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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 6 - Dec 2000
Volume 29, Issue 5 - Oct 2000
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Aug 2000
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Jun 2000
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Apr 2000
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Feb 2000
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Physiochemical Properties of Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potato Starch
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 1~5
Physicochemical properties and gelatinization patterns of purple-fleshed sweet potato starch were studied. Shape of starch granule was round and polygonal, X-ray diffraction pattern was Ca-type. Amylose content was 14.4% which was lower than that of other sweet potato starch. Water binding capacity was 82.54%, swelling power and solubility at 8
were 27.94% and 15.35%, respectively. Initial temperature of gelatinization was 72
using Brabender/Visco/Amylograph, consistency and setback were lower than those of other sweet potato starch. The peak temperature and enthalpy determined by DSC were 68.1
, 1.24cal/g, respectively. The transmittance of starch dispersions in alkaline solutions increased with NaOH concentration up to 0.17N, and then changed slowly at 0.19N or above. The apparent viscosities were similar to the transmittance of starch dispersions in alkaline solutions, but drastically increased above 0.21N.
Chemical Analysis of Pinus Leaves
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 6~9
Chemical components such as vitamins, fatty acids, amino acids and rutins in the leaves of the Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc., Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc., Pinus rigida Mill., Pinus thunbergii Parl. were analyzed. The vitamin A content in the P. densiflora and vitamin C content in the P. thunbergii were obtained more than the others. Oleic acid, linolenic acid, palmitic acid and lauric acid were the major fatty acids among 19 fatty acids detected in 4 kinds of pinus leaves and the only essential fatty acid of linolenic acid was also identified. The major amino acids were glutamic acid, leucine, arginine and aspartic acid among 17 kinds of amino acids detected in the pinus leaves and the amount of essential amino acids was 47.6% in P. densiflora. The highest amount of rutin was 10.34% in P. thunbergii.
Seasonal Variation of Proximate Composition in Ark Shell (Scapharca subcrenata) Tissues
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 10~14
In order to investigate the appropriate processing season and the production of high value-added products in ark shell(Scapharca subcrenata) cultured at the south coast of Korea, the foot muscle, mantle, and adductor muscle were analyzed for moisture, protein, fat, ash, and glycogen using specimens collected bimonthly from December 1994 to December 1995. The contents of moisture in foot muscle and mantle increased in spring season, however their proteins decreased in same season. Glycogen and fat in foot muscle, mantle, and adductor muscle were most abundant in June, just before the spawning season, but all the cmponsnts dwindled during spawning season. The other hand, the contents of ash in tissues were almost the same level through the year. Thus, the contents of moisture, protein, fat, and glycogen were almost the same level through the year. Thus, the contents of moisture, protein, aft, and glycogen were fluctuated by season. Especially, they showed a marked seasonal variation at before and after sparning season. So, a major cause of seasonal variation in S. subcrenata would be connected with a period of reproduction and spawning season.
Physicochemical Properties of Frozen Immatured Soybean as Influenced by Thawing Conditions
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 15~19
Physicochemical properties of frozen immatured soybean (Miwon) under various thawing conditions were investigated. The moisture content, density and other chemical compositions were not affected by the thawing conditions. Thelightness of soybean and soybean hull decreased when thawing with 1
water while it increased when other thawing conditions used. Hardness and vitamin C content decreased with all thawing conditions ; especially decrease in vitamin C content was severe with microwave thawing. Lipoxygenase activity was significantly decreased when thawing with microwave and 1
water. It was recommended that thawing with 1
water was the most apropriate method in terms of overall quality.
Food Component Characteristics of Plain Dried Anchovies on the Market
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 20~25
This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of the plain dried anchovies on the market by determining chemical components, and compared with those of boiled-dried anchovy. The nutritional(total amino acid contents, mineral contents and fatty acid compositions) and favorite properteis (extratives nitrogen content, color and appearance) of plain dried anchovies were superior to those of boiled-dried anchovy. On the other hand, the lipid properties (peroxide value and acid value), food sanitary properteis (volatile basic nitrogen content) and sensory properties (odor) of plain dried anchovies were inferior to boiled-dried anchovy. These results indicated that the plain dried anchovy was classified into lower grade goods by food quality standards.
Changes of Brine Characteristics during the Salting Process of Winter, Spring, and Summer Chinese Cabbage
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 26~29
Major characteristics of brines produced from the salting process were compared among winter, spring, and summer (highland) Chinese cabbages. The soluble-solids contents of final brine were decreased to 87~90% of initial brine during salting process, and showed 16.3, 15.8, and 14.4
Brix for winter, spring, and highland Chinese cabbages, respectively. The pHs showed similar changes during salting process from pH 8.40~8.63 for initial to pH 6.03~6.24 for final. The high salting(12.4~14%) of final brine needs dilution or reuse treatemnt before discard. The COD of final brine were increased to 39.6 ppm, 52.1 ppm, 37.7 ppm, respectively. During salting total microbial counts of final brine were increased ten times from those of the initial brines for all samples.
Effect of Washing Conditions in Salted Chinese Cabbage on the Quality of Kimchi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 30~34
Salted Chinese cabbage was washed in 1,000 ppm solutions of grapefruit seed extract(GFSE) or citric acid, and used to make kimchi for the retentio of quality characteristics during fermentation at
. Kimchi treated with GFSE or citric acid showed a retarded increase in titratable acidity and decrease in pH and reducing sugar content. Total microbial count and lactic acid bacteria of GFSE treated kimchi were about 1.1 log(CFU/g) lower than those of control and citric acid treated kimchi after making, but the difference was gradually reduced during fermentation.
Physiological Effects of Levanoligosaccharide on Growth of Intestinal Microflora
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 35~40
The effect of levanheptaose produced by levanase from Streptomyces sp. 366L on principle intestinal microflora was investigated. The reaction product, levanheptaose, was used as a carbon source for various intestinal microflora. As a results, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Eubacterium limosum grew effectively in the in vitro experiment, whereas Clostridium perfringens, E. coli, and Staphylococcus aureus did not. Therefore levanheptaose seems to promote selectively the growth of B. adolescentis and L. acidophilus. In the in vivo experiment, the effect of levanheptaose on the growth of intestinal microflora,
-fructosidase activity, pH, and butyrate concentration were examined in rats. Apparently, the number of fecal Bifidobacteria, the amount of butyrate, and
-fructosidase activity were increased, whereas total aerobes and pH were reduced in rats fed by levanheptaose diets, compared with those of control diets. We concluded that those effects may be beneficial in improving gastrointestinal health.
Production and Characterization of Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase fronm Bacillus sp. JK-43 Isolated from Kimchi
Jun, Hong-Ki ; Bae, Kyung-Mi ; Kim, Young-Hee ; Baik, Hyung-Suk ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 41~48
A bacterial strain, designated as JK-43, producing extracellular cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase)[EC 188.8.131.52] was isolated from kimchi. The CGTase from isolated strain JK-43 showed the transglucosylation activity from soluble starch to L-ascorbic acid(AA) compared to those obtained from other strains. A main product formed by this reaction was identified as
L-ascorbic acid(AA-2G) by testing its susceptibility to
hydrolysis, the HPLC profiles, and through the elementary analysis. the
, potato starch and corn starch were identified to be suitable glucosyl donor for transglucosylation reaction on AA by CGTase. Acceptor specificity on AA-2G production was examined by use of AA, Iso-AA and AA-2P. Transglucosylation was observed toward AA-2P as well as AA and Iso-AA. The microorganism isolated from kimchi was identified as a strain of Bacillus sp. JK-43 based on the morphological, cultural, biochemical characteristics and partial 16SrDNA sequence analysis. The maximal CGTase production was observed in a medium containing 1.0% soluble starch, 1.0% yeast extract, 1.0%
with initial pH 7.0. The strain was cultured at
for 26 hrs with reciprocal shaking.
Production of 2-O--
-D-Glucopyranosyl L-Ascorbic Acid by Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase from Bacillus sp. JK-43
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 49~56
-D-glucopyranosyl L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) which was enzymatically glucosylated with the cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) [EC 184.108.40.206] from Bacillus sp. JK-43 has been reported previously. The presnet experiments examined the optimal conditons for the productio of AA-2G from AA and soluble starch, and characterized the properties of the CGTase from Bacillus sp. JK-43. The reaction mixture for the maximal production of AA-2G was followings; 12% total substrate concentration, 1,400 usits/mL of CGTase and a mixing ratio of 2 : 3(g or AA : g of soluble starch). Under this condition, 1.76mM of AA-2G, which corresponded to 2.53% yield based on AA, was produced after incubation for 24hrs at 45
(pH 5.5). The optimum pH and temperature for the CGTase activity were 6.0 and 45
, respectively. The enzyme was stable at pH 5.5 to 9.5, and at temperature up to 5
. The thermostability of the enzyme could be enhanced up to 6
by the addition of 30mM CaCl2.
Effect of Phytase, Protease and the Mixed Enzyme of Phytase and Protease on the Extraction and Properteis of the Protein from Abolished Soybean Meal
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 57~63
To extract insoluble proteins from abolished soybean meal, the meal was treatesd with phytase and protease produced by Aspergillus sp. SM-15 and Aspergillus sp. MS-18. The extraction of insoluble soybean protein was increased at alkaline range more than pH 5 in case of phytase, pH 7 to 11 in case of protease and pH 5 to 12 in case of the mixed enzyme of phytase and protease. The optimum extraction temperature of insoluble protein was 5
for phytase and the mixed enzyme of phytase and protease, and 6
for protease. The optimum treatment time for extraction of protein was 9 hrs for phytase, 11 hrs for protease and the mixed enzyme of phytase and protease and optimum unit of enzyme for extraction of protein was 600 unit, 40 unit and 900 unit＋60 unit in case of phytase, protease, phytase and protease, respectively. The treatment of mixed enzyme showed higher extracton rate of protein than single enzyme treatment. The foaming capacity, foaming stability, emulsion capacity, and emulsion stability of soybean meal protein by the treatment of the enzymes increased at all pH range. Further more oil absorption as well as water absorption capacities by the treatment of the enzymes were also increased. The functional properteis of the soybean meal protein treated by the mixed enzyme were higher than those of soybean meal protein treated by the single enzyme.
Quaility Evaluation of Jellies Prepared with Refined Dietary Fiber from Ascidian (Halocynthia roretzi) Tunic
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 64~67
Jellies enhancing physiological functions were prepared with using 5 and 10% dietary fiber isolated from ascidian (Halocynthia roretzi) tunic collected from recycled seafood waste. The texture development of the samples was examined with two-bite compression test and analyzed using five sorts ofrheological parameters with texture profile analysis as follows; hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness and gumminess. All the rheological parameters decreased in the fiber enhanced jellies. However, the springiness and cohesiveness increased slightly in the fiber enhanced jellis. Hunter L' and d' values increased in the fiber enhanced jellies and accordingly the color was light yellow. a' value showed green with the addition of fiber. As a result of sensory evaluations, the color and overall acceptability of 10% fiber enhanced jelly were significantly different at p<0.05. The 10% fiber enhanced jelly was noted as having high sensory scores and peferable acceptability.
Vinegar Production from subtropical Fruits
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 68~75
Optimum processing conditions for vinegar fermentation using fig, pear and persimmon were determined. Alcohol contents in the fermentatio broth of crushed fruits of fig, pear and persimmon were 7.5%, 5.1% and 6.8%, respectively. Alcohol contents increased up to 14.3~15.1% by adding 24% of sugar to the fruit juices. The total acidity of 7.04%, 3.30% and 3.66% were obtained for fig, pear and persimmon, respectively, through acetic acid fermentation of fruit juices containing 8% ethanol. Acetic acid yield increased by shaking during fermentation for pear and persimmon broth. Acetic acid yield increased 1.80~1.92 times by adding 0.5% of yeast extract to the fermentation broth of pear and persimmon. After fermentation, each fruit vinegar was clarified up to 93.1~97.4 of light transmittance by using 0.6% of kaki shibu for 4 days at 1
. After aging for 60 days at 1
, the acidity of fruit vinegar decreased slightly. Tannin content of persimmon vineger was remarkably higher than the other, while light absorbance of pear vinegar was higher than the other vinegars. Acetic acid was identified as the main volatile organic acid in the fruit vinegars, while propionic, isobutyric and isovaleric acids were identified as the minors. The content of non-volatile organic acids in the pear vinegar was higher than that in the persimmon vinegar. Sensory evaluation results indicate that the fig vinegar was preferred to the pear vinegar in the aspects of color, flavor and overall acceptability, but the fig vinegar had a strong background taste. Sensory scores of the persimmon vinegar increased significantly by pasteurization, but those of the fig and pear vinegars did not by pasteurization.
Freshness Extension of Squash (Cucurbita moschata) Packed with Expanded Polystyrene Foam Box
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 76~79
The effects of packaging conditions on freshness extension of squash (Cucurbita moscata) were investigated during 7-day storage at 2
. Weight loss of squash packed with corrugated paperboard box (control) was 5.5%, and those of LDPE (low density polyethylene, Ф0.02 mm), LDPE (Ф0.04mm) film and EPS (expanded polystyrene) box were 0.9%, 0.8%, and 1.1%, respectively. Firmness of EPS was 11% higher than that of control, chlorophill content of squash packed with EPS box was 18.9% higher, and total ascorbic acid content of squash packed with EPS box was 29.4% higher than that of control. Quality of packed squash was not different between EPS packages and LDPE packages. Decay of control was 1~2 pieces per box, but was not found in the LDPE, EPS box. Preferences in overall appearences of LDPE, EPS box was better than those of control.
Effect of Functional MA Packaging Film on Freshness Extension of #Fuji# Apples
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 80~84
To investigate the effect of packaging condition on functional MA films laminated (30CE, 50CE), corrugated paperboard box (control), 30LDPE, and 50LDPE pouches on the freshness extension of Fuji apples, the weight loss, firmness, total ascorbic acid, titratable acidity, soluble solids content and appearence were evaluated at 5
after 75 days. Weight loss of 30CE and 50CE, and 30LD and 50LD was 0.4 to 0.5%, and 0.2%, but control was 2.7%. Firmness in film packages was higher than that of control, and CE packagings were higher than LD. Total ascorbic acid content of Fuji apple in control after 75 days was 2.12 mg%, that of control was decreased by 42%, those of LD packagings were 31% and 29%, and those of CE were 24% and 22%. Titratable acidity and soluble solids content in control changed more than that of MA film packagings. Overall appearence of 'Fuji' apples in CE packagings was better than that of control.
Studies on Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) Packed in Various Environmental Friendly Trays
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 85~92
This study was carried out to storage of Pleurotus ostreatus packed in various trays made by different matrials-expanded polystyrene (EPS), rice straw pulp(RP), and RP trays coated with starch, carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC), polyacrylamide (PAM), alkylketen dimer (AKD), rosin size (RS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) at 8~1
and 70~80% relative hymidity for 6 days. At 6 days storage, weight increase of RP and CMC tray was lower (p<0.05) than those of others and the weight of oyster mushroom packed in RP, CMC and AKD tray decreased lower(p<0.05) than those of others. Carbon dioxide contents in trays were increased from 0.5% to 5.5%~8.6% within 1 day storage. Oxygen contents in trays were sharply decreased from 20% to 0.8%~8.2% within 1 day storage. Lightness of oyster mushroom increased all trays. Off flavor appeared stronly in oyster mushroom packed in EPS, AKD and PEG during storage, but was not detected in mushroom packed in starch and CMC until 4 days storage.
The Effects of Shi-Quan-Dai-Bu-Tang and Its Ingredients on the Survival of Jejunal Crypt Cells and Hematopoietic Cells in Irradiated Mice
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 93~98
We performed this study to determine the radioprotective effects of Shi-Quan-Dai-Bu-Tang, as a prescription of traditional Oriental medicine, and its major ingredients. The jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation, and apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells were investigated in mice irradiated with high and low dose of
-rays. The administration of danggui, baishaoyao, rensan, gancao or baifuling before irradiation protected the jejunal crypts (p<0.005). Shoudehuang, danggui, baishaoyao, rensan and huangqui increased the formation of endogenous spleen colony (p<0.05). Chuanxiong, baishaoyao, rensan and baifuling reduced the frequency of radiation-induced apotosis (p<0.05). The results indicated that the extracts of danggui, baishaoyao, rensan and baifuling may have radoprotective effects in mice irradiated with high and low dose of
-rays. The radioprotective effect of the prescription, Shi-Qaun-Da-Bu-Tang, was not significant.
The Study of Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni Contents of Serum, Hair, Nail and Urine for Female College Students
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 99~105
The purpose of this study was to evaluat the Zn, Cu, Mn and Ni status and correlation of their concentrations in serum, urine, hair and fingernail in female college students. As the results are follows; The mean age of subjects was 22.5 years and height, weight and BMI were 160.1 cm, 51.0 kg and 20.0 respectively. The daily intake of energy 1769.5 kcal and the ratio of carbohydrate, fat and protein for energy is 60 : 20 : 15. The daily intake of energy (88.5%), vitamin B2 (86.1%), Ca (75.4%), Fe (58.3%) and Zn (63.0%) of subjects did not reach to Korean Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). The daily mean intake of Zn, Cu, Mn and Ni were 7.56 mg, 2.30 mg, 3.81 mg and 0.18 mg respectively. The concentrations of Zn in serum, urine, hair and nail were 85.6
/g and 102.4
/g respectively and those Cu were 84.2
/g and 4.3
/g respectively. The concentrations of Mn in serum, urine, hari and nail were 0.2
/g and 1.6
/g respectively and those of Ni were 0.6
/g and 3.1
/g respectively. The daily intake of Mn showed the positive correlations with concentration of Mn in hair (p<0.05) and the daily intake of Ni was positively correlated with urinary exretion (p<0.05) and hair contents (p<0.001) of Ni. The more detailed studies about these trace mineral status should be required.
Active Oxygen Scavenging Activity of Luteolin-7-O-
-D-Glucoside Isolated from Humulus japonicus
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 106~110
We investigated the active oxygen scavenging activity and active compound from Humulus japonicus. The ethyl acetate and butanol fraction exhibited strong scavenging effects on hydroxyl radical. Furthermore active compound was isolated and purified using Amberlite XAD-2 column chromatography and preparative HPLC from ethyl acetate fracton, and major compound was identified as a luteolin-7-O-
-D-glucoside by the MS, UV, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR analyses. Luteolin-7-O-
-D-glucoside exhibited strong scavenging effect on active oxygens such as superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide.
Effect of Polyphenol Compounds from Persimmon Leaves (Diospyros kaki folium) on Allergic Contact Dermatitis
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 111~115
This study was to investigate antiallergic contact hypersensitivity of the polyphenol fractons isolated from persimmon leaves (Diospyros kaki folum). The result of the allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease resulting from specific immunologic sensitization due to topically applied allergens. Here the contact hypersensitivity was assayed and obdominal skin morphological changes including mast cells were examined. At contact hypersensitivity assay, less right ear swelling occured in the polyphenol fraction I, II and III groups compared to the control group. The number of mast cells was significantly decreased in the sample groups than the control group.
Effect of Polyphenol Compounds from Persimmon Leaves (Diospyros kaki folium) on Antiallergy
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 116~119
This study was conducted to investigate antiallergy of the polyphenol fractions isolated from persimmon leaves (Diospyros kaki folum). The result of the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction of expriment on anti-allergy, the allergy remarkably decreased in polyphenol fraction I, II and III groups in comparison with the control group. After antigen challenge, histamine content of blood of the polyphenol groups was lowered to near the normal group.
A Study on the Mutagenicity of Thermally Oxidized Safflower Oil
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 120~127
Deep-fat frying is a common cooking practice. There has been considerable concern regarding the mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of thermally oxidized oils. Studies on deep-fried foods so far have revealed not much on the mutagenicity of the oils in the foods. Therefore, in the present study, it was attempted to investigate the mutagenicity ofthe thermally oxidized safflower oil. Oil was heated in a home-fryer at a temperature of 180
for 48 hours. Oil samples were taken at 0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 and 48 hours of heating, respectively. Each sample was used to study the changes in peroxide value (POV), acid value (AV), iodine value (IV), conjugated dienoic acid (CDA) content, %, and fatty acid composition. Another series of samples were fractionated into non-polar and polar fractions by column chromatography. The mutagenicity of the samples taken from the thermally oxidized oils, as well as the non-polar and polar fractions of the thermally oxidized oils, was investigated with the Ames test. The Ames test was carried out with and without metabolic activation. Bacterial tester strains used in the present study were the histidine auxotrophic strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA100, TA1535 and TA102 were used for the detection of base pair mutations, and TA98 and TA1537 for frame shift mutations. Each series of samples was dissolved in tetraphydrofuran (inhibitor-free) and tested at doses ranging from 0.05 to 5 mg/plate. None of the oil samples taken during the 48 hour oxidation period showed any mugagenic activity. This was the case, even after the activaton with 59 mix. Also, none of the polar and non-polar fractions showed any mutagenic activity on all the strains tested.
Effects of Garlic Extract for Protecting the Infection of Influenza Virus
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 128~133
This study was designed to verify the efficacy of garlic extracts for protecting the infecton of influenza and Japanese B encephalitis virus. Influenza virus (AO/PR8 strain) and Japanese B encephalitis virus (JaGAr O1 strain) were used to attack mouse through nasal route and each vaccines were injected subcutaneously. 0.002 and 0.2 mL/day of garlic extracts were orally administered to mice. The blood and serum samples were taken from the mice to measure LD50, Defense Index (DI), virus-neutralizing antibody for comparing virus influence inhibiting activities. Defense indices of the male and female mice were not significantly different at every experiment. Vaccination effectively inhibited the influence of influenza virus and 0.002 mL/day garlic extract (0.55
0.05) resulted in significantly higher DI than the control (0
0.05) (p<0.05). Although 0.002 mL/day garlic extract (0.55
0.05) resulted in significantly lower DI than the vaccination (1.10
0.05), 0.2 mL/day garlic extract (2.05
0.05) resulted in 10 times higher DI than the vaccination (1.10
0.05). Garlic extract did not affect DI in Japanese B encephalitis virus influence of the vaccinated mouse, but significantly reduced DI of the non-vaccinated mouse (p<0.05). Garlic extracts did not affect the production of the neutralizing antibody against influenza by vaccination. However, neutralizing antibody production of Japanese B encephalitis was accelerated by vaccination. Consequently, the current study proved the efficacy of garlic on inhibition of influenza virus. Finally, it is very hard to show the higher preventing effect on flu through ingestion of garlic as a food than vaccination.
Stability in Immunomodulation Activity of Irradiated Angelica gigas Nakai
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 134~139
Angelica gigas Nakai (danggui) is a popular herb which has been used as a blood-building decoction for recovery from weakness in the Chinese medicine. Its demand increased in functional foods and pharmaceutical industries. For its hygiene, fumigation has been used, but the use of fumigants are going to be prohibited for food processing. In order to investigate gamma irradiation technique for hygiene of danggui, the immunomodulation activity of danggui after irradiation was examined. The water extract of irradiated danggui showed a strong mitogenic effect on splenocytes in vitro to the same level of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phytohemagglutinin (PHA). The effect was not different from that of non-danggui. It was tested whether there was any difference between irradiated and non-irradiated danggui in effects on the secretion of antibodies and graft versus host reaction in vivo. It turned out that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of the extract of irradiated danggui for 4 days remarkably increased the number of antibody-secreting cells in mice injected with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Splenomegaly, due to graft versus host reacton, was also increased after 7 days i.p. administration of the extract of danggui in mice injected with allogeneic splenocytes. In these two in vivo test, the effect were not different from those of non-irradiated danggui. These results indicated that immunomodulation activity of danggui might be preserved after irradiation. In the other experiments (data not shown), the irradiated danggui was stable in active component analysis and safe in genetic toxicity test. In further research, the stability in other physiological activity of irradiated danggui will have to be proved before practical application of irradiation for hygiene.
The Effects of Coix Bran on Lipid Metabolism and Glucose Challenge in Hyperlipidemic and Diabetic Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 140~146
Even though coix (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen) has many physiological effects, since it has been known to cause sterility, farmers avoid using coix bran as a forage for their livestock. Therefore, as the consumption of coix increases, coix bran, which is a by product of pounding process, becomes a serious issue of environmental problem. Present study examined the physiological effects of coix bran in normal and diabetic rats for its possible use as a functional material. The effects of coix bran supplementation on plasma and hepatic lipid profile were evaluated in rats fed one of the following diet for 12 weeks : chow diet ; chow-bran diet (chow diet＋25% coix bran), high fat diet and high fat-bran diet (high fat diet＋25% coix bran). Additionally, glucose challenge and lipid metabolism in streptozotocin-diabetic rats were also examined. In normal rats, consumption of coix bran remarkably reduced body weight gain in chow or high fat diet fed rats. Additionally, consumption of coix branreduced blood TG, TC and atherogenic index (26%, 24% and 72%, respectively) in chow diet fed rats. Liver TG and cholesterol concentrations were reduced (43% and 49%, respectively) in high fat fed rats by coix bran supplementation. In diabetic rats, fasting blood glucose level was reduced about 25% by coix bran consumption. Also, glucose challenge pattern was improved and resembled normal pattern : it reaches to peak 15~30 minutes after glucose administration and get back to fasting blood glucose level after 90 minutes. Plasma concentrations of TG were elevated in diabetic rats and were reduced to normal level by coix bran supplementation. Liver TG and cholesterol concentrations were also elevated in diabetic rats and reduced to normal level by consumption of coix bran. These results suggest that coix bran may have beneficial effects on blood lipid and glucose level in normal and diabetic rats.
Effects of Quinone Reductase Induction and Cytotoxicity of the Angelica radix Extracts
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 147~152
Various lines of evidence suggest that dietary components protect the initiation of carcinogenesis. In this study, the ethanol extracts (AGE) and the methanol and hexane partition layers (AGEM, AGEH) of the Angelica radix were screened for their cytotoxic effects using the MTT assay on HepG2, HeLa, MCF7 and SW626 cells and for their ability to induce quinone reductase (QR) in HepG2 cells. AGEM and AGEH of the Angelica radix showed the strongest cytotoxic effects on HepG2 and HeLa cells. Cell growth was inhibited by 99.8% and 99.8% on HepG2 cells and 99.3% and 99.4% on HeLa cells, at dose of
of AGEM and AGEH extracts respectively. AGE and AGEH significantly induced QR activities in the HepG2 cells. The QR activities of HepG2 cells grown in the presence of AGE, AGEH, and AGEM at the concentration of
were 313.5, 273.3 and 133.3 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. Therefore, based on these studies, Angelica radix may be developed into a potentially useful cancer chemopreventive agent.
Cytotoxicity of Daucus Carota L. on Various Cancer Cells
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 153~160
We investigated the cytotoxic effects of roots and seeds Daucus carota L. on HepG2, HeLa, MCF7, SW626, C6 and NB41A3 cell lines by the MTT assay. Among extracts, the ethylacetate partition layer (DCMEA) of root of Daucus carota L. showed the strongest cytotoxic effects on HepG2, HeLa, C6 and NB41A3 cell lines. On the other hand, methanol(DCM), n-ethylacetate(DCMEA) and n-butanol(DCMB) extract of the seeds of Daucus carota L. also showed significant cytotoxic activities for all six cell lines.
-carotene, a well-known main component of Daucus carota L. was also tested for its cytotoxic effect. However, in all six cell lines,
-carotene falied to show significant cytotoxicity. Therefore, the anticancer effect of DCMEA of root fo Daucus carota L. and DCM, DCMH, DCMEA and DCMB extracts of seeds may be caused by components other than
-carotene. Futher studies are under way to isolate the compounds responsible for the significant cytotoxic activity.
Chemoprevention Effect of Polyozellus multiplex, a Wild and Edible Mushroom
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 161~167
Methanol extract and its fractions of Polyozellus multiplex inhibited the growth of several tumor cell lines and its water fraction showed a higher cytotoxicity effect on the human gastric carcinoma cell, SNU668 than on the other cell lines. The glutathione S-transferase (GSH) content was decreased by MNNG treatment but increased by adding Polyozellus multiplex water fractions. Also the activities of GSH and superoxide dismutase were increased by more the treatment of Polyozellus multiplex water fractions than by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) alone. Polyzellus multiplex water fraction cased significant reduction in the proliferating cell unclear antigen (PCNA) labelling index in the glandular stomach epithelium as compared with the value of MNNG alone.
Effect of Green Tea on Mixed Functon Oxidase System and Xanthine Oxidase Activities in Rat Liver Exposed to Microwaves
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 168~173
The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of microsomal mixed function oxidase (MFO) and xanthine oxidase activities (XOD) in the liver of rats exposed to microwave. Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 200
10g body weight were randomly assigned to a normal and microwave exposed(MW) groups; microwave exposed groups were divided into two groups; microwave (MW) group and green tea(GT) gropu which were fed distilled water and green tea extracts during experimental periods, respectively. Rats were irradiated with microwave at the frequency of 2.45 GHz for 15min and rats wre sacrificed at the 4th day of the microwave irradiaton. The hemoglobin level of GT group was higher than that of the normal gropu and MW group, but the hematocrit value was not significantly different among all experimental gropus. The activity of serum GOT of MW group was significantly increased but that of GT group was similar to normal group. Activities of GPT were not significantly different among all experimental groups. Liver XOD activity was significantly increased in the microwave exposed groups but green tea normalized the XOD activity. The activity of hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 was significantly increased in MW group compared to normal group and that of GT group was similar to that of the normal group. The activity of hepatic microsomal NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase was also significantly increased in MW group compared to normal group, but that of GT group was similar to that fo the normal group. In conclusion, the activities of MFO and XOD were elevated by microwave irradiaton, but the activation of MFO system as well as the damage of the liver by microwave were reduced by green tea supplementation.
Comparison of Extractive Nitrogenous Constituents in Cultured and Wild Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) Muscle
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 1, 2000, Pages 174~179
The nitrogenous compounds in the muscle extracts of cultured and wild olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceous, were analyzed. The analyzed coumpounds were extractive nitrogen, free amino acids, oligopeptides, ATP and its related ompounds, quaternary ammonium bases, and guanidino compounds. The distribution pattern of these compounds in cultured and wild fish was found to be very similar. Although the ATP and its related compounds and creatine in the muscle of cultured fish were slightly abundant than those in the muscle of wild one, the extractive nitrogen, total free amino acid, oligopeptides, and TMAO were found to be slightly rich in the muscle of wild fish than those in the muscle of cultrued one. The moisture content of cultured fish was relatively lower but the protein and fat contents of cultured one were higher than those of wild fish. However the differences in the proximate composition, extractive nitrogen and nitrogenous compounds between two fishes were not significantly different.