLC). The results showed that ethylacetate fractions No. 4, 5 and 6 had high antimicrobial activity. These were mixed again, re separated and five fractions were obtained. Among them, No. 2 fraction had the highest inhibitory effect on the microorganisms, which was then separated into six fractions. In the 3rd fractionation, No. 3 fraction was identified as benzoic acid by HPLC,
and GC MS.
Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus salivarius Isolated from Piglet Intestines
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 830~836
we have screened the microorganisms from piglet intestines for the development of probiotics which have acid and bile tolerance and the growth inhibition of pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. Among them, a strain which was identified as Lactobacillus salivarius was selected. It had around 50% of survival after 2h incubation in the artificial gastric juice and 76% of survival after 24h incubation in the presence of 0.3% bile salts, and also showed complete inhibition against both pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella after 24h coincubation. Also, its storage stability after lyophilization was improved by adding polyvinylpyrrolidone.
Texture and Retrogradation Characteristics of Injeulmi Made by Different Varieties of Waxy Rice
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 837~844
The textural properties and retrogradation of injeulmi(Korean traditional waxy rice cake) made from various waxy cultivars were examined to compare the varietal difference. Injeulmi made from Shinsun chalbyeo and Whasunchalbyeo were exhibited relatively soft texture, while Taichung Sen Glu I and Yuk donongrimna were shown high adhesivness. Intermediate or long grain rice such as Yukdonongrimna, Hangangchalbyeo and Taichung Sen Glu I had a tendency to be rapidly retrogradatated as compared with short grain rice, Shinsunchalbyeo and Whasunchalbyeo. Amylogram characteristics of these intermediate or long grain rice cultivars were shown high value in consistency and low value in setback. Studies per formed by various cookery procedure demonstrated that injeulmi made from cooked waxy rice was softer and delaying retrogradation than made from waxy rice flour.
The Physical Characteristies and Sensoy Qualities of Samul Chol-pyon
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 845~849
We can make Samul Chol Pyon to add four powdered Korean medicines to Chol Pyon. The purpose of this study is to present the standard recipe of Samul Chol-Pyon for the taste of the moderns, taking the tests of physical charcateristics, sensory qualities. The white Chol Pyon and the group of 5% raw materials for Samul tang are comparatively good for color, odor, taste, softness, chewiness and overall quallity with other group of raw materials. To add Korean medicine browns the Samul Chol Pyon much deeper. The changes in textural properties of Chol pyon during storage at 20
5oC were measured using a rheometer for hardness, fractureability, adhesiveness, resilience, and cohesiveness. The hardness, fractureability and adhesiveness were increased with the additon of in Samul tang raw material powder. The cohesiveness and chewiness were increased by adding Samul tang powder in the course of time. The Chol Pyon prepared with 5% of Samul tang powder showed the superior sensory qualities as Samul Chol Pyon.
Characteristics of Sugar Cookies with Replacement of Sucrose with Sugar Alcohols (I) Organoleptic Characteristics of Sugar Alcohol Cookies
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 850~857
The purpose of this study was to investigate replacing possibility of sucrose by sugar alcohols and to establish the optimum formula for the development of sugar cookies. The characteristics of sugar cookies prepared with xylitol, maltitol, lactitol, isomalt substituted for 35, 50, 75, 100% of sucrose were examined through physical measurement and sensory evaluation. The spread ratio of cookies containing sugar alcohols except xylitol was superior to that of control cookies(sucrose 100%) and the use of lactitol increased the spread ratio of cookies. The specific gravity of cookies containing sugar alcohols except xylitol was lower than that of control cookies. Therefore spread ratio was in inverse proportion to specific gravity. As the proportion of sugar alcohols increased in cookie formula, surface color of cookies was getting lighter than that of control cookies. Especially cookies containing xylitol, maltitol was getting lighter as the levels of replacement increased. Overall quality of cookies with sugar alcohols containing sensory analysis was superior to that of control cookies.
Use of Gamma Irradiation for Improving Quality and Assuring Safety of Meat Products
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 858~864
This study was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on improvement of the quality and safety of meat products. Emulsion type bologna sausages were manufactured with 3 kGy gamma irradiated ground beef. Beef patties were also manufactured with the addition of antioxidants (200 ppm, BHA, ascorbyl palmitate,
) following gamma irradiation of 1.5 or 3 kGy. Bologna sausages could be successfully manufactured with 3 kGy gamma irradiated ground beef and lower salt content(NaCl of 1.0 or 1.2% and phosphate of 0.2 or 0.3%) without any deteriorative results when compared with the products manufactured with regular salt content(NaCl of 1.5~2.0% and phos phate of 0.4~0.6%). No colony formations of aerobic microorganisms were observed in the sausage with NaCl of 1.2% and phosphate of 0.2 or 0.3% up to 30 days storage at
. No significant differences appeared in the TBA values among all the sausages during storage for 30 days. No colonies of aerobic microorganisms were observed in the 3 kGy irradiated patty. Lipid oxidation of the beef patties was inhibited by the addition of an antioxidant.
Changes in Quality of Sausage Processed with Shrink Discharge during Process of Smoke Meat Products
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 865.1~870
This study was carried out to use the shrink discharged during process of smoke meat products. Qualities of sausage were grasped, and investigated storage properties during five weeks. The gel strength of pork sausage were 1,461~1,847g.cm, this of chicken sausage were 865~1,733g.cm. The cooking yield of sausage were 81~ 85% in general, contents of salt were 2.5~2.9%. The L value(lightness) of pork sausage were 44.8~47.2, those of chicken sausage were 43.1~48.0, and the L value of the interior was higher than the surface. The remainder contents of nitrite were 3.1~9.4ppm, the sorbic acid contents of all sausage were 0.8g/kg. The amino acid contents of chicken sausage were higher than those of pork sausage. The pH of sausage not changed uniformly during storage. The TBA value and the VBN contents were a slight tendency to increase during storage. The total plate counts of all sausage maintained 104 less than during storage.
Effect of Dietary Supplement of Mayonnaise on Lipid Metabolism in Rats
Jo, Yeong Ja ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 865.2~865.2
Effect of Freezing Temperature on the Quality of Beef Loin Aged after Thawing
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 871~875
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of freezing temperature on the quality of thawing aged beef loin. Drip loss was higher at 3oC freezing than at 20oC freezing, showing 17.21% drip loss after 6 days aging by 3oC freezing, 14.92% drip loss 12 days aging by 20oC freezing. Cooking loss by both water bath and pan boiling were decreased with increased in aging days. The salt soluble protein extractability of the beef loin was increased until 9 days aging by both 3oC and 20oC freezing, after that was decreased. The L value of the beef loin was high until 9 days aging by 3oC freezing, after that the L value of that was decreased. And the aging at 20oC freezing was high significantly with increased aging days. The a value of the beef loin was low significantly in 6 and 9 days aging by 3oC freezing, 20oC freezing was low significantly with increased aging days. The b value of the beginning of aging was higher with increased aging days. The percentage of denatured myoglobin of the beginning of aging was the highest, then those of 3oC and 20oC freezing showed 89.70% and 88.00%, respectively. The shear force of the beef loin was decreased with aging days, but the myofibrillar fragmentation index increased with aging days. The pH of the beef loin increased until 6 days of aging by both 3oC and 20oC freezing, after that the pH decreased.
Oleoresin Content and Functional Properties of Fresh Onion by Microwave-Assisted Extraction
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 876~881
Fresh onions were extracted by two methods of conventional extraction(CE) and microwave assisted extraction(MAE) under different extraction conditions. Onion extracts obtained by CE and MAE were examined in oleoresin yield and physiological activities. The optimal extraction time of MAE was about 5 minutes, whereas that of CE was 2 hours. Therefore extraction time was shortened drastically by MAE but there was no significance in oleolesin yield. The electron donating abilities also showed negligible difference between two extracts obtained by CE and MAE, and 45% level in CE and 50% level in MAE. The nitrite scavenging effect was diminished while pH was increasing, and showed a high elimination effect over 85% at pH 1.2. The tyrosinase inhibitory effect was 20% level in both CE and MAE when water was used and 40% level when ethyl alcohol was used. The angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory effect showed higher activity with 70% level in MAE than 60% level in CE. The pyruvic acid content was 6.8 and 6.4 moles per 1g of fresh onion by CE and MAE when water was used, and was 4.3 and 5.6 moles by CE and MAE when ethyl alcohol was used.
Detection and Absorbed-Dose Estimation of Electron Beam-Irradiated Dried Vegetable Using ESR Spectroscopy
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 882~885
Along with the increasing demands for food irradiation technology, proper detection methods for controlling irradiated foods are required. Dried vegetable(chunggyungchae), which is permitted to be irradiated in Korea, was subjected to a detection study by ESR spectroscopy. Pre established threshold value was successfully applicable to the detection of 50 coded unknown samples of dried clean vege tables, both nonirradiated and electron beam irradiated. Three calibration curves obtained from the samples irradiated at 2.5~15 kGy were not practically adopted to estimate actual absorbed doses ranging from 4 to 7 kGy.
Development of Automatical Soybean Sprouting Equipment for Medium Amount Production by Using Multiple Siphons
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 886~889
To develope the soybean sprouting equipment(a type of cabinet) for medium amount(one bucket; 10~13kg) production of soybean sprouts, the watering system was made of four siphons and four the bottle necked water tank. Diameter of four siphons used for development of the watering system were 8, 13, 17 and 21mm, respectively and their water exhausting volumes were 40, 92, 154, 524ml/sec, respectively. The watering system can be automatically watered 524ml/sec without electric supply. The soybean sprouting equipment is consisted of four the bottle necked water tanks with the four siphons and six sprouting buckets with net shaped bottom for water draining. The soybean sprouting equipment with the watering system may be produced more than one box a day in the condition of 6~7 watering times a day at 25~30oC.
Microencapsulation of Anchovy Oil by Sodium Alginate
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 890~894
Microencapsulation of anchovy oil as a core material in sodium alginate as a wall material was inves tigated. Microencapsulation was accomplished by injecting an oil/water emulsion, consisting of a mixture of liquefied sodium alginate and emulsifier, under high pressure through an orifice submerged in a calcium lactate solution. Microcapsules suspended in a dispersion fluid were observed under a fluorescence mi croscope to verify the presence of the capsules and to note coalescence or degradation of the capsules. Optimum conditions for microencapsulation of anchovy oil were obtained when 1.0% aqueous solution of sodium alginate contained 3% of a 1:1 ratio of ESPR 25(polyglycerine＋polylinoleate) and TW 20(sorbitan laurate＋ethylene oxide) as an emulsifier in terms of capsule size and size distribution, and emulsion stability. The airless sprayer produced microcapsules with a diameter between 15.9 and 73.9 m with different concentration of a wall material. The optimum mixing ratio of wall material to core material was 90:10(wt/wt). 0.2% calcium lactate was appropriate as a dispersion fluid.
Effect of Dietary Supplement of Mayonnaise on Lipid Metabolism in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 895~900
We have examined the effects of mayonnaise on the lipid metabolism and calcium bioavailability of rats by using myonnaise. Sprague Dawley male rats(131
5g) were divided into four dietary groups[Control (Con, 10% soybean oil), Mayonnaise(M5), 10% Mayonnaise(M10)and 15% Mayonnaise(M15)] were fed ad libitum with experimental diets for four weeks. Final body weight exhibited a decrease in the M10 group, also final thymus organ weight showed a significant decreasing trend(p<0.05). The levels of serum, liver and adipose total lipid were significantly different among the four experimental groups(p<0.05). Serum calcium levels were significantly lower in the M15 group than in among the groups(p<0.05). On the other hand, the elevation of serum cholesterol levels were not clearly observed, but triglyceride levels were elevated the M5 and M15 group. The P/S ratio of adipose tissue were higher in the M10 group(2.35
0.35) than any other groups. Free EDTA in mayonnaise was 0.0307~0.0387%, moisture 12.46~16.49% and calcium 0.012~0.019%. But commercial mayonnaise contained free EDTA higher than the safe use (0.0075%). Safety problems of EDTA additives resulted from mass processed mayonnaise are arising. Though the evaluation of safety can not reach a conclusion with only one or two clinical case studies. It often simply jumps to conclusion. Therefore more wide ranged discussion and deepened study is required to search for the solution of safety problems.
Effects of Extract of Pueraria radix on Lipid Peroxidation in Ethanol-Administered Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 901~906
This study was designed to investigate the effect of Pueraria radix extract on lipid peroxidation in ethanol administered rats. Male sprague dawley rats were given 25% ethanol(2.5g per Kg body weight; E), 10% pueraria radix extract(CP), 25% ethanol and 10% pueraria radix extract(EP). The activity of hepatic superoxide dismutase was increased by ethanol and was lower in the EP group than in the E group. Hepatic catalase activity was increased by ethanol, but decreased by Pueraria radix extract. E group rats had significantly higher liver glutathione peroxidase activity. Activity of hepatic glutathione S transferase was higher in the CP group than in the other groups. No significant dif ferences was found in liver glutathione and lipid peroxide contents between control and EP group. These data indicate that the peroxidative damage associated with chronic ethanol consumption might be decreased by Pueraria radix extract.
Effects of Defatted Seasme Flour on Oxidative Stress Induced by Ethanol-feeding in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 907~911
To evaluate the effect of defatted sesame flour(DSF) on the oxidative stress of ethanol feeding in rats, Wistar male rats were divided into 4 groups of control, ethanol, DSF and DSF ethanol. Each group was sacrificed after feeding for 4 weeks and was examined by measuring the formation of 2 thiobarbituric acid reactive substance(TBARS), total cholesterol(TC) in serum, redox glutathione S transferase(GST) enzyme activity and the contents of glutathione(GSH) in the liver. The formation of TBARS in the liver after ethanol feeding was significantly increased comparing to the control, but the levels were significantly decreased by the DSF as compared to the ethanol feeding group(p<0.05). When compared to fed control diet, we found that serum TC levels were significantly lower in the DSF fed group than control group (p<0.05). The activity of hepatic GST was significantly increased by DSF as compared to the control and was decreased by ethanol feeding. On the other hand, the hepatic contents of GSH were unaffected by DSF feeding. Our findings suggest that feeding DSF may inhibit ethanol induced oxidative stress may be due to the stimulation of antioxidative activity by sesaminol glucosides in DSF.
Effect of Saponin from the Shoot of Aralia elata in Normal Rats and Steptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 912~916
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of saponin in the shoot of Aralia elata on serum lipid level and glucose in streptozotocin(STZ) induced diabetic rats. Sprague Dawley normal male rats weighing 70
5g were randomly assigned to normal(control group), crude saponin(S group), and shoot of Aralia elata(D group). Experimental diets have been fed for 6 weeks. STZ induced diabetic rats were classified to diabetic control(DC group) and crude saponin(DS group). Diabetic rats were experimentally induced by intravenous injection of STZ(65mg/kg of body weight) dissolved in citrate buffer(pH 4.5). DS group has been i.p. injected with crude saponin solved in phosphate buffer(pH 7.0, 10mg/100g body weight) and DC group fed for 10 days. Body weight decreased significantly in crude saponin group. Feed intakes and feed efficiency ratio were not significantly different among C, S, and D group. The crude saponin group has indicated the lowest values of serum total cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride. However, the values of serum glucose and triglyceride were not significant. Insulin levels among the crude saponin group, the shoot powder group, and the control group were not significantly different. When STZ induced diabetic rats have i.p. injection of crude saponin, the crude saponin has reduced the serum glucose but it is not been significant.
Antitumor Effect and Immunological Activity of Glycoprotein from Urechis unicinctus
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 917~923
To confirm therapeutic functionality of Urechis unicinctus which have been favored as a special seafood in Korea, the antitumor and immunological effect of those glycoprotein were studied. 4mg/kg dose of glycoprotein from Urechis unicinctus was most effective in solid tumor growth inhibition (43.63%) of sarcoma 180 cells. However, in case of mice injected with more than dose of 20mg/kg, tumor growth was not inhibited. The higher prolongation ratios were achieved at levels of 2mg/kg with 31.2% and 4mg/kg with 28.9%. The cytotoxic effect of glycoprotein on sarcoma 180 cells was increased slightly as administering level was increased. Number of total peritoneal exudate cells in all the glycoprotein administered groups increased remarkably meaning that Urechis unicinctus gly coprotein could help to improve immunity. Notable body weight change was not resulted in the glycoprotein treated mice compared with control group, but the ratios of both liver or spleen to body weight were increased in mice injected with 20mg/kg and 40mg/kg. These results suggest that the glycoprotein from Urechis unicinctus could stimulate immunity of the mouse bearing tumor cells. Furthermore, the number of leucocytes was also increased by 38.78% at the dose of 20mg/kg and by 46.30% of control at 40mg/kg, while the lower level of 2mg/kg or 4mg/kg showed no effect in increasing leucocyte number. The biochemical values such as GOT and GPT in serum were not changed in mice injected with glycoprotein in comparision with control group.
Effects of Vitamin E Supplementation on Immune Response and Antioxidant Defense Parameters in Healthy Korean Elderly Women
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 924~933
This study investigated the effects of vitamin E supplementation on immune responses and antioxidant status in healthy Korean old and young women. Blood samples were obtained from 15 healthy old women (over 60 years old) and from 15 healthy young women(20 years old) before and 4 weeks after vitamin E( tocopherol acetate) supplementation(400IU/day). Daily nutrient intakes were calculated, and plasma vitamin E concentration, numbers and percentages of white blood cell and their subpopulation, percentages of lymphocytes and subpopulation, NK cell percentages, plasma immunoglobulin A, G, M and C3 concentration, proliferation of PMN with mitogen were measured. Also plasma TBARS concentration and radical scavenger activity of erythrocytes were investigated. Plasma vitamin E concentrations were significantly increased after supplementation in both groups. In elderly women, vitamin E supplementation restored the per centages of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils which had been out of normal ranges before supple mentation. And after vitamin E supplementation, helper T cell percentages significantly increased in elderly. Plasma immunoglobulin and complement C3 concentrations were not affected by vitamin E supplementation in both groups. PMN proliferations with mitogen were significantly lower in old women than in young women, and there was no effect of vitamin E supplementation. Vitamin E supplementation significantly decreased plasma TBARS concentrations in old and young women. RSA of erythrocytes was increased in both groups, but the statistical significant was only found in young women group. Therefore, these results suggest that the moderate vitamin E supplementation in old women improves immune responses, especially nonspecific immunity and cell mediated immunity, via protection of oxidant stress.
Effect of Family Type on the Nutrient Intake and Nutritional Status in Elderly Women
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 934~941
This study was performed to investigate the effect of family type on the nutrient intake and nutritional status in elderly women. Blood samples and anthropometric data of elderly women aged from 60 to 78 years were collected in 1996, who visited a health examination center in Seoul to screen their health status. They were divided into two groups by their family type, one was extended family(extended family elderly, n=37) and the other was independently living(independently living, n=29). Nutrients intake was measured by interview using a simplified questionaire. Albumin, cholesterol, triglyceride(TG), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit, Ca, Mg, and alkaline phosphatase activity of serum were analyzed. Intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate, Fe, vitamin A, niacin, thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamin C were not different between the two groups. However, fat and Ca intakes were higher(p<0.05) in extended family elderly than indepen dently living elderly. There are no significant difference in hematocrit value and serum concentrations of Hb, TG, and Ca. Serum Mg and cholesterol levels tended to be higher in extended family elderly. However, serum albumin level was lower(p<0.05) in extended family elderly. These results show that the indepen dently living elderly women had intakes of daily energy, fat and Ca compared to the extended family elderly. Therefore, the nutritional education for the independently living elderly will be focused on the health risk resulted from less intakes of Ca and total energy.
Food Sanitary Procedures of Employees in Business & Industry Foodservice Operations of Pusna Kyung Nam
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 942~947
This study was conducted to evaluate sanitary practices of employees in business & industry foodservice operations of Pusan and the Kyung Nam areas, and to suggest a guideline for an effective sanitation training program. The questionnaire was used in this study as a survey method. Questionnaire were administered to 246 employees. The results were as follows. 55.3% of employees have had regular(monthly) food sanitation education. The mean rating of food sanitary knowledge for all employees was 65.9/100. When the education level was higher and the age younger, the mean rating of was also higher. Among the ratio of correct answers for food sanitary knowledge areas, a equipment sanitation was the highest (80.5%), and time temperature was the lowest(45.3%). The mean rating of sanitary procedures for food storage was 4.80/5.00, pre preparation 4.04/5.00, personal hygiene 3.54/5.00, equipment sanitation 3.20/5.00, and food preparation 2.56/5.00. Employees regularly educated in food sanitation rated significantly higher for food preparation than those who were of irregulary educated. The higher mean rating group(over 66) for the food sanitary knowledge showed significantly higher rates in sanitary procedures(food preparation, equipment sanitation, and personal hygiene) than that of the lower group(below 65). The practice of personal hygiene was positively correlated (p<0.001) with sanitary concept and food preparation, among the food sanitary knowledge areas.
Consumers의 Awareness and Utilization of Food Labels
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 948~953
The objective of this study was to contribute to the enhancement of food labeling and the development of food labels which are more informative to consumers. The questionnaires had been collected from adult female consumers living in Seoul, Kyonggi, Choongnam and Chungbuk province. Out of 950 answers collected 792 were analyzed. Ninety two percent of respondents were aware of food labels, however only 67.6% of them knew about the fact that food labeling was regulated by the law. Respondents recognized the major purpose of food labeling as informing and protecting the consumer. Most of the respondents answered that they confirmed the contents of food labels at the time of purchase especially with regard to safety aspects, such as expiration on data and manufacture date. Eighty four percent of the respon dents showed confidence in the contents of food labels.The rests answered they were hot confident because they experienced directly, or indirectly discord of food contents in fact and in label.
Changes of Ascorbic Acid Contents Induced from Gamma Irradiation, Heating and Microwave Treatments
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 954~957
The changes in L ascorbic acid content by processing treatments; gamma irradiation, heating and microwave were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. The content of L ascorbic acid in standard solutions and citrus fruits decreased from 27.4 to 44.9% and from 6.9 to 21.9%, re spectively, by gamma irradiation doses in the range of 1 to 10 kGy. By heating treatments, L ascorbic acids in standard solutions and citrus fruits were destroyed 22.5 to 36.8% and 4.5 to 18.1%, respectively. By microwave treatment, L ascorbic acid content also decreased from 23.1 to 47.4% and from 6.5 to 22.6%, respectively.
Measurement of Inhibitory Activities on 3-Hydorxy-3-Methylglutaryl CoA Reductase and Acyl-CoA:Cholesterol Acyltransferase by Various Plant Extracts in vitro
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 4, 1999, Pages 958~962
Hydroxy methylglutaryl CoA(HMG CoA) reductase and acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase(ACAT) are two important enzymes that are associated with regulation of cholesterol metabolism. The inhibitors of HMG CoA reductase and ACAT are very effective in lowering serum cholesterol in most animal species. In present study, various plant extracts with hot water were used to examine the inhibitory activities against HMG CoA reductase and ACAT that are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and cholesterol esterification in tissues, respectively. The extracts of Fagophyrum rotundatum, Rosa multiflora, Rosa rugosa and Alisma orientalis exhibited significant inhibitory activities against the ACAT, 29%, 24%, 19%, and 18%, respectively. However the extracts of Typha augustifolia, Polygonum cuspidatum, Crataegus pinnatifida, Polygonum multiflorum inhibited the HMG CoA reductase activity by 53%, 42%, 37%, and 33% respectively. Results suggest that these plant extracts might play important roles in the regulation of the cholesterol metabolism in vivo.