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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Dec 1999
Volume 28, Issue 5 - Oct 1999
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Aug 1999
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Jun 1999
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Apr 1999
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
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Chemical Composition of Lutus Seed(Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner) and Their Lipid and Protein Composition
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1187~1190
Lotus seed(Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner), known as traditional medicine as an antifebrile, antipsychotic, and cantihypertensive agent, was analyzed the chemical composition of lipid and protein. The seed com posed of 12.2% moisture, 2.3% crude lipid, 19.5% crude protein, 61.3% carbohydrate, 2.1% crude fibre, and 4.1% ash. The lipid showed iodine value of 97.9 that is lower than that of soybean oil and sesame oil, and similar to peanut oil and cotton seed oil. The fatty acid composition of the oil were the highest in content of linoleic acid which occupied 58.3% and saturated vs unsaturated fatty acid was 20.9:79.1. Especially behenic acid content, 6.9%, was higher than other plant oils. Sixteen amino acids were detected in the protein from the seed and glutamic acid content was the highest as 4.5% in dehulled kernel. The portion of essential amino acid was 31.1%.
Trans Fatty Acid Content of Processed Foods in Korean Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1191~1200
This study was designed to determine total lipid and trans fatty acids(tFAs) content of 157 food items commonly consumed in the Korean diet and to prepare the database for the estimation of tFAs intake in Koreans. Total lipid and tFAs content was determined by Bligh and Dyer method and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy, respectively. The content of tFAs in margarines ranged from 0.8% to 25.2%, depending on the manufacturers. In bakery products, cakes contained higher levels of tFAs(0.8~16.9%) than hamburgers(0.8~8.4%) and doughnuts(4.9~10%). The distribution of tFAs in crackers and cookies was wide(0.8~25%), whereas meat and fish products contained 0% to 8.9% of tFAs. Fried chickens had 0% to 14.6% of tFAs and French fries had 5.2% to 18.8% of tFAs. In noodles, nuts, chocolates and fermented fish sauces, tfAs were not detected.
Volatile Sulfur Compounds, Proximate Components, Minerals, Vitamin C Content and Sensory Characteristics of the Juices of Kale and Broccoli Leaves
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1201~1207
To utilize the leaves of broccoli, the shape of which was similar with that of kale leaves, as a vegetable juice, the extracts from two types of vegetable leaves were subjected to the analyses of proximate com ponents, volatile sulfur compounds, vitamin C and minerals. The sensory evaluation of the juices, prepared from kale and broccoli leaves, were performed by duo trio test and scoring test. Among eight varieties of broccoli, four varieties('Pilgrim', 'Greenbelt', 'Salinas' and 'Shasta')were not significantly different from kale(p<0.05), based on the duo trio sensory test. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds present in the dichloromethane extracts of kale and broccoli leaves 'Pilgrim' were identified as 3 butenyl, allyl, butyl and 4 methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate(sulforaphane), 4,5 epithiovalero, 4,5 epithio 3 hydroxyvalero, benzenepropane, 3 hydroxy 4 propene, 4 methylthio butane, 3 hydroxy 3 phenylpropane, 5 methy lsulfinylpentane, 4 methoxyphenyl 3 hydroxypropane nitrile and dimethyl trisulfide by GC/MSD analysis. Proximate components were observed to be relatively similar between kale and broccoli leaves. Vitamin C and sugar content were higher in broccoli leaves(125∼180mg% and 8∼12°Brix) than in kale(101mg% and 7oBrix). In mineral analysis by AA and ICP Mass, 'Pilgrim' showed a higher content of K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Se. In separate experiment, sensory scores of bitter taste and astringent taste were lower and scores of over all taste and over all acceptability, higher in broccoli('1243') juice than those in kale juice.
Determination of Vitamin
in Foods Using Column-Switching Technique in
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1208~1211
Semi HPLC using a column switching technique was used to determine the trace content of vitamin B12 in various foods. Total analytical time required less than 20 mins per sample and the recovery ratio was 99.9, 99.6, 100.1 and 99.8% for 1.0, 10.0, 100.0 and 1,000 g/kg, respectively. The content of vitamin B12 in various foods obtained using column switching method showed higher levels compared to labels in dried milk(0.5 g/100g) and in grain products(0.51~34.36 g/100g). Thus, this column switching method was more sensitive, effective and precise than the microbiological analysis currently used to determine the trace compounds like a vitamin B12.
Effect of the Mixing Extraction of Perilla Seed and Peanut on Physicochemical Characteristics and Oxidative Stability of Perilla Oil
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1212~1219
The oils were extracted from the mixture of roasted(for 20 min at 190oC) perilla seeds(RPS) and roasted (commercially) peanuts(RPN) by solvent extraction(SE) and mechanical expression(ME). The effects of mixing ratio on physicochemical characteristics and oxidative stability of their oils were investigated. Yields of both SE and ME oils were increased as the RPN ratio in the mixture increased. In all the SE and ME oils, the major fatty acids were oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid, and total saturated fatty acids increased gradually, but total unsaturated fatty acids decreased gradually as the RPN ratio in the mixture was increased. The specific gravity and refractive index of both SE and ME oils decreased as the RPN ratio in the mixture was increased. Acid value, saponification value and iodine value of SE oils decreased as the RPN ratio in the mixture increased, whereas acid value and iodine value of ME oils decreased and saponification value increased. The colors of ME oils were darker brownish than SE oils. The oxidative stability of SE oils was decreased as the RPN ratio in the mixture increased, whereas that of ME oils was increased. Sensory evaluation of all the oils extracted from the mixture with various mixing ratio showed significant differences in flavor, taste, color and overall acceptance(p<0.01). The oil extracted from the mixture of the mixing ratio of 8:2(RPS:RPN) showed slightly higher preference regardless of extraction method.
Comparison of Carotenoid Pigments in Korean Bittering, Cheilognathus signifer and Bride Bittering, Rhodeus ukekii in the Subfamily Cyprinidae
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1220~1225
Differences in carotenoid composition in the integument of Korean bittering, Cheilognathus signifer and bride bittering, Rhodeus ukekii which are Korean native fresh water fish were compared. Total ca rotenoid contents in the integument of wild Korean bittering was 2.11mg% and composed of 42.6% zeaxanthin, 12.1% diatoxanthin and 12.1% lutein epoxide which are predominant carotenoids and 10.3% cynthiaxanthin, 8.3% zeaxanthin epoxide, 6.4% lutein and 1.5% cryptoxanthin which are minor carotenoids. Total ca rotenoid contents in the integument of wild bride bittering was 4.99mg% during a spawning period but after the spawning period it was decreased to 4.17mg% and carotenoid composition of bride bittering during the spawning period was 46.7% zeaxanthin, 26.5% diatoxanthin and 12.3% lutein which are predominant carotenoids, and 6.2% zeaxanthin epoxide, 3.1% cynthiaxanthin, 2.9% cryptoxanthin and 0.7% canthax anthin which are minor carotenoids. These results indicated that the carotenoid composition of bride bittering during spawning period was very similar to that of Korean bittering and carotenoid composition of bride bittering after the spawning period was 30.5% diatoxanthin, 21.5% cynthiaxanthin and 16.8% zeaxanthin which are predominant carotenoids and 14.0% cryptoxanthin, 11.3% lutein and 3.4% can thaxanthin which are minor carotenoids, indicating that after the spawning period, the content of zeaxanthin was decreased while that of cryptoxanthin and cynthiaxanthin was increased as compared to that of the spawning period. Total carotenoid contents in Korean bittering and bride bittering was relatively higher than that in other species of cyprinidae whereas composition of the carotenoid was similar.
Seasonal Variation of Proximate Composition in Edible Portion or Ark Shell (Scapharca subcrenata)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1226~1229
In order to investigate the harvest time for the production of high value added ark shell(Scapharca subcrenata) cultured at the south coast of Korea, the seasonal variations of proximate composition(mois ture, protein, fat, ash and glycogen) in the edible portions of ark shell were measured from December 1994 to December 1995. Moisture contents were the lowest in spring, but the highest in summer season being the spawning season of the S. subcrenata. The other hand, protein contents were a maximum in spring and minimum in summer. In June, just before the spawning season, fat and glycogen content was the highest, and ash content was little changed through a year. After spawning season, glycogen contents, showed decrement. In evaluating the seasonal variation of protein, moisture, and glycogen content in ark shell, the relationships of moisture protein content, moisture glycogen content and glycogen protein content show to be reverse.
Antimicrobial Activities of Soybean Paste Extracts
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1230~1238
To identify antimicrobial activities of soybean paste, studies have been carried out with laboratory manufactured soybean paste, traditional and improved type soybean paste purchased on the market. The soybean paste fermented with Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus tamari and commercial soybean paste were shown antimicrobial activities for Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphy lococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhimurium. Non fermented soybean paste did not show antimicrobial activities against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis. The extract of soybean paste extracted by 80% methanol showed the highest antimicrobial activities of in ethyl acetate fraction and followed butanol fraction, respectively. Antimicrobial activities of traditional and improved type soybean paste were shown against all tested microorganisms and clear zone length of traditional soybean paste was slightly larger than that of improved type. Components of antimicrobial fractions of soybean paste were guessed peptides, 4 hydroxy benzoic acid, benzoic acid by GC MS.
Optimal Growth Conditions for Carotenoid Pigment Production from marine Microorganism
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1239~1243
The optimal medium composition for the production of carotenoid pigment from Haloarcular sp. EH 1 as a dietary for fishes were 1.0% sucrose, 1.0% yeast extract, 25% sodium chloride, 0.3% sodium citrate, 0.2% potassium chloride, 2.0% magnesium sulphate, 0.002% ferric sulphate(pH 7.0). The incubation temperate, aeration rate and agitation speed were 40oC, 100ml medium/500ml vol. shaking flask, and 180 rpm/min. The carotenoid pigment production was highest after 5 days of incubation with the light.
Effects of Job s Tears Powder and Green Tea Powder on the Characteristics of Quality of Bread
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1244~1250
Job,s tears powder and green tea powder were added to bread mixture and their effects on the quality of bread were investigated using sensory evaluation and some physical tests. Sensory evaluation showed that flavor, hardness and chewiness were increased as the amount of Job's tears powder and green tea powder was increased. Lightness and redness values decreased with the addition of Job's tears powder and green tea powder, while yellowness values increased. Texture measurement showed that springiness was highest in bread with 3% green tea powder among the batches tested, while gumminess showed highest in control. Hardness of 3% green tea powder was lower than that of control. It appears that the higher the moistness, the higher the value of redness. Chewiness was positively correlated with yellowness. Gumminess was negatively correlated with color and flavor. Bread with 1% green tea powder and 10% Job's tears powder showed good overall preference. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the addition of Job's tears powder and green tea powder to bread exhibited small pores and crude surface.
Effect of Sugar Alcohol on Wheat Starch Gelatinization and Retrogradation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1251~1255
The sugar alcohols are useful alternatives to sucrose in confections because they provide desirable taste but lessen the potential risks for dental caries. The effects of sugar alcohol and their interaction on starch pasting properties were determined by the viscoamylograph with the concentration of 30%, 20%, 10% sugar alcohol in 1% CMC. The disaccharides, lactitol, maltitol, and isomalt, delayed pasting more than did monosaccharides, sorbitol and xylitol. With regard to the solubility in water, sorbitol and xylitol are more soluble than sucrose, maltitol and lactitol are almost equal and isomalt is less soluble than sucrose. Sorbitol and xylitol were highest on gelatinization. But their retrogradation occurred faster than other sugar alcohols. Lactitol and maltitol decreased gel strength more than did sucrose and other sugar alcohols.
Characteristics of Noodle Made with Composite Flours of Perilla and Wheat
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1256~1259
The rheological properties and sensory evaluation were investigated in the noodle from composite flours added with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% of perilla flour. The maximum viscosity measured by amy lograph decreased gradually with the adding amount of perilla flour, while the gelatinization temperature increased with perilla flour. The weight and volume of the cooked noodle decreased with increasing perilla flour content. In the color of the noodle, lightness and yellowness decreased, but redness increased with increasing perilla flour content. Hardness and cohesiveness of the cooked noodle reduced, but adhesiveness increased with increasing perilla flour content. In sensory evaluation, the noodle with 20% perilla flour was evaluated the best in taste, texture and overall acceptability. Based on the cooking and sensory evaluation test, addition of 20% perilla flour to wheat flour is considered suitable for the noodle of perilla flour.
Physical Properties and Optimization of Tangsuyuk Batter Ingredients
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1260~1268
Physical properties were investigated in tangsuyuk batter containing different amounts of ingredients, such as wheat flour, corn starch, sodium bicarbonate, alum and water. For the response surface methodology (RSM) central composite design was used to determine the optimal ingredient ratios for viscosity, color properties(lightness, redness, yellowness, color differences) and cutting forces. There were significant differences(p<0.05) between the different batter mixtures. The lightness(L) of batter was in proportion to the increased amount of wheat flour and corn starch. Higher redness was recorded with increasing corn starch. Higher yellowness was observed with increasing wheat flour and sodium bicarbonate. Color differences were higher with increasing wheat flour, corn starch, and/or alum and decreasing water. Cutting forces were linearly increased with increasing sodium bicarbonate. From these results, it is possible to monitor the effects of ingredients on physical properties of tangsuyuk batter, and to predict their optimal ratios.
Optimization on Organoleptic Properties of Red Pepper Jam by Response Surface Methodology
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1269~1274
Four dimensional response surface methodology was applied to determine the optimum conditions on organoleptic properties to develop red pepper jam into Korean type jam. The organoleptic color of red pepper jam showed maximum score of 8.08 in 14.24g pectin, 256.2g sucrose and 8.31ml citric acid(50% citric acid solution). The organoleptic taste of red pepper jam showed maximum score of 6.77 in 14.23g pectin, 202.1g sucrose and 8.19ml citric acid. Optimum conditions on the organoleptic mouth feel of red pepper jam were 14.34g in pectin, 255.6g in sucrose and 8.39ml in 50% citric acid solution. Maximized overall palatability of red pepper jam was 7.25 in 14.15g pectin, 257.08g sucrose and 8.19ml of 50% citric acid solution. The optimum preparation condition ranges on organoleptic properties of red pepper jam were 14.0~15.5g pectin, 225.0~257.0g sucrose and 8.0~8.2ml of 50% citric acid solution.
Effects of Flour Brew with Bifidobacterium bifidum as a Natural Bread Improver
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1275~1282
To investigate the effect of flour brew with bifidobacteria on bread characteristics, flour brew with bifidobacteria was added to baking after 16 hour incubation at 37oC. The more addition of flour brew, the higher gassing power, the better machinality of dough were obtained, resulting in the larger specific volume of bread. Flavor profile analyzed by Electronic Nose System showed that flavor components of 30% flour brew were decreased comparing with those of control and there was shown definite difference in sensory characteristics between them. Staling studies of bread containing flour brew indicated had a definite effect in retarding the staling rate of bread, with time constant calculated in 30% treatment being 3.09 days and in control being 2.08 days. The enthalphy of gelatinization was decreased from 2.51J/g to 0.61J/g with increment of flour brew, suggesting that starch crystallization is delayed. conclusion, Flour brew fermented by bifidobacteria can be used as a natural bread improver with so many benefits as better machinality, one more day storage period, slower staling rate, better bread volume and more appealing bread flavor.
Development and Quality of Dried Cherry-Tomatoes
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1283~1287
This study was carried out to develop new processed food from cherry tomatoes. The dried cherry tomatoes were prepared by using a sequence of osmotic dehydration, air drying, vacuum drying and freeze drying. The moisture contents of dried cherry tomato products by nontreatment and osmosis treatment were about 11~13% and 7.5~ 10%, respectively. The vitamin C contents of the dried product after osmotic dehydration were higher than those of the dried products by nontreatment. The vitamin C content of the freezing dried product was the highest of the others. The vacuum dried product by nontreatment was retained color of fresh fruit in the change of color. The ΔE value of the air dried product was lower than those of the others. As a result to microscopic analysis, fresh cherry tomato was observed regular tissue, while cherry tomato treated by osmosis was observed a cell collapse following the loss of water. The dried product had cell shrinkage and dense tissue. And the cell wall of dried products after osmotic dehydration were much more damage than those of nontreatment dried product. The palatability of the air dried product was the best of three drying methods. The dried cherry tomatoes treated by osmosis were superior to the dried cherry tomatoes by nontreatment.
A Study on the physicochemical Properties and Palatability of Hanwoo Beef Loin in
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1288~1292
The physicochemical properties and palatability of Hanwoo(cow, steer, and bull) beef loin(1＋ carcass grade) were studied. pH(5.56~5.69), moisture content(67.6~69.0%), crude protein content(17.8~18.7%), and crude fat content(11.9~13.8%) of Hanwoo beef loin did not show significant difference between the types of Hanwoo. L(44.5~46.9), a(19.9~20.6), and b(10.3~11.6) color parameters, water holding capacity (69.4~70.5%), volatile basic nitrogen content(9.86~11.28mg%), thiobarbituric acid value(0.148~0.158 mg malonaldehyde/kg), and cooking loss(26.3~27.9%) of beef loin did not show significant difference between the types of Hanwoo either. Hardness, myofibrillar fragmentation index(MFI), and chewiness of beef loin were 6.1~6.9 dyne/cm2, 50.3~54.9, and 39.5~ 52.0g, respectively. No differences were found in hardness and MFI between the types of Hanwoo, while chewiness of cow was much lower than that of steer and bull(p<0.05). Cow was the best in palatability.
Effect of Rice Lipid and Protein on Rheological Characteristics of Gelatinized Rice Flour Solutions
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1293~1297
Effect of rice protein and lipid on rheological properties of gelatinized rice flour solutions(4%) with three rice varieties(Dongjin, Jinmi, Tamjin) known for varying taste of cooked rice was investigated with Haake viscometer. The rheological behaviors of all rice flour solutions were illustrated by Herschel Bulkley equation and exhibited pseudoplastic behavior with yield stress. When rice flour solutions treated with protease and dithiothreitol, there was decreased in flow behavior index value. Flow behavior index was decreased by dealbumin and deglutelin rice flour solutions among deprotein groups. The Jinmi rice flour solutions exhibited slightly lower consistency index than Dongjin and Tamjin. Defatted rice flour solutions exhibited lower consistency index than rice flour solutions, while dealbumin, deglutelin rice flour solutions exhibited high consistency index. Protease treated rice flour solutions exhibited increase in Dongjin and Tamjin. The yield stress was increased in sequence eating quality. Yield stress of defatted rice flour solutions was decreased, while deglutelin and rice starch flour solutions was increased. The time dependent charac teristics of all rice flour solutions appeared forming hysteresis loop and thixotropic behavior showed. The time dependent characteristics was appeared in sequence eating quality. Rice starch and deglutelin flour solutions appeared greatly time dependent characteristics, but defatted rice flour solutions appeared very little.
Effect of Microwave Blanching on the Improvement of the Qualities of Immatured Soybean
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1298~1303
For the purpose of improving the qualities of immatured soybean(Seoklyang), the effects of table height (0, 5, 10, 15mm) and time(60, 66, 72, 78 sec) for microwave blanching on physicochemical properties were investigated. Enzyme inactivities lipoxygenase and peroxidase for all there conditions were more de creased than for control and water blanching. Enzyme activity of each conditions was expressed as percentage on the enzyme activity of control. Lipoxygeanse activity and peroxidase activity of immatured soybeans were about 20% and 10% levels, respectively. Also the color showed the higher L(lightness), b(yellowness), chroma(brightness) values, but the lower a(redness) and hue angle. Vitamin C content was worse than for control, but was better than for water blanching. Hardness with a few exceptions showed the higher value for control.
Respiratory Characteristics and Quality Attributes of Mature-Green Mume (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc) Fruits as Influenced by MAP Conditions
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1304~1309
The respiratory characteristics and quality attributes of mature green mume fruits as influenced by modified atmosphere packaging(MAP) conditions during storage at 25oC for 8 days were investigated. The quality attributes of mume fruits were evaluated in terms of fresh weight loss, physiological injury and yellowing. The packaging materials used for MAP were low density polyethylene(LDPE) films with various different thicknesses. Yellowing and fresh weight loss of mume fruits were noticeably reduced by the packaging treatments with LDPE A and B. The physiological injury of the fruits during storage was found to be more severe in LDPE C than others. For LDPE A and B, the oxygen and carbon dioxide contents within the packages of Mume fruits maintained at the levels of 2~3% and 7~8%, respectively. With respect to visual quality, MAP prolonged the shelf life of the fruits much longer compared with the unsealed control. From the experimental results, it is suggested that the LDPE films with the gas trans mission rates of about 2,100 O2 ml/m2.day.atm and 6,700 CO2 ml/m2.day.atm would be proper for MAP of mature green mume fruits during storage at ambient temperature.
Antioxidative Activities and Contents of Polyphenolic Compound of Cudrania tricuspidata
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1310~1315
Polyphenolic compounds widely occurring in the traditional medicine plants have been reported to possess strong antioxidant activity. The antioxidative substances of water soluble extract from leaves, stem bark, root bark and fruit powder of Cudrania tricuspidata were tested in three different in vitro experimental models. In oxidation models using DPPH( , ' diphenyl picrylhydrazyl) method, Fe2+ induced linoleic acid peroxidation, and autooxidation of hepatic microsomal membranes, the antioxidative activities of water soluble extract from stem bark were strong than that from leaves and root bark. Fruits of Cudrania tricuspidata contained the highest amounts of polyphenolic compounds among the parts of this plant. The changes in polyphenolic compound contents of fruit powder caused by heat treatment (20oC, 40oC, and 60oC) were also monitored. After water blanching, contents of phenolic compounds was increased slightly in the following order; 20oC(1454mg), 40oC(1487mg), and 60oC(1511mg). These results supports that water soluble extracts from Cudrania tricuspidata contain antioxidative compounds.
Antioxidative Effect of Ethanolic Extracts of Some Tea Materials on Red Pepper Seed Oil
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1316~1320
Antioxidative effect of ethanolic extracts of various tea materials(Camellia sinensis, Cassia tora, Lyc ium chinense, Polygonatum odoratum, Schizandrae chinensis) on red pepper seed oil was investigated. Ethanolic extracts were added to red pepper seed oil at a concentration of 0.05%(w/v). Two experimental conditions were employed : 50
0.1oC for 45 days and 150
3oC for 24 hours. Oxidation of red pepper seed oil was determined by measuring peroxide value and acid value. Electron donating ability(EDA) and total phenolic contents of each extract were also determined. The result showed that the extracts possess an antioxidative activities. The effectiveness of them was in the following order: C. sinensis>C. tora>P. odoratum>S. chinensis >L. chinense. Ethanolic extracts of C. sinensis showed substantially higher EDA value and total phenol contents than other tea materials. These results indicate that the antioxidative effect was strongly related with EDA and total phenol contents.
Antimutagenic and Anticancer Effects of Ramaria botrytis(Fr.) Rick Extracts
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1321~1325
The inhibitory effect of Ramaria botrytis on the mutagenicity in Salmonella assay and cytotoxicity on cancer cell were studied. Ramaria botrytis methanol extracts showed antimutagenic effects of 60~90% on B(a)P and AFB1 in S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100. These extracts showed 73~85% antimutagenicity on TA100 against MNNG. The methanol extracts with strong antimutagenic activities were further fractionated by ethylacetate and water, the ethylacetate fraction were found to be stronger antimutagen icity against MNNG than water fraction. Ramaria botrytis methanol extracts and ethylacetate fraction revealed the highest cytoxicity against HT 29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells in which cell growth was inhibited by 57~88% and 69~94% at 0.25~1.0mg/ml, respectively. These methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction exhibited 53~79% and 66~87% inhibition against HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells, respectively. But water fraction showed only 10~24% inhibition. However, these extract and fractions did not show cytotoxic effect against human chang liver cells. From these results, it is considered that Ramaria botrytis has stronger antimutagenic and anticancer effects in vitro.
Invitro Anticancer Effect of Chinese Cabbage Kimchi Fractions
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1326~1331
In vitro anticancer effect of Chinese cabbage kimchi fractions was investigated by using human cancer cells, AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and HT 29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. The Chinese cabbage kimchi(fermented for 4 days at 15oC) was fractionated into 7 groups, methanol extract, hexane fraction(fr.), methanol soluble fr., dichloromethane fr., ethylacetate fr., butanol fr. and aqueous fr.. Chinese cabbage kimchi fractions inhibited the growth of AGS and HT 29 cancer cells as dose dependent. In particular, the dichloromethane fr. showed the highest inhibitory effect among other fractions. When the dichloromethane fr.(0.2mg/ml) was treated, the number of AGS and HT 29 survival cancer cells reduced to 12
104/ml and 11
104/ml compared to 166
104/ml and 50
104/ml of the controls, respectively. Chinese cabbage kimchi fractions also inhibited the DNA synthesis of the cancer cells. They inhibited the DNA synthesis of AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells more efficiently than that of HT 29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. These results indicate that Chinese cabbage kimchi fractions show in vitro anticancer activity and the dichloromethane fr. among them reveals the highest effect.
The Effect of L-Ascorbic Acid on the Formation of Immature Crosslink in Bone Collagen in vitro
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1332~1338
Intermolecular collagen cross links stabilize collagen fibrils and are necessary for normal tensile strength in collagen fibrils. Once the fibrils are aligned, hydroxyllysine, hydroxylysine derived aldehyde modified enzymatically, reacts with hydroxylysine to form the dehydrodihydroxylysinonorleucine (DHLNL), an immature crosslink. Pyridinoline, one of matured cross links is presumably formed nonenzymatically through condensation of DHLNL and hydroxylysine residue. It is widely distributed in hard connective tissues such as cartilage, bone and tendon. L ascorbic acid(AsA) is well known to be required for the enzymatic hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen fibrils. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of AsA on the biosynthesis of DHLNL in vitro. We examined the effect of AsA on the formation of hydroxylysine and DHLNL in collagen. Pyridinoline and DHLNL were measured as a function of time. The contents of DHLNL was increased, reached maximum within 2 hr and was held until 24 hr, then it decreased slowly. On the contrary, pyridinoline increased gradually after 24 hr and continued to increase for 2 weeks. Moreover, the contents of DHLNL remarkably decreased at 60 min after incubation, the contents of DHLNL was decreased by addition of AsA or dehydroascorbic acid(DHA). These results suggest that the supplementation of AsA causes decrease in DHLNL formation and pyridinoline formed by nonenzymatic reaction of DHLNL.
Effects of Garlic on the Blood Lipids and Other Serum Components in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1339~1348
In present study possible hypolipidemic effects of garlic were investigated in an experimental model which consisted of 4 groups of Wistar rats(three weeks old): CO group received a basal diet(as a standard diet) contained 6.3% of corn oil. LO group was taken the experimental diet in which only 6.3% corn oil in basal diet was substituted by 12.6% of lard oil. So the experimental diet was somewhat high saturated fat diet. LG1 group was treated orally with garlic juice as 1% of raw garlic in the diet together with the same diet as the diet for LO group. LG2 group was taken 2% of garlic under the same dietary condition as that of LG1 group. The rat body weights prior and posterior to the experimental period were measured and the amount of the experimental dietary intake was determined at every 3 day interval. After the experimental dietary period of 30 days the blood obtained from all the sacrificed rats were analyzed for the biochemical parameters. Over the one month period of experiment there was no abnormality or apparent change in appearance and activity or diet consumption in all experimental rat groups. LO group fed a diet rich in lard showed significantly increased body weight gain rate by 30% and also elevated levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol by 29.9%, 27.4% and 62.3% respectively and no significant difference in the levels of HDL cholesterol, GOT, GPT, blood glucose and blood urea nitrogen as compared to those of control group. So it seemed that the high calorie diet in LO group mainly contributed to the significant increase in body weight gain rate and other biochemical parameters. In spite of 1% garlic treatment LG1 group had significantly increased body weight gain rate by 25.2%, levels of triglyceride, total choesterol and LDL cholesterol by 25.2%, 24.6% and 50.5% respectively as compared to control and LO group, and no increase in the levels of HDL cholesterol, blood glucose and blood urea nitrogen. At garlic 1% diet there was no hypolipidemic efficacy in rat serum. Under the treatment with garlic 2% in diet LG2 group showed significantly increased body weight gain rate by 19.7% as compared to control and elevated levels of GOT, GPT and BUN by 85.8~96.4%, 127~148% and 88% respectively as compared to control, but LG2 group had significantly reduced levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol as compared to LOand LG1 group. In present study there were no significant change in HDL cholesterol and blood glucose value. In LG2 group GOT, GPT and blood urea nitrogen values were slightly increased presumably due to the inhibiting effects of garlic on the hepatic or renal function of rats. Nevertheless in this study garlic may have some demonstrable hypolipidemic effects in rat.
Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on Clinical chemical Parameters in Male Guinea Pigs Exposed Acutely to 2, 3, 7, 8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1349~1354
This study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of Korean red ginseng water extract (KRG WE) on clinical chemical parameters in male guinea pigs acutely exposed to 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo p dioxin(TCDD). Forty male guinea pigs(200
20g) were divided into 4 groups. Normal controls(group 1) received vehicle and saline; group 2(single TCDD treated) received TCDD(5 g/kg, single dose) intraperitoneally; group 3 received KRG WE(200mg/kg, i.p.) for 2 weeks from 1 week before TCDD exposure; group 4 received KRG WE for 1 week since the day of TCDD exposure. Increase in body weight was retarded greatly by TCDD exposure. Body weight of animals in group 2 was significantly decreased starting 2 days after TCDD exposure. However, body weight of animals in group 3 increased throughout the experimental period, although the increasing rate was slower than that of group 1. Decrease in body weight was not observed during the experimental period in group 4. Increases in blood glucose, amylase, lipase, total cholesterol, triglyceride, GOT, GPT, and LDH levels by TCDD intoxication were significantly attenuated by the KRG WE treatment(p<0.05). These results provide a strong evidence that Korean red ginseng might be a useful protective agent against TCDD, an endocrine disruptor.
Effects of Vitamin E on Liver Cytochrome
Content and Xanthine Oxidase Activity in Acute Cadmium-Poisoned Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1355~1363
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin E on liver microsomal cytochrome P450 contents and xanthine oxidase activity in acute cadmium poisoned rats. Sprague Dawley male rats weighing 100
10g were randomly assigned to one normal and three cadmium injected groups. Cadmium injected groups were fed vitamin E free diet(0E Cd group), 40mg vitamin E per kg diet(40E Cd group) or 400mg vitamin E per kg diet(400E Cd group). Vitamin E level of normal group was 40mg per kg diet. Animals were injected intraperitoneally with 2.0mg Cd2+/kg bw for 4 days after the rats were fed diets with three different levels of vitamin E for 2 and 4 weeks. Body weight, food intake and feed efficiency ratio of cadmium injected animals, were decreased compared with those of normal group. The weights of liver and kidney in cadmium injected groups were not different from those of normal group. Cadmium contents of liver in cadmium groups were 160 fold higher those that of normal group. Accumulation of cadmium poisoned rat liver was reduced by vitamin E supplementation. Contents of blood hemoglobin and hematocrit in 0E Cd groups were decreased to 2~ 14% of those of the other groups. Contents of serum triglyceride in all experimental groups were not significantly different each other. Levels of serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and antherogenic index in 0E Cd and 40E Cd groups were higher than those of normal group, while the contents of HDL cholesterol in 0E Cd and 40E Cd groups were lower than those of normal group. Xanthine oxidase(XOD) activity and cytochrome P450 contents in the liver were significantly increased in cadmium injected groups but these were reduced by vitamin E supplementations. The present results indicate that acute cadmium poisoning in rats causes increasing free radical generation systems in the liver and that leads to liver tissue damage. But these abnormalities can be reduced by dietary vitamin E supplementations.
Inhibitory Effect of Coprinus comatus Ethanol Extract on the Liver damage in Benzo(a)pyrene-treated Mice
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1364~1368
This study was carried out to investigate the inhibiton effects of Coprinus comatus ethanol extract of edible mushroom on liver damage in benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) treated mice. The activities of serum aminotransferase, cytochrome P 450 and hepatic content of lipid peroxide after B(a)P treatment were increased than those of control, but those levels were significantly decreased by the treatment of Coprinus comatus ethanol extract. Whereas, the hepatic glutathione content and glutathione S transferase activity were decreased by B(a)P treatment than those of control, but those were increased by the treatment of Coprinus comatus ethanol extract. Also the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase after B(a)P treatment were markedly increased than those of control, but those levels were decreased by the treatment of Coprinus comatus ethanol extract. These results suggest that Coprinus comatus ethanol extract have a protective effect on liver damage by benzo(a)pyrene through the mechanisms of decreasing lipid peroxide and activities of free radical generating enzymes.
A Study on the Food Habit and the Evaluation of Nutrient Intake of Preschool Children in Pusan
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1369~1379
To assess the food habits, nutrient intake and diet quality of preschool children aged 1 to 6 in Pusan by their meals and snacks, dietary survey was conducted with 176 subjects by a questionnaire and 24hr recall method. 63.1% of the subjects often skipped meals and 72.1% of those skipped breakfast in the main. 94.5% had snacks over once per day. The mean energy intake was 1406.4kcal, with 57.7% of energy intake being supplied by carbohydrate, 13.7% by protein, 28.6% by fat. 54.9%, 71.7% and 26.5% of intakes of protein, calcium and iron were supplied respectively by animal food. Most of iron intake came from plant origin. The percent of calcium intake from animal origin was low significantly in a group aged 4 to 6(p<0.05). The mean intakes of calcium, iron and niacin of total subjects were below Recommended Dietary Allo wance(RDA) for Koreans. The mean intakes of iron and niacin of a group aged 1 to 3 were below RDA as well as those of energy, caicium, vitamin B2 and niacin of the group aged 4 to 6. For calcium, iron, vitamin A, niacin and vitamin C, proportions of subjects with intake levels less than 75% of RDA were all over 36%. For most nutrients, proportions of subjects with intake levels less than 75% of RDA were higher in the group aged 4 to 6 than in the group aged 1 to 3. Nutrient adequacy ratios(NAR) were the lowest in iron in case of the group aged 1 to 3 and in calcium in case of the group aged 4 to 6. NAR of iron increased and that of vitamin B2 decreased significantly along increase age(p<0.05). The mean adequacy ratios(MAR) were 0.82 for total subjects, 0.83 for the group aged 1 to 3 and 0.80 for the group aged 4 to 6. The indexes of nutritional quality(INQ) of calcium, iron and niacin of the group aged 1 to 3 were below 1 as well as those of calcium, vitamin B2 and niacin of the group aged 4 to 6. Both of the age groups received 31.6~59.0% of daily intakes of energy, fat, calcium, phosphrous, vitamin B2 and vitamin C from snacks. So snacks clearly play an important role in dietary intake. Both of the NARs of most nutrients and MAR were higher in snacks than in three meals. The INQs of calcium and iron from three meals and those of iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1 and niacin from snacks of the group aged 1 to 3 were all below 1. The INQs of calcium and vitamin B2 from three meals and those of vitamin A and niacin from snacks of the group aged 4 to 6 were all below 1. In conclusion, nutritional characteristics were different between the two age groups. More attention should be paid to improve adequacy of nutrient intake through meals. And dietary management for snacks is needed especially in the group aged 1 to 3.
A Studyo on the Evaluation of Food Intake of Preschool Children in Pusan
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1380~1390
To assess the food intake and diet quality of preschool children in Pusan, dietary survey was conducted with 176 subjects using 24hr recall method. Diet quality was assessed by food group pattern, dietary diversity score(DDS), dietary variety score(DVS), and dietary frequency score(DFS). The total number of food items consumed was 307. The foods consumed most frequently were rice, Korean cabbage kimchi, milk and green onion. When investigating the consumption pattern of major six food groups, 38.1% of subjects consumed all six groups. Food group was missed in order of fruit(41.5%), sweet(19.9%), dairy(16.5), vegetable(4.5%) and meat(1.7%). The mean values of DDS, DVS, and DFS were 5.16, 13.82, and 16.07 re spectively. Persons who had higher DDSs also had higher DVSs(p<0.001). DDS, DVS and DFS correlated positively with NAR(nutrient adequacy ratio) and MAR(mean adequacy ratio) significantly. Associations between the NAR of most nutrients and MAR with DVS and DFS were higher than those between the NAR of most nutrients and MAR with DDS. People with DDS of above 6 or DVS of above 16 or DFS of above 21 met two thirds of recommended dietary allowance for nutrients. Based on the result of the food group intake, the food intake of subjects was not adequate, especially the fruit and dairy groups. When assessing the dietary quality of subjects using DDS, DVS and DFS, many people appeared not to have a desirable food intake.
Nutritional Status and Related Factors of Elderly Residing in Puchon City I. Anthropometric Data and Biochemical Nutritioal Status
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1391~1397
This study was conducted to assess the biochemical nutritional status of 310 elderly(males: 130, females : 180) residing in Puchon City. Subjects were apparently healthy, home staying and aged over 60. Average height of males and females were 163.2cm and 148.5cm, respectively. Female aged over 80 showed 148.5cm, which was significantly lower than that of group aged 60~69. The rate of moderate obesity for males assessed with BMI(
27) was 7.7%, and 23.4% for females. The hypertension rate assessed by SBP(
160mmHg) was 8.0% and 10.5% for males and females, respectively. The proportion of hypertension with indice of DBP( 95mmHg) was 9.4% and 23.4%. The lower concentration of Hb(males: <13g/dl, females: <12g/dl) occurred in 10.7% for males and 11.7% for females. No one except a few was found with protein deficiency assessed with serum albumin, serum protein and the ratio of urinary nitrogen to creatinin. Twenty five percent of males and 35.2% of females belonged to hypercholesterolemia(
240mg/dl). The proportion of elderly whose fasting blood sugar was higher than 140mg/dl was 23.7% and 23.2%.
The Sanitary Management Procedures of Foodservice in Elementary Schools in Pusan
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1398~1404
The purpose of this study was to investigate the sanitary management procedures of foodservice in elementary schools in Pusan area. The questionnaire which were administered to 189 dietitians was used in this study as a survey method. The results were as follows. Mean total length of employment for dietitians at school foodservice was 3.7 year. The mean serving scale was 1,052 meals. Meals were served at classroom 63.5%, lunchroom 23.8%, and classroom＋lunchroom 12.7% of the schools. The mean time span required of meal delivery was 31.5min at the classroom serving place. Regarding total mean score of sanitary management procedures, time temperature was 3.48/5.00, personal sanitation 4.20/5.00, equipments and facilities sanitation 3.92/5.00. The mean score of the pre preparation was 3.91/5.00 for time temperature management procedure, those of food purchasing and receiving, food storage, food production, meal. assembly.trasnportation service, and hot.cold holding were 3.83/5.00, 3.82/5.00, 3.71/5.00, 3.25/5.00, 2.30/5.00 respectively. The higher age group(31
The Stability of Carotenoids Extracted from Halophilic Bacteria
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1405~1407
A carotenoid pigment, which was a determinant for food quality, was extracted from a marine halophilic bacteria. The stability of the pigment extract was investigated for a food additive. The optimum temperature for stability was 20oC. The pigment degradation was significantly affected by solvent polarity, however, stable in salvent methanol and ethanol. The pigment degradation was highly sensitive to light and UV exposure.
Studies on the Appropriate Processing Season of Ark Shell (Scapharca subcrenata)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1408~1411
In order to investigate the appropriate processing season of ark shell(Scapharca subcrenata) cultured at the south coast of Korea, the edible portions were determined for coefficient of fatness and yield of edible portion using specimens collected bimonthly from December 1994 to December 1995. The relationship between shell length(X) and total weight(Y) of S. subcrenata is shown as follows; Y=0.001608X2.5199. The relationship between total weight(X) and meat weight(Y) of S. subcrenata is shown as follows; Y= 0.3594X 0.5566(r=0.99). The relationship between total weight(X) and meat weight(Y) of S. subcrenata is shown as follows; Y=67.1647X＋20.6370(r=0.99). The coefficient of fatness and yield of edible portion showed a marked bimonthly variation with a maximum in December and a minimum in August. The appropriate processing season of S. subcrenata would be in winter and spring, and not in summer and autumn season, the spawning season of the S. subcrenata.
Biological Functions of Organosulfur Compounds in Allium Vegetables
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 6, 1999, Pages 1412~1423
This review contains a discussion of the physiological activity of the components of Allium vegetables. Organosulfur compounds in Allium vegetables, such as ajoene, diallyl sulfides and S allylcysteine, have cancer preventive activity in chemically induced animal cancer models. They also have inhibitory effects on proliferation of cancer cells in vitro. Allium vegetables have lipid and cholesterol lowering effect, and platelet aggregation inhibitory activity that help the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Sulfur con taining compounds, especially allicin and ajoene, have antimicrobial activities against gram negative, positive bacteria and fungi. Moreover, Allium organosulfur compounds such as S allylcysteine showed reducing effects on the senescence related symptoms including cognition. Allium organosulfur compounds have significant importance in food industry as both biologically active ingredients and savory.