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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 6 - Dec 2000
Volume 29, Issue 5 - Oct 2000
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Aug 2000
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Jun 2000
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Apr 2000
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Feb 2000
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Analysis of Gingerol Compounds of Raw Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and Its Paste by High Performance Liquid Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 747~751
This study was carried out to improve the analysis method of gingerol compounds from ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Pungent components of ginger were extracted by acetone and lisolated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with LiChrosorb RP-18 column. Three homologues of gingerols were identified by HPLC-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The contents of -, - and -gingerols in three homologues identified were 635.3 mg%, 206.6 mg% and 145.7 mg% in raw ginger, and were 418.2 mg%, 142.6 mg% and 103.3 mg% in ginger paste, respectively.
Optimization for Roast Flavour Formation of Platycodon grandiflorum Tea
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 752~757
Response surface methodology was used to optimized soaking and roasting conditions and monitor organoleptic properties of roasted Platycodon grandiflorum tea. In soaking and roasting processes based on the central composite design with variations in threonine/sucrose concentration for soaking of Platycodon grandiflorum, roasting temperature and roasting time, coefficients of determination (
) of the models were above 0.86(p<0.05) in organoleptic properties. The maximum conditions predicted for each corresponding organoleptic properties of roasted Platycodon grandiflorum tea were 1.64% threonine concentration, 137.83
and 27.76 min in aroma, 1.46% threonine concentration, 136.1
and 25.19 min in taste, and 1.39% threonine concentration, 136.44
and 29.05 min in overall flavour. The optimum condition ranges for organoleptic properties of roasted Platycodon grandiflorum tea were soaking in 1.40~1.64% threonine concentration, and roasting at 136.10~137.9
for 25.19~29.00 min.
A Study of Heavy Metal Contents in Shellfished of Various Areas in Jeonbuk
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 758~761
This study was performed to investigate the contamination levels of harmful heavy metals that sampled from June. 1 to June. 31, 1999, at 3 areas in Jeonbuk west cost area. The heavy metal contents were determinated by ICPS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometer) method. The levels of total lead, cadmium, aluminum, zinc and copper were determined and the results were summarized as follows: The minimum and maximum values (ppm) of 3 areas of shellfishes (shortneck clam, hard clam, cockle clam, snail and top sell) were Pb: 1.29~4.35, Cd:0.12~0.37, Al: 9.45~54.06, Zn: 9.65~15.14, Cu: 0.62~1.64 ppm.
Changes of Carnitine Levels during the Germination of Soybean Seeds
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 762~765
The changes of carnitine levels including nonesterified-carnitine(NEC), acid-soluble acylcarnitine(ASAC) and total carnitine (TC) were investigated in developing soybean sprouts. The concentrations of carnitines were determined in ungerminated and germinated soybean seeds, and in dissected axis segments and cotyledone of the germinated sprouts. Soybean seeds contain 136 nmol of TC per gram dry weight. the contents of NEC, ASAC, and TC were increased during the germination of soybean seeds. The concentrations of NEC and ASAC were highest in cotyledone and inmeristematic tissues, respectively. These data indicate that developmental differences of carnitine levels do exist in plants, and that in delveoping soybean sprouts the levels of NEC and ASAC are highest in the cotyledone and in the youngest meristem, respectively.
Granular Properties of Acorn Flour at Various Soaking Conditions
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 766~769
This study was attempted to investigate granular properties of acorn flours which were prepared by soaked nut and sediment. X-ray diffraction pattern of acorn flour was B type and was not affected by soaking treatment. The principal indices of the pattern were at diffraction angles (
. The shape of acorn flour was elliptical and some rounded triangular by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The granule size of acorn flours varies from
. although morphology of the acorn flour was not affected, the non-starchy substances of surface was slightly changed by soaking.
Effects of Soaking on Pasting Gelatinization of Acorn Flour
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 770~776
Pasting gelatinization of acorn flours which were prepared with soaked nut and sediment at 7.8
for 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 days were investigated. The peak temperature of gelatinization of untreated acorn flour (0-0) by Rapid Visco Analyzer was 73.1
, respectively, but those of flours were decreased by soaking. Peak viscosity, setback and breakdown of acorn flours were increased by soaking. In addition, consistency was increased by soaking treatment. From the result of the pasting properties, gel formation ability of acorn flour was increased with increasing soaking days of acorn nut and soaking times of sediment. The gelatinization temperature examined by X-ray diffractometry was lowered with increasing of soaking days. The observation of microstructure through a scanning electron microscope revealed that gelatinized acorn flour showed loser their original shape and structure than that of with out soaking treatment (0-0). The degree of gelatinization under the fixed temperature increased with increasing soaking days. From these results, it might be concluded that the increase of soaking days and soaking times is the factor affecting the gelatinization of acorn flour.
Effects of Dimethyl-
-propiothetin(DMPT) on Growth and Body Components of Spotted Sea Bass (Lateolabrax sp.)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 777~782
To investigate the effects of growth and body composition of spotted sea bass (Lateolabrix sp.) by the supplemented dimethyl-
-propiothetin(DMPT). fish was fed the diets each containing 3 mM, 5 mM, 7 mM and 10 mM for eight weeks. The weight gain, feed efficiency and feed intake were significantly increased with dietary DMPT level. Condition factor was reduced by dietary DMPT supplementation. Crude protein content of fish after eight weeks increased with dietary DMPT level, whereas crude lipid content deceased with dietary DMPT level. Amino acid content was higher in DMPT-added group than control group. Amino acid composition was not influenced by dietary DMPT supplementation. Fatty acid content deceased with dietary DMPT level.
Optimal Extracting Conditions Dimethyl-
-propiothetin from Ulva pertusa
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 783~789
This study was focused on the optimal extracting conditions of dimethyl-
-propiothetin as bioactive substance from green seaweed. Identification and quantification of dimethyl-
-propiothetin were measured by headspace gas chromatography after conversion to dimethyl sulfide by treatment with saturated NaOH solution. Dimethyl-
-propiothetin was extracted through various processes (solvent extraction, ultrasonication, boiling and autoclaving) from Ulva pertusa. The content of dimethyl-
-propiothetin extracted by autoclaving treatment showed higher than that of various extraction methods. Dimethyl-
-propiothetin content in extract of Ulva pertusa was 325,800 ng/g after autoclaving 121
for 45 min. Dimethyl-
-propiothetin in exract of Ulva pertusa was comparative stable under low temperature. The retentions of dimethyl-
-propiothetin content in extract of Ulva pertusa were 76.6~99.8% by incubation at 10~6
for 2 hours. Chemical decomposition of dimethyl-
-propiothetin was observed under laboratory conditions at pH values higher than 9.5.
Determination of the Conditions for Anthocyanin Extraction from Purple-Flashed Sweet Potato
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 790~795
To establish the optimum conditions for the extraction of anthocyanin pigment from purple-fleshed sweet potato, a suitable extraction solvent with the optimum citric acid concentration for acidification of the solvent, and the optimum extraction time and temperature were determined. Twenty percent ethanol solution acidified with citric acid was found to be a good solvent for the extraction of the pigment from purple-fleshed sweet potato. About 10 hour extraction at room temperature was appropriate for the extraction. pH of the extract was below 3 when more than 0.7% citric acid was added. The higher the concentration of citric acid added was, the higher the total optical density (TOD) of the extract was. However, the increase in TOD of the extract was insignificant when more than 1% of citric acid was added. Therefore, addition of 1% citric acid was determined for acidification of the extracting solvent. Though the initial rate of the pigment extraction increased as the extracting temperature increased, extraction at higher temperatures of 60 or 8
for an extended time caused a decrease in the extraction yield due to degradation of the pigment. The optimum extraction temperature for the anthocyanin pigment from purple-fleshed sweet potato with the solvent used was determined as 4
Studies on Identification and Composition of Nucleosides from Mustard Leaf and Mustard Leaf Kimchi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 796~801
Kimchi is the Korean traditional food which is fermented properly from salted Korean cabbage of raddish with other various supplements. Kimchi therefore can be the major sources for various kinds of nutrients and other biological substances. The fermentation process accompanies with complicated reaction mechanism which bacteria, fungi and yeast are involved and they produced aroma, taste and bioactive components. To identify nucleoside, this study was conducted with freeze-dried mustard leaf, mustard leaf kimchi and fermented mustard leaf kimchi. Hexane, CH
, EtOAc and BuOH was used in order to extract their components. The isolated compounds I and II from mustard leaf and mustard leaf kimchi were identified as adenosine and uracil using UV,
-NMR and LC-MS, respectively. Compound I, II and nucleosides are the first report of its occurrence from mustard leaf and their kimchi, the standardized ratios of ingredients for kimchi were 10 of anchovy juice, 8 of red pepper powder, 3 of garlic, 1.5 of ginger, 6 of paste of glutinous rice. The nucleoside of mustard leaf and their kimchi was determined and compared. The order of nucleosides contents of mustard leaf was uridine>cytosine>uracil>adenine>guanosine>guanin, that of fresh mustard leaf kimchi was uridine>uracil>cytosine>guanine>adenosine>adenin>guanosine and that of fermented mustard leaf kimchi (5days at 15
) was guanine>adenine>adenosine>guanosine. The differences of nucleoside contents from those were due to various supplements and fermentation process.
Transglycosylation Reaction on Cellobiose by Dextansucrase of Leuconostoc mesenteroides B512FMC/6HG8
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 802~806
The transglycosylation reaction by dextansucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides B512FMC/6HG8 was investigate with cellobiose as an acceptor molecule and sucrose as a donor. he optimal conditions of transglycosylation on cellobiose were found that the ration of sucrose to cellobiose was 3:1, the amount of enzyme was 2U/mL, the ionic strength of buffer was 25 mM, pH was 5.0 and reaction temperature was
. also, acceptor products of cellobiose by transglycosylation were a series of oligosaccharides showing the degree of plymenzation of 6.
Carbon Dioxide Production and Quality Changes in Korean Fermented Soybean Paste and Hot Pepper-Soybean Paste
Kim, Gi-Tae ; Hwang, Yong-Il ; Lim, Seong-Il ; Lee, Dong-Sun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 807~813
One hundred fifty grams of Korean fermented soybean paste and hot pepper-soybean paste were packaged in glass jar of 232 mL and Sotred at 5, 13, 22 and 30℃. During the storage, the changes in their microbial flora and quality attributes were monitored. Carbon dioxide production rate from the stored pastes were also determined from initial change of CO₂concentration in headspace of the pack. Hot pepper-soybean pate showed much higher CO₂ production rate higher dependence of CO₂ production on temperature compared to soybean paste. Total aerobic bacteria count and lactic acid bacteria count did not change significantly through the storage. Yeast count in soybean paste decreased slowly after initial uprise while that of hot pepper-soybean paste steadily decreased. Surface color of hot pepper paste changed to dark red with slight decrease in 'L' value and slight increase in 'a' and 'b' values, whereas any significant color change was not observed in soy paste. Titratable acidity increased with time with higher increase in soybean paste, but pH stayed at constant level for both pastes. All the rates of quality change were higher with higher temperature. Pressure buildup due to CO₂ production needs to be considered first in designing the packages of the fermented pastes before their color changes and other chemical quality changes.
Effects of Water Extract from Omija (Schizandra chinensis Baillon) on Nabak Kimchi Preservation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 814~821
In order to investigate the possible use of omija extract as natural preservatives for nabak kimchi omija extract was tested for antioxidation and electron-donating ability and further more antimicrobial activites against lactic acid bacteria of nabak kimchi. The concentration of the test sample used were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0%. Antioxidative activity measured the TBA value, when omija extract concentration % is higher the antioxidation effect were more evident with the increased omija extract concentrations, and showed a high electron donating activity more than 1.0%. As the result of isolated lactic acid bacteria from nabak kimchi the primary separation tool 117 strains, of these 4 strains which had excellent growth and a strong acid formation capability was selected the second time and Lactobacillus brevis, Lactococcus faecalis, Leuconostoc mesenteriodes, Lactobacillus palantarum were identified. After measuring the antimicrobial activity of the four lactid acid bacteris, except Lactobacillus brevis the other three bacteria showed strong antimicrobial activities. The results suggest the possible use of the omija extract as natural preservative for nabak kimchi.
Effects of Omija (Schizandra chinensis Baillon) on the Sensory and Microbiological Properties of Nabak Kimchi during Fermentation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 822~831
Application of omija(Schizndra chinensis Baillon) to improve the quality and preservation of nabka kimchi was attempted and the optimal amount of omija level and its effect on the sensory and microbiological properties of nab마 kimchi during fermentation were examined. Effects of omija juice which had been prepared by extracting omija seeds for 9 hr at room temperature (22.5
) with different ratios (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0%;w/v) of water were examined against control (kimchi prepared without omija). Organoleptic and microbiological properties of nabak kimchi were measured up to 25 days at 1
after preparation. Sensory properties were evaluated in the aspects of both acceptability and intensity characteristics. In whole, 0.5 and 1.0% treatments showed higher values of evaluation, compared to control, 1.5, and 2.0% treatments throughout the fermentation period. As fermentation progresses, however, sample of 1.0% treatment ranked first between day 4 to 7 and also so did sample of 0.5% treatment along with 1.0% treatment from behind day 10. As for color, control, 0.5% treatment, and 1.0% treatment were more favored than rest of the samples. In texture, 2.0% treatment showed the highest values, whereas control was rated the lowest. In the intensity of characteristics 1.5% and 2.0% treatments showed higher values except sweet taste in which 1.0% treatment ranked top during the initial 7 days and then 0.5% treatment took the first place at behind day 10. total cell counts and number of lactic acid bacteria were gradually increased and then decreased showing the maximum levels of microbial counts on different days, to say, day 2 for control and 0.5% treatment nd day 7 for 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% treatments. The application of omija juice in nabak kimchi enhanced eating qualities of the fermented product and the fermentation-retarding effect of omija juice was clearly shown during the initial seven days of fermentation. The optimum levels of omija juice in nabak kimchi obtained through experiments were between 0.5 to 1.0% for color, fermentation-retarding effects, and savory taste of the product.
Isolation and Identification of a Bacterium Producing Antifungal Antibiotic
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 832~836
A bactirium prohibiting the growth of fungus Botrytis cineria KT 433 was isolate and identified from soil. The isolated strain was gram positive, aerobic bacteria with cream color, round and mucoid. It showed ord form of 0.45
at the cultivated for 24 hrs and the ellipsoided endospore wer observed after culting for 72 hrs. The optimum growth temperature and pH wer 35
and pH 5.0~8.0, respectively. It could assimilate daxtrin, maltose, glucose, mannose, ribose and collobiose as a sole carbon source. The isolated was confirmed to be a Bacillus sp. strain from the findings. The antibiotic from the isolated strain was stable up to 121
. The strain, especially, showed specific activity for mold and yeast. However, there was not significant antibacterial activity.
Quality Evaluation of Commercial Salted and Fermented Anchoby Sauce
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 837~842
Commercially distributed salted and fermented anchovy sauces in Korea were purchased from six different companies. Microbiological, chemical, rheological and sensory analyses were carried out to evaluate the quality and safety and to provide basic information of the products. The salinity of every product was lower than of regulatory standard. All samples tested had acceptable in moisture content and pH. However, wide range of amino nitrogen (AN), volatile basic nitrogen(AN), volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), and trimethylamine (TMA) contents were observed. One product among tested had lower level of AN than regulatory standard. Pathogenic microorganisms were also detected from the samples, therefore sanitation procedure will be needed to ensure safety. From the results, AN, VBN, and viscosity were highly correlated to sensory scores, suggesting that these values can utilized as a standard method to evaluate quality of the salted and fermented anchovy sauce.
Detection of Irradiated Beans Using the DNA Comet Assay
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 843~848
The single cell-gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) was used to identify irradiated beans. Soy beans, kidney beans, and red beans were irradiated with
gamma rays at 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 1.0 kGy. Beans were peeled out, crushed lightly, and treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) to extract cells. The extracted cell suspension was mixed with agarose gel solution and spread on an agarose precoated slide. After lysis of the cells, they were subjected to microgel electrophoresis for 2 minutes, and then silver-stained. We found that the DNA fragments of the irradiated samples were stretched, migrated out of the cells, and formed tails towards the anode giving the appearance of comets, while the unirradiated or the undamaged cells formed very short or no tails. The tail lengths of irradiated samples were significantly increased as irradiation dose increased at the above 0.3 kGy.
Studies on the Improvement of Storage Property in Meat Sausage Using Chitosan- II Difference of Storage Property by Molecular Weight of Chitosan
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 849~853
This study was examined for antibacterial effect of various molecular weight of chitosan against spoilage bacteria in emulsion sausage. Four different kinds of chitosan, molecular weights (M.W.) of 1 kDa, 5 kDa, 30 kDa and 120 kDa, wee used. The more molecular weight of chitosan is high, the more storage property of sausage is good during storage at
. Storage properties of sausages between added 0.5% of M.W. 120 kDa chitosan and 150 ppm of sodium nitrite were about the same. Effect of growth-inhibitory of spoilage bacteria was not detected 0.2% of M.W. 1kDa chitosan 0.2% of M.W. 5kDa chitosan have growth-inhibitory effect over 80% against only 3 strains among bacteria isolated from spoiled emulsion sausage. But, 0.2% of M.W. 30 kDa chitosan have growth-inhibitory effect of 80% against all strains of bacteria related to spoilage of emulsion sausage, except S. typhimurium, Especially, 0.2% of M.W. 120 kDa chitosan inhibited over 80% growth against all strains used in this study. The antibacterial activity was increased with their molecular weight.
Preparation of Yogurt Added with Green Tea and Mugwort Tea and Quality Characteristics
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 854~859
A functional yogurt was prepared from whole milk (12%) and skim milk (2%) added with green tea and mugwort tea at 3
for 24 hors. The yogurt product were evaluated for acid production (pH, titratable acidity), number of viable cell, viscosity, sensory property and quality-keeping property. Addition of green tea and mugwort tea remarkably accelerated acid production of yogurt. After 24 hrs incubation, titratabel acidity of green tea and mugwort tea yogurt was 1.46% and 1.62%, respectively and was higher than that (1.30%) of yogurt made with only milk. The propagation of lactic acid bacteria was not stimulated by green tea and mugwort tea and then the number of viable cell in normal (milk) yogurt green tea yogurt and mugwort tea yogurt groups, after 24 hrs incubation, was about 7.2
/mL, respectively, Viscosity of green tea yogurt was slightly lower than that of milk yogurt (1,840 cps) and viscosity of mugwort tea yogurt was slightly higher than that of mild yogurt. The overall sensory score of green tea yogurt was the best of tested yogurt. When yogurt with green tea and mugwort tea was kept at 5
for 15 days, its quality-keeping property was relatively good.
Effect of Fermentation Temperature on Rheological Properties of Traditional Kochujang
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 860~864
The steady and dynamic shear rheological properties of traditional kochujang fermented at three different temperatures (20
) were studied. Flow of kochujang samples showed time dependence, which was quantitatively described by the Weltman model, Kochujang samples were highly shear thinning fluids (n=0.25~0.27) with large magnitudes of Casson yield stresses (1.09~1.21 kPa). Consistency index (K) and apparent viscosity (
) increased with increase in fermentation temperature of kochujang. Storage (G') and loss (G") moduli increased with increase in frequency (ω), while complex viscosity (
) decreased. Based on dynamic shear data, kochujang samples exhibit structural properties similar to weak gels. The complex and steady shear viscosities at different fermentation temperatures followed the Cox-Merz superposition rule with the application of the shift factor (a=0.011~0.016).
Effect of Dietary Mulberry Leaf Powder on Gastrointestinal Function of Rat
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 865~869
This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary mulberry leaf power on gastrointestinal function of rats. Plot containing one and ten percent mulberry leaf powder was supplied with rats. The food efficiency ratio (FER) of rat fed with 10% mulberry leaf powder was decreased 14%. the transit time of rat fed with 1% and 10% mulberry leaf was faster 16% and 21% than that of control respectively. Intestine length was increased 10% and 11% at 1% and 10% dietary mulberry leaf respectively. The transit speed was faster 30% at 1% dieatry mulberry leaf than that of control. The pH of rat's feces supplied with mulberry leaf was lower than that of control. The amount of daily rat's feces fed mulberry leaf was much than that of control. As above results, we suggest that mulberry leaf was evaluated to improve the function of rat's gastrointestine.
Cytotoxicity of Garlic and Onion Methanol Extract on Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 870~874
This study was designed to investigate the cytotoxic effect of methanol extract of garlic, onion and those mixture on two kinds of human lung cancer cell lines (NCI-H522, NCI-H596) using MTT assay. MeOH extract of garlic, onion and those mixture showed cytotoxic effect on both NCI_H522 and NCI-H596. The growth of the cancer cells exposed to medium containing garlic, onion extracts and those mixture was inhibited dose-dependently. The growth of NCI-H522 was inhibited more in the garlic extract than in the onion extract, but that of HCI-H596 was inhibited highese in the onion extract. IC50 values of garlic extract on NCI-H522 and NCI-H596 were 0.84 mg/mL, 0.88 mg/mL and those of onion extract were 1.04 and 0.79, respectively. and the mixture of garlic and onion extracts also inhibited the growth of both NCI-H522 and NCI-H596 cells.
High Glucose Potentiates the Alloxan-induced Cytotoxicity in Cultured Rat Insulinoma Cells
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 875~880
Reactive oxygen species are produced under diabetic conditions and possibly cause various forms of tissue damage in patients with diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of high glucose on the alloxan-induced beta cell injury. The insulinoma (RINm5F) cells were clutured either with high glucose (22.2 mM) or normoglucose (5.6 mM) in RPMI 1460 media for 3 days. The SOD activities were determined by spectrophotometric assay and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) stain. The effects of high glucose on the cytotoxicity of alloxan were also investigated in RINm5F cells and the cells viability were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) methods. Results showed that the CuZn-SOD activity was decreased but Mn-SOD activity was increased significantly in RINm5F cells cultured with high glucose (22.2 mM) media. The cytotoxicity of alloxan was increased by high glucose compared with normoglucose in RINm5F cells. Diethyl-dithiocarbarmate (DDC), as inhibitor of CuZn-SOC, also potentiate the alloxan-induced cytotoxocity in RINm5F cells. These results suggest that, in RINm5F cells, short term culture with high glucose media decreases Cu-Zn-SOD activity and the decreased activity of CuZn-SOD many one of the causative factors of beta-cell injury induced by high glucose.
Antimutagenic Effects of Persimmon Leaf Tea Extract (PLTE) in Mice Using Micronucleus Induction (MN) Test
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 881~887
The antimutagenic effects of persimmon leaf tea extract (PLTE) at concentration levels consumed by human were examined in mice using micronuleus induction with MMC(mitomycin C) or 4-NQO (4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide). When mice received oral gavage of 10 equivalent to PLTE 24 hr and 6 hr before, and 5 equivalent to PLTE 6 hr before and 3 hr after intraperitoneal injection of MMC, a significant decrease in the frequency of micronuclei were observed. The induction of micronuclei by 4-NQO was suppressed by oral dosage of PLTE at 5 equivalent to PLTE 6 hr before and 3 hr after, 10 equivalent to PLTE 3 hr before and 3 hr after intraperitoneal injection of MMC. Though the components of PLTE have not been analyzed so far, our present results suggest the existence of several bio-antimutagens and/or desmutagens in PLTE, beside catechin, well-known antimutagen.
Antimicrobial Activity of Caesalpina sappan L. Extracts and Its Effect on Preservation of Ground Meats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 888~892
Antimicrobial activity of Caesalpina sappan L. extract (CS extract) against 6 kinds of food spoilage and pathogenic organisms was studied. The growth of Listeria monocytogenes Brie 1, Escherichis coli ATCC 11775, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 11775, and Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 11775 was inhibited about 4 to 5
cycle in Tryptic soy Broth(TSB) containing 1% CS extract. Bacillus subtilis KCTC 102 and Vibrio parahaemolyticus ACTT 17802 did not show apparent growth in the same medium. Effect of CS extract on preservation of ground meat was also investigated. The range of pH change was 5.0~5.2 in CS extract added ground meat, 5.2~6.0 in CS extract not added ground meat (control) during storage at 4
for 30 days. Number of total bacteria after 15 days storage was
/g in CS extract added ground meat, 10
/g in control. Redness of ground meats was improved significantly by addition of 1% CS extract during storage at 4
for 30 days. The sensory quality of 1% CS extract added hamburger patty was similar to that of the control in taste, flavor, and overall acceptability.
Antioxidative Activities and Nitrite Scavenging Abilities of Extracts from Ulmus devidiana
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 893~899
To measure antioxidative activities, the various extracts from Ulmus devidiana were examined in oil emulsion. Water, ethanol, methanol and butanol were used as extract solutions. The activity oxygen species (
) bound the extracts for antioxidative activities were excellent. The extracts bound
ion showed effective antioxidative activities and strong chelating effects. The concentration of
ion and total ion in ethanol and methanol extracts from Ulmus devidiana root parts (Chinese) were higher than those of the other products. The highest superoxide dismutase-like activities showed butanol extracts from Ulmus devidiana root parts (Chinese) and water extracts from Ulmus devidiana bark parts (Korean). Electron donating abilities and nitric scavenging abilities of ethanol, methanol and butanol extracts were higher than those of water extracts. The nitrite scavenging abilities also reached the maximum at pH 1.2 and the minium at pH 6.0.
Effects of Solvent Fractions of Korean Cabbage Kimchi on Antioxidative Enzyme Activities and Fatty Acid Composition of Phospholipid of Rabbit Fed 1% Cholesterol Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 900~907
The antioxidant effects of dichloromethane, ethylacetate or water fraction of kimchi added to the 1% cholesterol diet were studied. Six New Zealand white rabbits in each group were fed either control diet (basal diet containing 1% cholesterol) or experimental diet containing dichloromethane (CH
), ethylacetate (EtOAc) or water (
) fraction of kimchi in the control diet for 16 weeks. The amount of each solvent fraction of kimchi added to the experimental diet was equivalent to 5% of freeze-dried kimchi. Levels of hepatic lipid oxidation expressed as TBARS or peroxide value for the experimental groups were lower than that of control (p<0.05). Liver homogenated of the experimental group containing dichloromethane fraction of kimchi inhibited LDL oxidation in the presence of Cu++ by 46% (p<0.05). The activities of catalase, Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Cu, Zn-superoxide (Cu, Zn-SOD) and Mn-superoxide (Mn-SOD) of experimental groups were lower than those of control group. Low enzyme activities observed from the kimchi solvent fraction groups might be due to the level of lipid oxidation progressed less in these groups. The most significant antioxidant effects were observed from dichloromethane fraction of kimchi among the experimental groups. The major fatty acids of hepatic phospholipid of rabbit were C18:2 and C18:0. But the major fatty acid profile was changed into C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, and C18:2 when rabbit was fed 1% cholesterol diet for 16 weeks, and this profile was almost the same as in rabbit fed diet containing kimchi solvent fraction. The ratio for unsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid decreased by cholesterol induced diet and it was not corrected by kimchi solvent fractions.
Purification of Blood Anticoagulant Polysaccharide from Pachymeniopsis elliptica
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 908~916
This study was undertaken to purify the anticoagulant polysaccharide from Pachymeniopsis elliptica. The anticoagulant compound (PE-2IVc-2-1) was isolated from the crude polysaccharide (PE-2) by the sequential steps such as ultrafiltration (PE-2IV), anion-exchange chromatography of DEAE-Toyopearl 650C(PE-2IVc), size-exclusion chromatography of Sepharose CL-6B (PE-2IVc), and HPLC Shodex OHpak column chromatography (PE-2IVc-2-1). The apparent molecular weight of purified polysaccharide (PE-2IVc-2-1) was approximately 710 kDa. It was mainly composed of galactose (48.6%) and 3,6-anhydrogalactose (44.0%) with 27.1% of sulfate residue, in addition a trace amount of xylose (3.6%), glucose (1.1%), mannose (1.1%), arabinose (0.8%) and fucose (0.8%). The IR spectrum of the polysaccharide showed the characteristic bands of S=O(1116.74 and 1143.17
) and C-O-S (828.19
) stretching, respectively. The anticoagulant effect of PE-2 in ex vivo was proportional to the concentration of intravenously injected dose, up to 100 mg/kg.
Antimutagenic and DNA Topoisomerase I Inhibition Effects of Sarcodon aspratus Extracts
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 917~921
This study was carried out to investigate the effects on the mutagenicity and activity of DNA topoisomerase I of Sarcodon aspratus. Using an Ames mutagenicity test, which has been used to assess both mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of various molecules, it was observed that the methanol extracted fraction and other fractions (prepared in water or ethylacetate) of Sarcodon aspratus showed a significant antimutagenic activity against a mutagenecity induced by both a direct mutagenic agent such as MNNG and an indirect mutagenic agents such as B(a)P and AFB
in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100. Also, the extract and fractions of Sarcodon aspratus were found to have an inhibitory activity on the relaxation process of DNA topoisomerase I.
Carotenoids Components of Tunicata, Shellfishes and Its Inhibitory Effects on Mutagenicity and Growth of Tumor Cell
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 922~934
To investigate the composition of carotenoids present in marine organisms and the biological activity of the carotenoids, carotenoids of the muscles and tunic of tunicates and shellfishes were isolated and identified. Anitmutagenic activities of the carotenoids for S. typhimurium TA 98 and cytotoxic activity for cancer cell lines were determined. Total carotenoid contents in the muscle of tunicata ranged from 18.65 mg% to 2.39 mg%. The highest amount of the total carotenoid was found in the muscle of Halocynthia aurantium, followed by Styela clava (HERDMAN), H. roretzi, H. hilgendorfi f. igaboya, H. hilgendorfi f. retteri, S. plicata (LESUEUR) in order. Interestingly, total carotenoid content in the muscle of S. clava (HERDAMAN) was higher than that of H. roretzi. Total carotenoid content of all tunicata, other than H. aurantium and H. roretzi, were higher in muscle than tunic. The major carotenoids in H. roretzi, H. aurantium, S. plicata (LESUEUR), and S. clava (HERDAMAN) were cynthiaxanthin (25.1∼42.2%), halocynthiaxanthin (9.7∼26.3%), diatoxanthin (8.0∼18.7%) and β-carotene (7.7%∼21.7%). Similarly, cantaxanthin (19.6%), cynthiaxanthin (15.4%), halocynthiaxanthin (14.8%), and (3R, 3'R), (3S, 3'S)-astaxanthin (22.6%) in H. hilgendorfi f. retteri and fucoxanthin (26.6%), cynthiaxanthin (21.8%), halocynthiaxanthin (15.2%), and β-carotene (9.3%) in H. hilgendorfi f. igaboya were major carotenoids in both tunicate. However, the composition of carotenoids in muscle and tunic of tunicata was similar each other. Among the shellfishes examined, total carotenoid content of the muscle of Peronidia venulosa (Schrenck) and Corbicula fluminea, and of the gonad of Atrina pinnata and Chlamys farreri, was ranged from 2.51 to 6.83 mg% which were relatively higher than that of other shellfishes. The composition of the carotenoids of shellfishes, which might depend upon their living environments, was varied. But cynthiaxanthin (15.9∼39.0%) and zeaxanthin (9.6∼21.9%) in gonad of C. farreri, and muscles of Buccinum Volutharpa perryi (JAY) and Crassostrea gigas, cynthiaxanthin (21.5∼48.6%) and mytiloxanthin (14.6%) in muscle of C.fluminea and gonad of A. pinnata, and canthaxanthin (60.6%) and isozeaxanthin (20.5%) in muscles of P. venulosa (Schrenck), and β-carotene (23.7%∼37.8%) and zeaxanthin (18.2∼20.4) in muscles of Semisulcospira libertina and Meretrix lusoria were major carotenoids. Interestingly, diester type-carotenoids were present along with free type-carotenoids in muscles of C. gigas. antimutagenic effect of the carotenoids isolated from tunicata and shellfishes against 2-amino-3-methylimidazol [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) for S. typhimurium TA 98 was proportional to the amount (20, 50 and 100㎍/plate) treated. Mutagenicity of IQ was significantly reduced by astaxanthin, isozeaxanthin, mytiloxanthin and halocynthiaxanthin, whereas the mutagenicity of aflatoxin B₁(AFB₁) was significantly reduced by β-carotene, isozeaxanthin, and mytiloxnthin. Growth inhibition effect of carotenoids isolated from tunicata and shellfishes for cancer cell was proportional to the amount (5, 10, and 20㎍/plate) treated. The growth of HeLa cell by β-carotene, cynthiaxanthin, astaxanthin and halocynthiaxanthin, NCI-H87 cell by β-carotene, astaxanthin, cynthiaxanthin, and halocynthiaxanthin, HT-29 cell by β-carotene, cynthiaxanthin, mytiloxanthin and halocynthiaxanthin, and MG-63 cells by β-carotene, cynthiaxanthin, astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and halocynthiaxanthin were statistically reduced.
Effects of Flower of Pueraria lobata on Lipid Peroxidation and Activities of Alcohol Metabolic Enzymes in Alcohol-treated Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 935~942
This study was designed to investigate the effect of flower of Pueraria lobata on liped peroxidation and activities of alcohol metabolic enzymes in alcohol-treated rats. Male Spra gue-Dawley rats were given 25% ethanol (Alcohol), 25% ethanol and 5 mg tectorigenin/kg B.W.(Alc.-Tec), 25% ethanol and 5mg kaikasaponin III/kg B.W. (Alc-Kai). The contents of serum total lipid, triglyceride and phospholipid were increased by ethanol treatment and were lower in the Alc.-Tec and Alc.-Kai group than in the Alcohol group. Decreased serum HDL-cholesterol by alcohol treatment was recovered by tectorigenin and kaikasaponin III. Microsomal cytochrome P-450, aniline hydroxylase and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities were increased by ethanol and were lower in the Alc. Tec and Alc.-Kai group than in the Alcohol group. Activity of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase was increased by ethanol and was higher in the Alc.-Tec and Alc.-Kai group than in the Alcohol group. Microsomal ethanol oxidizing system activity was higher in Alc.-Tec group than in the other group. No significant difference was found in catalase activity among treatment groups. These data indicate that tectorigenin and kaikasaponin III were effected alcohol metabolic enzyme system and the liver damage associated with chronic ethanol consumption.
Determination of Total Phenolic Compounds from the Fruit of Rubus coreanum and Antioxidative Activity
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 943~947
The purpose of this study was to investigate the extraction method of phenolic compounds from Rubus coreanum and antioxidative activity. antioxidative activities of Rubus coreanum were tested with ability of donating hydrogen to DPPH, and HPLC, fluorometry which measure the amount of MDA after reacting linoleic acid with
, and LDL with
. The most suitable extraction conditions of the phenolic compounds from Rubus coreanum was 3 times with 60% ethanol, and the yield of extract containing 35% moisture was 15.28%. In extraction efficacy of phenolic compounds, 60% ethanol was superior to water as extraction solvent, and extraction efficacy with 60% ethanol did not differ from disolving by water after evaporation of 60% ethanol extract. 60% ethanol extract of Rubus coreanum had an ability of hydrogen donating to DPPH, MDA determination showed the antioxidative effect with inhibition ratio of 77.91% on linoleic acid oxidation by addition of Rubus coreanum extract with the concentration of 1.500 ppm. and about 65.74% of LDL oxidation was inhibited by addition of 1,000 ppm.
Estimated Isoflavone Intake from Soy Products in Korean Middle-aged Women
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 948~956
There is growing evidence that soy isoflavone play beneficial roles in the prevention of chronic diseases such as hormone dependent cancers, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis and also reduced incidence of menopausal symptoms. However current data are not sufficient to determine the effective doses for beneficial as well as harmful effects and to support dietary recommendation for isoflavones. Since soy products containing isoflavone are one of the common food items that Koreans consume daily basis, assessing consumption of soy isoflavone by Koreans will give a valuable information on making dietary recommendations for isoflavones. the present study was designed to assess dietary intake of isoflavone of Korean middle-aged women who might receive the most beneficial effects from isoflavone consumption thereby prevent post menopausal related symptoms and diseases. In this study isoflavone contents of soy products were analyzed and soy products and isoflavone consumption of these subjects were assessed by a self-reported dietary questionnaire and isoflavone intake data base. Subjects were consisted of 178 Korean women (35~60 y) who live in urban and rural area. All subjects provided detailed information on demographics, anthropometry, health history, menopausal symptoms, health history, menopausal symptoms, and dietary intake using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) which was developed for Koreans. The average age of the subjects was 46.6 years. The soy products which the subjects frequently consumed were soybean paste soup, braised fried soybean, tofu residue stew, tofu, soy milk, natto stew, bean sprouts, and soybean broth which contained 10.68 mg, 3.34 mg, 2.44 mg, 2.42 mg, 2.42 mg, 1.12 mg, 1.02 mg, 0.33 mg of isoflavone per 100 g, respectively. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of isoflavones ranged from 0 to 144.3 mg, and the mean daily isoflavone (sum of daidzein and genisten) intake of the subjects was 24.41 mg.
Trans Fatty Acids Intake of a Girls한 High School Students in Pusan by Food Frequency Questionnaire
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 957~964
To assess trans fatty acids (tFAs) intake of a girls' high school students in Pusan, dietary history and quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were surveyed and analyzed with a total subjects of 274, 268 in summer and winter respectively. It was shown that 38.0% of subjects which was the highest percentage, had snack twice a day in frequency of snack intake. The most favorite snack of subjects was ice cream (46.4%), the preference for milk and dairy products was considerably high. 43.4% of subjects responded to once a month in frequency of dining out. They preferred grilled pork (39.1%), hamburger (36.9%), grilled beef (26.6%) in order. It was also appeared that they preferred fast food. In the case of eating bread, 8.0% of subjects ate bread and margarine, 7.1% butter. Generally, the subjects preferred margarine to butter. tFAs intake for each person per day was
. There was significant difference in tFAs intake according to parents income (p<0.05), frequency of snack intake (p<0.001) and that of dining out (p<0.05). tFAs intake produced naturally (N-tFAs) was
which corresponded to 20.3% of total tFAs intake per day. tFAs intake produced artificially (H-tFAs) in the process of hardening oil was
, equaled to 79.7% of total tFAs intake per day. There was significant difference between H-tFAs intake for each person per day (p=0.000)
Automatic Analysis of Volatile Basic Nitrogen of Pork with an On-line Flow Injection Analysis System
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 29, issue 5, 2000, Pages 965~967
An on-line FIA system in place of traditional Conway method was used for quicker and simpler analysis of volatile basic nitrogen of pork. The on-line system was developed by connecting an FIA apparatus with an ammonia electrode as a detector to a personal computer. The data from Conway method and from the on-line FIA system were in good agreement and the correlation coefficient was 0.981. One sample could be analyzed in about 4 min.