Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Dec 1999
Volume 28, Issue 5 - Oct 1999
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Aug 1999
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Jun 1999
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Apr 1999
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
Selecting the target year
Studies on compositional Characteristics and Quantitative Determination of Buckwheat Flour in Commercial Products of Kangwondo Makkuksoo(Buckwheat Noodle) and Buckwheat Flour
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 963~968
This study was tried to evaluate possibilities for discriminating the mixture degree of wheat flour from buckwheat products. Buckwheat was milled into four grades of powder, i.e. whole grain flour (WGF), inner layer flour(ILF), middle layer flour(MLF) and outer layer flour(OLF)), and these powders were mixed with wheat flour(WF) to make mixed samples. Ash, protein and fat contents of the buckwheat flours were high in the order of OLF=WGF>MLF>ILF. On the other hand, WF showed a similar content to OLF in ash and protein, and to ILF in fats. Potassium and magnesium contents were higher in all the buckwheat powder than in the wheat flour. Flavonoid contents were higher in order of OLF>WGF=MLF> ILF, but it was not in wheat flour. Although the reliable correlation between mix ratio and components, i.e. mag nesium or ash analyzed were found, it did not seem to reflect sufficiently the expected variations of contents of original material components. Also, compositions of commercial buckwheat products were analyzed to evaluate the mixed ratio of buckwheat flour and wheat flour. The results suggest that the components analyzed in this study as putative marker were not good in determining whether or how much buckwheat products contained wheat flour.
Analysis of Nitrate Contents of Some Vegetables Grown in Korea
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 969~972
Nitrate is taken up from the soil by plants for protein synthesis and present in vegetables as a natural component and/or contaminant. The objective of this study was to estimate nitrate(NO3-) contents of some vegetables(Chinese cabbage, radish, lettuce, spinach) which were produced in Korea and to provide a scientific basis for the evaluation of risk to public health arising from dietary exposure to nitrate. A total of 400 samples were analysed for nitrate contents using our ion chromatography. From the results, in general, nitrate levels in vegetables produced by 2 harvest seasons were not different. The minimum, maximum and mean values of nitrate were 311, 5522 and 2788 for spinach; 542, 4484 and 2287 for lettuce; 273, 4151 and 1551 for radish; 362, 3015 and 1498(mg/kg) for Chinese cabbage. Nitrate contents of vegetables grown in Korea were similar to those of vegetables grown in other countries.
Comparisons of Volatile Compounds of Pinus densiflora on Kinds of Extraction Solvent and Parts of Pinus
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 973~979
Volatile compounds from twigs, needles and sprouts in Pinus densiflora were extracted with n hexane, diethyl ether or ethanol for 24 hours, and the extracted compounds were separated and identified by gas chromatography and mass selective detector. The kinds and amount of volatile compounds extracted from three parts of Pinus densiflora were different in solvent extraction and the extraction by the modified Liken Nickerson apparatus. The contents of volatile compounds of twigs contained more than those of needles and sprouts, and the volatile compounds were extracted more in n hexane than the others. In the extraction with hexane, the main volatile compounds of twigs were 18.5% pinene, 14.5% limonene, 12.7% pinene and 3.2% myrcene. Sprouts were 16.8% limonene, 4.4% pinene, 4.3% pinene and 1.7% myrcene. Needles contained 14.7% pinene, 5.4% pinene, 2.2% limonene and 0.8% myrcene. The highest yield for pine aroma was shown in the extraction from pine twigs with n hexane, and in this extraction the amounts of pinene, pinene and limonene were 742 g, 1108 g and 922 g per gram sample, respectively.
Analysis of Sterols and Its Hydrogenation to Stanols in Vegetable Oils for the Development of a Cholesterol Absorption-lowering Neutraceutical
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 980~983
The contents of sterols and stanols in vegetable oils and mist oil were analyzed by gas chromatography using a capillary column. The total sterol contents showed high values of 0.67~0.89g/100g in corn oil, rice bran oil, red pepper seed oil and sesame oil. Mist oil, a byproduct of soybean oil manufacture, was a suitable raw material for the production of stanol since it showed high sterol content (10.2g/100g). In the hydrogenation of sterol contained in mist oil using Pd catalyst, the effects saponification of oil were examined. The conversion of sterol to stanol was improved by a factor of 4~5 through saponification of oil, compared to the reaction without saponification.
Effect of Ethanol Extracts in Pinus densiflora, Lithospermum erythrorhizon on the Lipid Oxidation of Oil Emulsion
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 984~989
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of ethanol extracts on lipid oxidation of oil emulsion. The results are as follows; The scavenging ability of plant extracts for hydroxyl radical was found, and plant extracts played an important role as a strong chelating agents to bind iron if Fe2+ ion exists in oil emulsion. Pinus densiflora(PD), Lithospermum erythrorhizon(LE) and PD＋LE acted as strong chelating agents to bind iron to reduce lipid oxidation in oil emulsion. The content of Fe2+ ion in ethanol extracts from LE and PD＋LE were significantly higher(p<0.05) than that of ethanol extracts from PD. The content of total iron has same tendency. The ascorbic acid content of PD(16.36ppm) was slightly higher than those of LE(13.08ppm). Electron donating ability of PD was significantly higher(p<0.05) than those of LE. However, the superoxide(SOD) like ability of LE showed a little higher than those of LE and PD＋LE, which means the strong antioxidant activity of LE. The nitrite scavenging effects were dependent on pH value, however, they decreased as pH value increased. Especially, they almost didn't show the nitrite scavenging effect in pH 6.0. In conclusion, the PD and LE extracts may be used as natural antioxidant sources to reduce lipid oxidation in oil emulsion.
The Physicochemical properties and Antioxidation Effect of Samul Chol-Pyon
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 990~996
In physicochemical property, increasing the raw materials of Samul Chol Pyon, the content of moisture decreased, somewhat in total sugar, crude lipid, ash was increased. The pH of raw material for Samul Chol Pyon was shown at 5.70~5.80, in the mild acidity. Total saturated fatty acid of 50% added to the sample was shown to be four times higher than that of rice powder. The raw materials of Samul Chol Pyon were shown to possess 16 kinds of total amino acids. The content of minerals, K, P, Zn, Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca increased its additive raw material of Samul Chol Pyon. Especially, Na decreased, while K increased its additive raw materials of Samul Chol Pyon. In a limited Na diet, Samul Chol Pyon should be used in the future.
Effects of Changes in Composition of Herb Extract Product on Growth of Spoilage Yeast, Zygosaccharomyces sp.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 997~1002
The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of food preservative addition and changes in composition of herb extract product on the growth of spoilage yeast, Zygosaccharomyces sp. Herbs such as Panax ginseng, Cinnamomum cassia, Lycium chinense, Zyzyphus juiuba and Jingiber officinale were altogether put into water and essence was extracted at 80oC, and then the extract was concentrated at 75oC. The herb extract product was made by adding vitamins, amino acids and honey to the concentrated herb extract. The amount of gas produced from the herb extract product was increased as inoculated cell number increased but decreased as Brix concentration increased. Gases were produced in small amount when incubation was made at 4oC but large amounts of gases were produced at 25 or 40oC of incubation. The gas production and growth of Zygosaccharomyces sp. were measured after browning reaction was induced by heating at 85oC for 12 hours. It appeared that heating treatment did not induce any significant change in the gas production and growth of the cell. The effects of addition of various sugar to the herb extract produce were also invesigated. Amounts of gas production were in the order of glucose>sucrose>oligosaccharide>stevioside. The viable cell count was measured as 6.0
107 CFU/g when glucose was added to the herb extract product. The viable cell counts were 5.0
103, and 3.0
102 CFU/g in sucrose, oligosaccharide and stevioside added herb extract product, respectively. The amount of gas production from the herb extract product was remarkably reduced by addition of such food preservatives as sodium benzoate and DF 100. TLC(thin layer chromatography) chromatogram of the herb extract showed stability of the herb extract in the above treatments.
Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus salivarius Isolated from Chicken Intestines
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1003~1009
For the isolation of probiotics which may be used for the human beings and animals, we have screened the microorganisms from chicken intestines which have acid and bile tolerance and the growth inhibition of pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Among them, a strain which was identified as Lactobacillus salivarius had around 66% of survival after 2h incubation in the artificial gastric juice and 9% of survival after 24h incubation in the presence of 0.3% bile salts, and showed complete inhibition against both path ogenic E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium after 24 h coincubation. Its storage stability after lyophilization could be improved by adding polyvinylpyrrolidone.
Purification and Characteristics of Protease Produced by Syncephalastrum racemosum PDA 132-2 from Korean Traditional Meju
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1010~1016
Protease related mold was isolated and selected as a starter culture for commercial production of meju. Isolated microorganism was identified as Syncephalastrum racemosum PDA 132 2. To obtain basic data about protease for production of soybean peptides and application of the strain in meju fermentation, we extrated and purified protease and charateristics of the enzyme were investigated. The optimum condition for the production of enzyme was pH 4.0, 30oC, 5 days. The protease was purified 19.7 folds by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography and specific activity was 12.4unit/mg. The purified enzyme was 34kDa in size, thiol protease(100% inhibited by PCMB), and was acidic protease(stable between pH 2.0~5.0). Vmax of the enzyme was 2.14 g/min which was lower(1/50) than that of by Asp. wentti and B. subtilis.
Changes of Components in the Rice-porridge Fermented by Nuruk
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1017~1021
Shindari, a traditional low alcoholic drink in Cheju island, was prepared with nuruk and the rice porridge. The rice porridge was fermented with 10% nuruk at a temperature of
for 24 hours. In all temperature, total acidity and oBrix were increased gradually and pH were decreased gradually and viscosity were considerably decreased after 2 hours and then slightly decreased. Alcohol contents were also increased during fermentation and especially at
. The organic acids were mainly found phytic acid and succinic acid. The fermented liquids rice porridge contained maltose and glucose as free sugar, amount of them increased during fermentation. Lactic acid bacteria cell count increased at higher tem perature of fermentation and reached to
for 10hr. In conclusion, the optimal fermentation conditions Shindari preparation were at
, 24hrs. pH, titratable acidity, viscosity and soluble solids in the optimal fermentation condition were 4.2, 0.18%, 190cp,
Antimicrobial Activity of Ulmi cortex Extracts
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1022~1028
The solvent extracts of Ulmi cortex, which were extracted by using several solvents with different polarities, were prepared for utility as a natural preservatives. The antimicrobial activities and cell growth inhibitions were investigated to each strain with the different concentrations of Ulmi cortex extracts. Methanol extract showed the highest antimicrobial activity. The methanol extract was represented the broad antimicrobial activities for the gram positive and negative strains. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for each strains were appeared to around 0.3mg/ml at each of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. The cell growth inhibitions were not shown on Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lac tobacillus plantarum, and Bifidobacterium bifidum, but greatly on the Clostridium butyricum. The meth anol extracts were further reextracted sequentially with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol for purifying crude methanol extracts. The extract, which was reextracted by butanol, showed the highest antimicrobial activity.
Antimicrobial and Antitumor Activity of Triterpenoids Fraction from Poria cocos Wolf
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1029~1033
Seven fractions were separated by silica gel chromatography from the diethyl ether souble portion of the methanolic extract of the cultured hoelen(Poria cocos Wolf). Three fractions were separated from the Fr.II and Fr.IV by rechromatography, respectively. The most active fraction, Fr.II 3 and Fr.IV 3, were separated to 2 and 4 fractions by preparative HPLC. On the result of antimicrobial test, triterpenoids fractions showed weaker effect than benzoic acid but Fr.II 3 1, Fr.II 3 2 had an excellent antimi crobial activity. Triterpenoids fraction of hoelen(Poria cocos Wolf) showed a high inhibition activity on the growth of lung cancer, ovary cancer, skin cancer, central nerve cancer and rectum cancer cell, especially the activity of Fr.II 3 1 and Fr.II 3 2 was the highest.
Study on Bread-making Quality with Mixture of Waxy Barley-Wheat Flour 1. Rheological Properties of Dough Made with Waxy Barley-Wheat Flour Mixture
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1034~1043
Rheological properties of dough made from waxy barley(Iri28) flour wheat flour mixtures with additives were investigated for the preparation of waxy barley bread using farinograph, extensograph and amy lograph. The water absorption, development time and dough weakness increased as the waxy barley flour level increased in all blends; however, dough stability decreased. Farinogram properties of 10% waxy barley flour added mixture were similar to those of 100% wheat flour. The addition of A.A(ascorbic acid), gluten, HPMC(hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose) improved rheological properties of dough with 30% waxy barley flour added mixture. In particular, stability and weakness of the dough showed greater dough improving effect by addition of A.A. For the extensograph data, strength, resistance and extensibility of dough decreased with increasing level of waxy barley flour. With the addition of additives, extensogram properties were variable for 30% waxy barley flour mixture. Of these additives, gluten had highest value in strength of dough. Addition of A.A and HPMC to 30% waxy barley flour added mixture resulted in an increase in the resistance and a decrease in the extensibility. Waxy barley flour added mixtures showed little higher gelatinization temperature on amylograph data than control. Maximum viscosity reduced as the waxy barley flour level increased. Also 30% waxy barley flour added mixture containing A.A and HPMC showed a decrease in maximum viscosity. But addition of gluten to 30% waxy barley flour mixture resulted an increase in the maximum viscosity. All of 30% waxy barley flour added mixture with additives had lower gelatinization temperature than those without additives. In the SEM images, starch granules were dispersed in a protein matrix. A non continuous, loose protein starch matrix was observed in all waxy barley flour mixture by SEM. Addition of additives gave the dough a more continuous structure with interactions between the starch granule and protein component.
Characteristics of Sugar Cookies with Replacement of Sucrose with Suger Alcohols (II) Textural Characteristics of Sugar Alcohol Cookies
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1044~1050
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of replacement of 35, 50, 75, 100% of sucrose by sugar alcohols on the texture of sugar cookies. The moistness of dough decreased as the amount of isomalt increased in cookie formula. From the texture profile for rheological properties of dough, hardness and adhesiveness of dough increased as the amount of isomalt increased. From the texture profile for sugar cookie measured by snap test and probing, hardness and brittleness of cookies increased as the levels of replacement decreased. Especially the addition of lactitol increased brittleness of cookies. In addition texture of cookies was close to control cookie as the levels of replacement decreased.
Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Taste Compounds in Processing of Low Salted and Fermented Squid
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1051~1057
The effects of gamma irradiation on taste compounds of low salted and fermented squid were investig ated. Salted and fermented squid products were prepared with salt concentrations of 5%, 10%, and 20% and was fermented at 15oC and 25oC after gamma irradiation with a dosage of 2.5~10 kGy. Amino nitrogen (AN), volatile basic nitrogen(VBN), trimethylamine(TMA), and hypoxanthine(Hx) contents were examined during the fermentation periods. Results showed that gamma irradiation had no effect on the initial con tents of AN, VBN, TMA, and Hx compared with non irradiated salted and fermented squid. During the fermentation periods, these contents rapidly increased in accordance with the decrease in NaCl concen tration and irradiation dose, and the increase in fermentation temperature. Specifically, the taste compounds of salted and fermented squid prepared with a NaCl concentration of 10% and an irradiation dose of 10 kGy maintained the appropriate level for the fermentation period at 15oC.
Analysis of the Components with Freeze Drying and Steam Drying of Gastrodia elata Blume
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1058~1063
The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in proximate composition, free sugars, organic acids, fatty acids, amino acids, mineral components, hunter color values and calory values between freeze dried and steam dried Gastrodia elata Blume. Crude fat and crude fiber decreased during manu facture of steam dried Gastrodia elata Blume. The contents of sugars in steam dried Gastrodia elata Blume decreased during manufacture than that of freeze dried Gastrodia elata Blume. The contents of malic acid, oxalic acid, ketoglutaric acid, malonic acid and succinic acid in freeze dried were similar to those in steam dried Gastrodia elata Blume. Citric acid decreased in steam dried Gastrodia elata Blume. The contents of linoleic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid in freeze dried were similar to those in steam dried Gastrodia elata Blume. The contents of free amino acids in steam dried Gastrodia elata Blume decreased during manufacture. The mineral component contents of the Gastrodia elata Blume were greater in the order of Mn
Quality Changes of Sulgiduk Added Green Tea Powder during storage
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1064~1068
This study was quality changes of sulgiduk added green tea powder during storage. Sulgiduk prepared with various concentrations of green tea powder; 0%(control group), 0.5%(GT 0.5 group), 1%(GT 1.0 group), 1.5%(GT 1.5 group), 2%(GT 2.0 group), and the changes of its quality during 7 days of storage were investigated. Total microbe numbers, the acidity and pH in sulgiduk during storage were decreased with increasing the added amounts of a green tea powder, and especially those of GT 1.0 and GT 1.5 groups had relatively the lower than other groups. The "L" value(lightness) of the control group was the highest among five groups, and its value was decreased throughout storage, and especially GT 0.5 groups had the lowest brightness. The "a" value(reddness) of the control group was higher than other four groups, and increased GT 2.0>GT 1.5>GT 1.0>GT 0.5 groups, in that order. The "b" value(yel lowness) was increased in the order; GT 2.0>GT 1.5>GT 1.0>GT 0.5 groups. These results indicated that GT 1.0 group showed the best quality than other groups of sulgiduk during storage. of sulgiduk during storage.
Quality Changes of Sterilized Soybean Paste during Its Storage
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1069~1075
The sterilization was attempted to improve the quality deterioration of soybean paste during its storage. For this experiment, soybean paste was sterilized at 80oC for 30 minutes and stored during 6 months at 15oC and 30oC, respectively. The total approximate composition contents were moisture 52.5%, crude protein 11.94%, crude fat 2.0%, amino nitrogen 413.3mg%, sodium chloride 11.61% and ash 15.5%. According to the increase of storage period, pH was decreased gradually because of the increase of organic acids by the metabolism of microorganisms and the acid accumulation by acid forming bacteria, but titratable acidity was increased during storage. Amino nitrogen was rapidly increased for the first one or two month storage period and maintained as the same level for the rest of them. Each amino acid contents of soybean paste, which were glutamic acid, tryptophan, proline, arginine, and aspartic acid, had much higher level than others. In color changes sterilized soybean paste(SSP) was much lower than that of raw ones(RSP). Hunter L and b values on the surface of soybean paste were decreased during storage, and the decreasing levels were higher at 30oC than at 15oC. Hunter a value, however, was increased a little in the initial storage, and thereafter it was decreased. Lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and molds were disappeared completely by the sterilization. However, the bacteria of aerobes and anaerobes were not disappeared by this processing.
Storge Stability of Barleys Irradiated by Gamma-Ray
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1076~1081
Physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of barleys irradiated by gamma ray at 1.2kGy, 10.1kGy, or 30.5kGy were investigated every 40 days during the storage at 25℃ and 50% relative humidity. Moisture content of the irradiated barleys decreased but crude lipid content increased during the storage. TBA values increased in proportion to the irradiation dose and to the storage period. In Hunter's color, L, a, and b values of 30.5kGy dose irradiated barleys were higher than those of the non irradiated barleys right after irradiation and this trend continued during the storage. Numbers of mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria in the non irradiated barleys and 1.2kGy dose irradiated barleys were higher than those in the barleys irradiated at 10.1kGy and 30.5kGy during the storage. Numbers of yeasts and molds in the irradiated and non irradiated barleys were low and they did not greatly increase during the storage. In sensory evaluation, acidic odor of the barleys was strong at the 10.1kGy and 30.5 kGy dose irradiation but barley odor and humid odor were not significantly different among the groups depending upon the radiation dose and storage period.
Potential Detection of Irradiated Dried Agricultural Products by Viscosity Measurement
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1082~1086
Dried vegetables, white ginseng and spices, which were exposed to gamma and electron beam irradiation, were used in a detection study by measuring their starch content and viscosity change. The samples tested showed different levels of starch content(15.64~60.86%), which was not directly proportional to the viscosity of the samples. The correlation coefficients between irradiation dose and viscosity change were lower in the samples, such as cabbage, carrot, clean vegetable(chunggyungchae), garlic, mushroom, green onion, and red pepper, while some higher coefficients were found in ginger(R2=0.9271), white ginseng (R2=0.6223) and onion (R2=0.7909). Thus, dried ginger and white ginseng were selected to be used for a detection of irradiated samples using specific parameters(threshold values). Specific parameter for the nonirradiated ginger and ginseng were 13.31 and 13.93, respectively. On the other hand, gamma and electron beam irradiated samples at 2.5 kGy, the lowest dose for a commercial purpose, showed decreased values, 11.92 and 11.15 in ginger, and moreover 4.40 and 5.10 in ginseng. It is expected that a proportional decrease in a specific parameter with the absorbed doses will be a potentially useful index for detecting whether starchy foods have been irradiated or not.
Monitoring of Extraction Properties of Ginseng Components during Pressurized Micorwave-Assisted Extraction
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1087~1091
Microwave extraction system equipped with closed vessels, which is known to rapidly extract target compounds from natural products, was applied to monitor the changes in phenolic compounds, browning color intensity and electron donating ability by using response surface methodology(RSM). Maximum content of phenolic compound was 21.65mg/100ml in 67.88% of ethanol concentration, 145oC of extraction temperature, and 6.24min of extraction time. The phenolic compounds in extracts are dependent on the increase of the extraction temperature and the ethanol concentration. Browning color intensity, which was maximized in 67.21%, 147oC, and 6.02min, was proportional to the increase of the extraction temperature. Maximum value of electron donating ability was 24.50units in 54.33%, 147oC, and 6.11 min. The electron donating ability of extracts was dependent on the increase of extraction temperature and maximized in the range from 50 to 65% of ethanol concentration.
Hygienic Quality and Genotoxicological Safety of Gamma Irradiated Pork
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1092~1098
Gamma irradiation was applied to pork for improving its hygienic quality and evaluating its possible genotoxicity. The effective dose of irradiation was 3 kGy in pork for the sterilization of all contaminated microorganisms tested. After 8 weeks of storage at 5oC, no growth of microorganisms except for psychrophile and total aerobic bacteria was observed in the more than 3 kGy irradiated pork. The genotoxicity of high dose irradiated pork(30 kGy) was evaluated by Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay, chromosomal aberration test and in vivo micronucleus assay. The results were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537. In chromosomal aberration tests with CHL cells and in vivo mouse micronucleus assay, no significant difference in the incidences of chromosomal aberration and micronuclei was seen between nonirradiated and 30 kGy irradiated porks. These results indicate that 30 kGy irradiated pork did not show any genotoxic effects under these experimental conditions.
Metabolism of Dietary Carotenoids and Effects to Improve the Body Color of Oily Bittering, Acheilognathus koreensis
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1099~1106
Effects of dietary carotenoids were investigated on metabolism of the carotenoids, and body pigmen tation in oily bittering, Acheilognathus koreensis. Two weeks later after depletion,oily bitterings were fed the diets supplemented with either lutein, cynthiaxanthin and astaxathin for 4 weeks. Carotenoids distributed to and metabolized in integument were analyed. The carotenoid isolated from the integument of wild oily bittering, composed of 47.2% zeaxanthin, 11.4% lutein epoxide, 11.0% diatoxanthin, 9.7% lutein and 8.3% zeaxanthin epoxide. Meanwhile, two weeks later after depletion, the carotenoid composed of 29.9% crytoxanthin, 19.3% zeaxanthin, 13.2% lutein epoxide, 12.0% diatoxanthin and 8.8% zeaxanthin epoxide. These indicated that zeaxanthin, diatoxanthin, lutein epoxide and zeaxanthin epoxide were actively metabolized in oily bittering, compared to that of other fresh water fish. Total carotenoid content in the integument of wild oily bittering and oily bittering depleted for two weeks was found to be 1.72mg% and 2.08mg%, respectively. Two weeks later after treatment of experimental diet, total carotenoids content was increased to 2.23mg% in lutein, 2.36mg% in cynthiaxanthin and 2.49mg% in astaxanthin supplemented group, which were relatively higher than 2.10mg% in control group. Meanwhile, 4 weeks later, total ca rotenoids content was decreased to 1.76mg% in control, 1.95mg% in lutein, 1.74mg% in cynthiaxanthin and 1.72mg% in astaxanthin supplemented groups. These result indicate that dietary carotenoids were rapidly accumulated and then metabolized to certain metabolites shortly after feeding. Body pigmentation effects of the carotenoids due to accumulation of carotenoids in the integument of oily bittering was the most effectively shown in the astaxanthin supplemented group, followed by cynthiaxanthin and lutein supplemented groups. In the integument of oily bittering, dietary carotenoids were presumably biotrans formed via either oxidative or reductive pathways as presumed the variation of total carotenoid content and carotenoid composition in all experimental groups. The lutein was oxidized either to astaxanthin via doradexanthin and doradexanthin, or to zeaxanthin epoxide via zeaxanthin by oxidative pathway. Cynthiaxanthin was converted either to diatoxanthin and zeaxanthin by reductive pathway and then to zeaxanthin epoxide by oxidative pathway, or it was converted to astaxanthin via diatoxanthin, zeaxan thin and doradexanthin by oxidative pathway. Astaxanthin was converted to doradexanthin and zeaxanthin by reductive pathway and then to zeaxanthin epoxide by oxidative pathway. These results suggest that, oxidative pathway of carotenoids was major metabolic pathway along with reductive path way in fresh water fish.
Anticancer Activity of Phytol and Eicosatrienoic Acid Identified from Perilla Leaves
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1107~1112
We investigated the inhibitory effects of phytol and methyl 11,14,17 eicosatrienoic acid (methyl ETA, n 3, 20 : 3) separated from perilla leaves on the growth of human cancer cells. Phytol inhibited significantly the growth of HT 29 human colon cancer cells, MG 63 osteosarcoma cells and AZ 521 gastric cancer cells. Although the activity of methyl ETA was lower than that of phytol, it was also observed to have the inhibitory effect on three human cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the DNA synthesis of the MG 63 osteosarcoma cells was markedly decreased by the addition of the phytol and methyl ETA. These results suggest that phytol and methyl ETA identified from the perilla leaves may play a role on the growth inhibition of the human cancer cells.
Effects of Glucosamine Hydrochloride, Taurine and Their Combined Administration on Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Action in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1113~1123
The purpose of this study was to see the effect of anti inflammatory and analgesic action of the glucosamine hydrochloride(GA HCl) or taurine. Male Sprague Dawley rats(100~250g) and ICR mice(20 ~30g) were used. Experimental groups were divided into seven groups, one control group given as saline and six groups given as oral administration of GA HCl or taurine; GA HCl 250mg/kg, b.w group, taurine 250mg/kg, b.w group, GA HCl 250mg/kg, b.w＋taurine 250mg/kg, b.w group, GA HCl 500mg/kg, b.w group, taurine 500mg/kg, b.w group, GA HCl 500mg/kg, b.w＋taurine 500mg/kg, b.w group. Carrageenan induced edema test were shown to be significantly inhibited in the GA HCl 250mg/kg group and taurine 250mg/kg group compared to the control group, but the GA HCl 500mg/kg＋taurine 500mg/kg group were significantly inhibited than the control group. Capillary permeability test were shown to be sig nificantly inhibited in the taurine 500mg/kg group, but the GA HCl 500mg/kg＋taurine 500mg/kg group were significantly inhibited than the control group. Leucocyte emigration test were shown to be significantly inhibited in the GA HCl 250mg/kg＋ taurine 250mg/kg group and GA HCl 500mg/kg＋taurine 500mg/kg group compared to the control group. Acetic acid, Phenyl p benzoquinone writhing syndrome were shown to be significantly inhibited in the GA HCl 500mg/kg＋taurine 500mg/kg group compared to the control group. Inhibitory action against COX 1 and COX 2 were not significantly inhibited in the experimental group. These results suggest that the combined administration of the GA HCl and taurine have potential action in anti inflammatory and analgesic action.
Effect of Copper Supplementation on Mineral Utilizations in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1124~1130
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of copper supplementation on mineral utilizations in rats. Intakes, excretions, and tissue levels of Fe, Zn, Cu, Ca, Mg, Na, K were compared in rats fed diet with 100, 200, 400% of copper requirement(1Cu, 2Cu and 4Cu, respectively) for 6 weeks. The feed intake was significantly higher in 2Cu compared to 1Cu group, however, body weight gain was not significantly different among the three groups. While the serum level of Fe was significantly decreased, that of Cu was significantly elevated by Cu supplementation. The liver and kidney levels of Mg and Na, intakes of all the minerals, urinary excretions of Fe, Cu, Ca and Mg were significantly higher in 2Cu and/or 4Cu compared to 1Cu. The fecal excretions, retentions and absorptions of all the minerals were not affected by Cu supple mentation. In summary, these results suggest that dietary Cu supplementation has no effect on mineral utilizations, but effect on distribution in tissues of rats.
Effect of Potato Polyphenolics on Lipid Peroxidation in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1131~1136
The total contents of polyphenolics in potatoes measured by Folin Denis method were 42~76mg/100g in fresh weight. A major phenolic component contained in potato polyphenolics was identified as chlorogenic acid(3.6~15mg/100g in fresh weight). The antioxidative effects of potato polyphenolics and chlorogenic acid on the lipid peroxidation of liver microsome were studied in vivo and in vitro systems by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances(TBARS) and the content of urine 8 hydroxy deoxyguanosine(OHdG). The TBARS contents of liver showed an increase in the cholesterol diet compared to those in the normal diet. This trend, however, was minimized when potato polyphenolics and chlorogenic acid were supplemented in the cholesterol diet. On the other hands, urinary 8 OHdG contents showed a marked increase with the supplementation of potato polyphenolics in the cholesterol diet. However, there was a trend of marked decrease by the supplementation of chlorogenic acid. In vitro study, potato poly phenolics and chlorogenic acid effectively inhibited the formation of TBARS in liver microsomal system in a dose dependent manners. These results suggest that potato polyphenolics exerts an antioxidative activity in cholesterol fed rat liver.
Effects of Tea Fungus/Kombucha Beverage on Serum Protein Levels and Enzyme Activity in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1137~1143
This study investigated the effect of tea fungus/kombucha beverage(TF) protein concentrations and enzyme activities in serum of both normal and diabetic male rats. Sprague Dawley growing rats were randomly assigned to one control and five diabetic groups. In five diabetic groups, D control group was fed drinking water and the other groups were fed drinking water supplemented with 20 or 40% TF (20 or 40% TFD group, respectively) and 20 or 40% disinfected TF(20 or 40% TFSD group, respectively) for 7 weeks. Diabetes was experimentally induced in all five diabetic groups by streptozotocin injection after 3 week feeding. The diabetic groups were significantly decreased the body weight( 29.4~ 48.6g) compared with those in control group(72.4g). The total liver and kidney weights in all diabetic groups were similar to those in control group, but those relative to body weights in all diabetic groups were heavier than those in control group. The total spleen weight in all diabetic groups was significantly decreased compared with those in control group, but those relative to body weights in all diabetic groups were similar to those in control group. The blood glucose levels were heigher in all diabetic groups than those in control group. The alkaline phosphatase activity in serum was higher in all experimental groups than those in control group, but it was lower in 40% TFD, 20% and 40% TFSD groups than those in D control group. The GPT activity was significantly increased in D control, 20% and 40% TFD groups than in control group. The GOT activity was significantly increased in D control goup than in control group, but those in all TFD and TFSD groups were similar to control group. The total protein concentration in all diabetic groups was significantly decreased compared with that in control group, but the albumin concentration showed almost the same levels in all the experimental groups. The ratio of albumin/globulin, and hem atocrit value were significantly increased in all diabetic groups than in control group. These results show that tea fungus/kombucha beverage with which diabetic rats were fed has not recovered the decreased body weight, lowered serum total protein level, hypertrophy of liver and kidney, hyperglycemia to the normal state.
Daily Kimchi Consumption and Its Hypolipidemic Effect in Middle-Aged Men
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1144~1150
A nutrition survey regarding daily kimchi consumption and its hypolipidemic effect were carried out with 102 of healthy Korean adult men aged between 40 to 64 years old who visited hospital for physical examination. The physical and biochemical parameters of blood were examined as well as food record, preferences for taste, personal life habit, and family history of disease. Data were expressed as quartile according to kimchi consumption. The average daily kimchi consumption for 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th per centile group were 68, 118, 208, and 383g, respectively. The intakes of dietary fiber and Ca were found to be increased as kimchi intake increased(p<0.05). The kimchi consumption level was selected as the determining factor for HDL C level analyzed by stepwise multiple regression(p=0.09). When correlation coefficient between kimchi consumption and other parameters were analyzed, kimchi consumption was positively correlated with HDL C and negatively correlated with LDL C(p<0.05). The preference for hot taste was negatively correlated with systolic blood presure. It seems that kimchi consumption is beneficial to elevate HDL C and lower LDL C level.
A Study on Iron Status and Anemia of Female College Students of Ulsan City
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1151~1157
The purpose of this study is to investigate the iron nutritional status and anemia of university female students. Seventy female subjects in Ulsan city were evaluated with questionnaire, measurement of hematological indices. The mean height and weight of 70 subjects were 160.76±0.48cm, 52.80±0.72kg and BMI(body mass index: kg/m2), %IBW(ideal body weight) were 21.0±0.29, 100.2±12.41. The mean values of hemoglobin(Hgb), hematocrit(Hct), serum iron(S Fe), serum ferritin(SF), TIBC(total iron binding capacity), transferrin saturation(TS(%)) and RBC were 12.7±11.10g/dl, 39.0± 2.61%, 96.9±41.98 g/dl, 28.9±24.78 g/dl, 369.6±54.36 g/dl, 27.1±12.40% and 4.4± 0.27(106/mm3), respectively. Iron deficiency anemia among the subjects was estimated as 15.7% by using Hgb(<12g/dl), 11.4% by Hct(<36%), 22.9% by S Fe(<60 g/dl), 34.3% by SF(<15 g/dl), 48.6% by TIBC(>360 g/dl) and 20.0% by TS(%)(<15%). 15 subjective symptoms were measured and the high prevalence symptoms were 'cold hands and feet' and 'tired out easily'. The correlation between hemotological indices and subjective symptoms was evaluated. The hemoglobin level was negatively correlated with 'cold hands and feet', 'short breath when climbing', 'fragile nail', 'inflammed inner mouth', 'pale face' and 'scaly tetter'.
A Effect of Nutrition Counseling for Improving Iron Status of Female College Students
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1158~1163
The purpose of this research is to measure nutrition counseling effects for improving iron status. The major components of the nutrition counseling were iron, MPF(Meat, Poultry, Fish) and vitamin C rich diet therapy, the provision of nutrient supplements and eatting attitude education. Fifteen female volun teers participated and the mean level for hemoglobin(Hgb), hematocrit(Hct), serum iron(S Fe), total iron binding capacity(TIBC), serum ferritin(SF) of subjects was 11.9±1.3g/dl, 37.0±2.7%, 57.7 ±33.9 g/dl, 409.1±56.2 g/dl, 8.6±3.5ng/ml, respectively. To evaluate the effect of iron status improvement by the nutrition couseling, 10 subjective symptoms, hematological indice and eating attitude were measured after implementation the nutrition counseling. Some subjective symptoms such as 'cold hands and foot', 'slow to recover', 'reduced concentrate', 'poor memory', 'inflammed inner mouth' were improved significantly. The hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean cell volume(MCV), mean cell hemoglobin(MCH) and mean cell hemo globin concentration(MCHC) were increased significantly. And eating attitude was improved significantly as well. It is suggested from the results that the nutrition counseling of this study can be effective to improve iron status.
Analysis of Anthropometric and Clinical Data in Obese Children in Changwon
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1164~1171
In this study, we investigated the effects of obesity index on the risk factors of chronic diseases in obese children. The subjects were male and female children aged 9 to 12. The average obesity index was 147.7
13.8% in boys and 147.6
16.5% in girls. The average percentages of body fat was significantly higher in boys(33.9
5.7%) than in girls(30.7
4.4%). It was found that 26% of subjects had abnormal serum GOT and GPT values. Percentages of subjects at risk of cardiovascular disease(CVD) based on corresponding criteria of TG, T chol, HDL chol, and LDL chol were 28.6%, 28.6%, 45.5% and 42.7%, respectively. The risk of CVD was increased with the degree of obesity, which was not significant. The AI(atherogenic index) was higher in boys(4.6
2.3) than in girls(3.6
1.2). The serum T chol and LDL chol levels of subjects whose mother are in thirties were significantly higher than those of subjects whose mother are in fourties. The T chol levels of subjects who had mother with job were significantly higher compaired to those of subjects who had housewife mother. The results indicated the urgent need of nu tritional management for the obese children to prevent further devel opment of childhood obesity and hyperlipidemia. Based upon this study, devising method and media for the mother nutritional education as well as for the children nutritional education is required for better growth and health promotion of primary school children.
The Eating Behaviors and Nutrient Intakes of Third Grade Primary School Children in Kwangju
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1172~1179
The purpose of this study was to determine eating behaviors and nutrient intakes of 256 third grade primary school children(134:boys, 122:girls) in Kwangju. There were no significant differences in the heights, weights, physical circumferences measurements between the boys and girls, but the skinfold thickness measurements were significantly different. Most nutrient intakes were higher than the Rec ommended Dietary Allowances but the intake of energy, calcium, and vitamin E were lower than the RDA. The intakes of calcium, niacin, and vitamin E of the girls were significantly lower than those of the boys. With regard to meal volume, 13.6% of the subjects has been 'much'. With regard to meal speed, 24.6% of the subjects has been 'fast'. The study also found that 50% of the subjects skipped breakfast, 67.6% of the subjects had irregular meal times, 64.6% of the subjects ate snacks after dinner and 85.9% of the subjects ate snacks. These results show that the nutrient intake of children was related to snack eating more than regular meals. With regard to dietary behavior and nutrient intakes, meal volume, meal speed, skipping breakfast, eating snacks and eating snacks after dinner were major influences. But regularity of meal time was not influence on nutrient intakes. These results suggest that children's eating behaviors are in needs of correction. This reasserts the importance of nutrition education to children through teachers, parents and dietitians. The findings of this study should be applied to nutrition education to ensure better physical fitness of children.
Effects of Endocrine Disruptors on Endocrine Function and Reproductive Function in Wildlife and Humans
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1180~1186
A wide ranges of chemicals released into the environment have potential to interfere with physiological and development process by disrupting endocrine pathways. Endocrine system embraces a multitude of mechanisms of action, including effect on growth, behavior, reproduction and immune function. These environmental endocrine disruptors are present in environment and pose potential health consequences to human and wildlife. The best known form in endocrine distruptors involves substances which mimic or block the action of natural hormone in the body. Endocrine disruptor have been variously defined as exogenous agents that interfere with the synthesis, secretion, transport, metabolism, binding action or elimination of the natural hormones in the body which are responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis, reproduction developmental and/or behavior. Many compounds polluted into the environment by human activity are capable of disrupting the endocrine system of animals, including fish, wildlife, and humans. Among these chemicals are pesticides, industrial chemicals, and other anthropogenic products. It has been alleged that several adverse effects on human health are linked with exposure to chemicals which are claimed to be endocrine disrupters, that is, increased incidence of testicular, prostate and female breast cancer, time dependent reductions in sperm quality and quantity, increased incidence of cryptorchidism (undescended testicles) and hypospadias(malformation of the penis), altered physical and mental de velopment in children. This observation is currently the only example of chemically mediated endocrine disruption which has resulted in a clear effect at the population level.