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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 6 - Dec 2001
Volume 30, Issue 5 - Oct 2001
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Aug 2001
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Jun 2001
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Apr 2001
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Feb 2001
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An Isolation of Crude Saponin from Red-Ginseng Efflux by Diaion HP-20 Resin Adsorption Method
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 1~5
This study was carried out to isolate saponin compounds from red-ginseng efflux, which was produced during the industrial processing of red-ginseng from fresh ginseng. We isolated crude saponin from the efflux extract (moisture content 35.0%) by using Diaion HP-20 adsorption method. Non-saponin fraction, which was adsorbed on Diaion HP-20 resin, was removed by eluating with
and 25% spirit. Then crude saponin was eluated with 95% spirit, continuously. Saponin in the eluated fractions was confirmed by TLC analysis. Crude saponin isolated from red ginseng efflux extract contained 12.10% of saponin. whereas those of white ginseng and red-ginseng were 3.30 and 3.39%, respectively. Ginsenoside contents showed the highest contents kin crude saponin from red ginseng efflux extract. Expacilly, the ginsenoside-
and Re showed the highest contents in red-ginseng efflux extract when compared with those of white ginseng and red ginseng crude saponins. And the other ginsenosides except ginsenoside-
and -Re also showed the highest contents in red ginseng efflux extract. However, the ratio of PD saponin (Panaxadiol saponin:
+Rc+Rd) to PT saponin (panaxatriol:
) showed almost the same level when compared with those of ginseng saponin fractions. Ratio of PD/PT from red ginseng efflux extract was 1.99. Ratios of PD/PT from white ginseng and red ginseng were 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Saponin purity, which was calculated by ratio percent of total ginsenoside to curde saponin content, was 45.90%. In case of white ginseng and red ginseng, the purities were 35.50 and 36.00%, respectively. However, by PHLC analysis, we confirmed that crude saponin isolated from red ginsengs. It suggested that crude saponin isolated from red ginseng ellux also would be useful component as ginseng saponins.
The Browning Reaction and Inhibition of Apple Concentrated Juice
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 6~13
The study was conducted to investigate the effect of the browning inhibitors such as PVPP(polyvinylpoly-pyrrolidone), A.A.(ascorbic acid) on nonezymatic browning factors [free sugar, total amino acid, organic acid, A.A., HMF (hydroxymethylfurfural)] and enzymatic browning factors [PRO (polyphenoloxidase) activity, polyphenol compounds] in concentrated apple juice during 90 days storage. Considering color value (L value,
E), absorbance at 420 nm, concentrated apple juice during 90 days storage. Considering color the effect of browning inhibition. According to the storage period, the changes of nonenzymatic factors in concentrated apple juice added with browning inhibitors were similar to those in control (concentrated apple juice without browning inhibitors), which were the decreased of sucrose(0.24~0.35% at 90 days), the slight increase of glucose and fructose, the decrease of total amino acid (530.4~573.1 mg/10g at 90 days), same value of A.A. at 90 days (38.5~78.6 mg/100g), and the increase of HMF (27.8~30.6 mg/100g at 90 days). On the contrary, enzymatic browning factors were significantly inhibited in concentrated apple juice added with PVPP, judging from the slow increase of PRO activity and the significant decrease of initial value in polyphenol compounds (especially chlorogenic acid). These results suggest that PVPP plays an important role as enzymatic browning inhibitor, that is, a scavenger of polyphenol compounds by adsorption in concentrated apple juice.
Comparison of Composition and Content of Fatty Acid in Egg Yolk Oil among General and Functional Eggs
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 14~19
This study was designed to compare content and composition of fatty acid in egg yolk oil among general eggs from chicken, quail, duck. We also compared those of general and functional chicken egg. Fatty acids were determined by GC method and the results were as follows: Palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid and timnodonic acid were identified in egg of chicken, quail and duck. The major fatty acid was oleic acid and palmitic acid in three kinds of eggs. Arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were analyzed in egg of quail , but no in chicken. Monounsaturaterd fatty acid (MUFA) was higher in egg yolk oil of chicken and quail. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was higher in duck egg. Ginseng egg had significantly higher palmitic acid and oleic acid lower than general chicken egg. Gamgoal egg had lower palmitic acid and oleic acid, and higher palmitoleic acid and stearic acid than general chiekcn egg. The content of oleic acid was lower in DHA egg than in general chiecken egg, but arachidonic acid was detected only in DHA egg. Ginseng egg had the highest content of saturated fatty acid among chicken eggs. The content of MUFA acid was the highest in gamgoal egg and general chicken egg. DHA egg had the most amount of PUFA among all chicken egg.
General Components and Sensory Evaluation of Hot Water Extract from Liriopis Tuber
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 20~24
This study was conducted to analyze the general components and to investigate sensory evaluation of hot water extract prepared by boiling at 10
for 3 hr with 4-fold water. The contents of total soluble soild, non-reducing sugar, total saponin, ash and total protein were 15.95%, 6.54%, 1.735, 0.33% and 0.40%, respectively. The contents of succinic, malic and acetic acid in the extracts were 111.48 mg%, 23.67mg% and 18.36mg%, respectively. The major free amino acids and minerlas of the extract were hydroxyproline 1,290.0
%, glutamic acid 456.2
% and potassium 151.35 mg%, respectively. Bitter taste in the extract was not observed, whereas sweet, sour and astringent taste were observed.
Characteristics of Kakdugi Radish Cube by Autumn Cultivars during Salting
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 25~31
Characteristics (salt concentration, weight loss, soluble solid content, moisture content, pH, textural properties) of kakdugi radish cube (kakdugi radish,
) were evaluated during salting. Five different radish cultivars harvested in autumn were immersed into 10, 15 or 20% brine solution (radish : brine solution = 1 : 2) at
for 5hrs. The time required to reach the optimum salt concentration (3.0%) was different among cultivars; in the 10% brine solution, 5hr for 'Taeback', 4hr for 'Bakja', 3hr for 'Kwandong' and 'Bakbong', 2hr for 'Bagkwang'. Generally, it was observed that it took shorter salting time at higher concentration of brine solution. While the highest value of weight loss of kakdugi radish cubes was observed with 'Bagkwang', the lowest, 'Taeback'. There was a decrease of pH of kakdugi radish during salting; while 'Bakja' showes little change in pH, 'Bagkwang' shows large decrease of pH. Hardness and fracturability decreased during salting; the highest value of hardness was observed with 'Taeback', the lowest, 'Bagkwang' has the highest moisture content, the lowest soluble solid content and hardness. There was a similarity of characteristics of kakdugi radish cube between two cultivars, 'Taeback' and 'Bakja', as well as 'Bagkwang', and those of 'Kwandong' and 'Bakbong' were between two types of cultivars.
Trace Metal Contents in Vegetables and Their Safety Evaluations
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 32~36
This study was conducted to estimate the contents of trace metals in vegetable which were produced in Korea. The levels of trace metals determined using a mercury analyzer, and ICP (inductively coupled plasma spectrometer) and an AAS (atomic absorption spectrophotometer) after wet digestion. The values of trace metals [minimum~maximum (mean), mg/kg] in vegetables were a follows ; Hg : 0.0001~0.019 (0.002), Pb : 0.001~0.28 (0.02), Cd : 0.001~0.078 (0.016), As : 0.001~0.06 (0.02), Cu : 0.06~24.81 (0.77), Mn : 0.17~15.12 (2.32), Zn : 0.13~28.70 (2.51). These results showed that metal contents in vegetables on domestic markets were similar to those reported in other countries. The weekly average intakes of lead, cadmium and mercury from vegetables take 2~7% of PTWI (Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intakes) that the FAO/WHO Joint Food Additive and Contaminants Committee had set to evaluate their safeties.
Analysis of Radiolytically Proudced Hydrocarbons and 2-Alkylcyclobutanones from Irradiated Pinenut
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 37~42
Pinenut was irradiated with the dose of 0.5∼10 kGy. Radiation-induced hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones were extracted from pinenut, separated by florisil column chromatography and identified with GC/MS method. Concentrations of hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones were increased with the increase of irradiation dose and the composition of patty acids in pinenut affected on products detects. The major hydrocarbons in irradiated pinenut were 8-heptadecene and 1,7-hexadecadiene originated ferom oleic acid and 6,9-heptadecadiene and 1, 7, 10-hexadecatriene originated from linoleic acid. 2-(5'-Tetradecenyl) cyclobutanone originated from oleic acid was highest in the irradiated pinenut. Radiation-induced hydrocarbons hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones in pinenut were detected at 0.5 kGy and over, but not detected in the unirradiated samples.
ESR Spectroscopy for Detecting Gamma-Irradiated Shellfishes
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 43~47
Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the effect of irradiation dose on the ESR signal intensity and to identify the stability of radicals after 9 weeks of storage in order to detect irradiated shellfishes. The irradiated shellfishes (short-necked clam, purplish washington clam, freshwater clam, jackknifed clam, scallop and hard-shell mussel) presented an asymmetric absorption in shape at
=1.998. The strength of the ESR signal increased linearly with the applied doses (1~7 kGy). A highly positive correlation coefficients (
=0.9136~0.9896) were obtained between the irradiation dose and corresponding ESR signal intensity. The intensity of the signals after irradiation was stable even after 9 weeks of storage at 5
Studies on the Quality Characteristics of Sponge Cakes with Addition of Yam Powders
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 48~55
This study investigated the quality characteristics of sponge cakes with addition of yam (Dioscorea) powders prepared by different drying methods, hot air (HDYP : hot air dried yam powder) and freeze drying (FDYP: freeze dried yam powder), using several physical and sensory examinations. For the foam forming ability and foam stability, the specific gravities of egg foams containing 5% yam powders were measured by drainage using funnels for 78 hrs. The results showed that HDYP and FDYP did not affect the foam forming ability but FDYP increased foam stability due to increased viscosity. When the strength of 8% gels composed of wheat starch and HDYP/FDYP was measured to predict the setting of cake structure, the strengths of starch gels containing yam powders were higher than those of control without yam powders. The volume of sponge cake containing 5% HDYP increased whereas those containing FDYP decreased at the levels of 5, 7%. From the texture profile analysis data, hardness, gumminess and chewiness of cakes containing yam powders increased. The color of cake crust and crumb became darker as the amount of yam powders increased. The results of sensory evaluation by QDA (quantitative descriptive analysis) to compare two different drying methods showed that appearance and texture of cakes containing 5% HDYP were closer to those of control than cakes containing 5% FDYP but overall acceptability of sponge cakes containing yams were comparable to the control cakes regardless of drying methods. The addition of yam powders to sponge cakes increased yam flavor and decreased egg smell. Therefore, it can be suggested that HDYP and FDYP can be added to the sponge cake formula up to 7% and 5%, respectively.
Effects of Added Yam Powders on the Quality Characteristics of Yeast Leavened Pan Breads Made from Imported Wheat flour and Korean Wheat Flour
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 56~63
This study investigated the quality characteristics of yeast breads with addition of hot air-dried yam powder (HDYP) and freeze-dried yam powder (FDYP), using several physical and sensory examinations. Breads were made of imported wheat flour (IWF) or Korean wheat flour (KWF). HDPY and FDYP were added to the bread formula at three levels of 3, 5, and 7%. The addition of yam powders required an increase of water absorption. As the addition of HDYP/FDYP increased, IWF dough stickiness increased and thus handling property became inferior to the control. Especially, handling property of KWF bread dough containing FDYP was most poor among the dough samples. With HDYP/FDYP, final volumes of bread made from IWF were similar to the control when 3~5% HDYPs were added whereas loaf volumes decreased significantly as the amount of added FDYP increased, indicating volume depressing effect. In bread scoring, texture scores increased when yam powders were added that hardness, chewiness, cohesiveness and guminess of KWF bread increased as the amounts of yam powders increased. The "L" value of IWF bread crumb decreased with the addition of yam powders. From sensory evaluation using acceptability scores, the results gave us that appearance, grain, texture, flavor, taste and overall acceptability of KWF bread could be more improved with the addition of yam powders than those of IWF bread.IWF bread.
Physical Properties of Extruded Snack Made of Dried Onion and Onion Pomace
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 64~69
In order to use onion pomace produced from concentration processing of onion juice, dried onion pamace and dried onion were mixed with corn grits at levels of 10, 20, and 30% and extruded in a twin-screw extruder. The physical properties of the extruded onion snack were investigated. The expansion ratio of the extruded onion pomace snack and onion snack and onion snack decreased with onion content. The water absorption index decreased with the onion content. The lightness and the redness of the onion snack decreased and increased as the incorporation level of onion increased, respectively. Native corn grits showed crystalline peaks at 15.2
. However, the onion snack did not show the crystalline peaks as native corn grits and showed small peaks at 12.9
. The onion snack showed lower gelatinization temperature and enthalpy than raw corn grits regardless of the onion contents. The rupture strength of the onion pomace snack and onion snack increased with the onion concentration.
Effect of Aging Time and Cooking Temperature on Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Pork Neck
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 70~74
The effects of aging time (1, 8 and 15 days) and endpoints cooking temperature (70, 75 and
) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of pork neck were evaluated. Pork neck was obtained from the carcass (live weight, 105~110 kg ; grade B) chilled for 24 hours after slaughter. As a aging period became longer, the pH, L value and drip loss became higher while its a value and shear force value (SFV) of raw meat became lower. As a aging period became longer, the cooking loss, hardness, chewiness, SFV became lower, and its tenderness, juiciness and taste became better. However, no difference was observed in the aroma, and the one aged for 8 days in the cooked meat showed the best palatability. Increasing endpoint cooking temperature from 70 to
increased hardness, SFV and taste, and decreased chewiness, sensory tenderness and juiceness (p<0.05). However, it had no effect on the cohesiveness. Also, the one for which the endpoint cooking temperature became
in the cooked meat showed the best springiness, aroma and palatability.
Quality Properties of Sausage Prepared with Gamma-Irradiated Natural Casing
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 75~79
Quality changes in sausage stuffed into irradiated natural pork and lamb intestine were studied. Total aerobic bacteria of the sausage prepared with irradiated natural pork and lamb casing were significantly lower than those of nonirradiated casing and the
value of those sausages were 1.71 and 1.58 kGy, respectively. The sausages in pork intestine vacuum-packaged and stored in a
refrigerator showed negligible change in the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value during storage except for 10-day when the TBARS value was higher than other storage days. Total working force for shear value of the sausages were lower with both irradiated casings but sensory evaluation showed no difference between treatments. As a results, the gamma irradiation was effective for sanitizing the natural pork and lamb casings, thereby preparing high quality sausages.
Effects of Punica granatum L. Fractions on Quinone Reductase Induction and Growth Inhibition on Serveral Cancer Cells
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 80~85
Various lines of evidence suggest that dietary components protect the initiation step of carcinogenesis. In this study, the ethylacetate (PGMEA), ethylether (PGMEE), butanol (PGMB) and aqueous (PGMA) soluble fractions of Punica granatum L. (PG) were screened for their growth inhibition using the MTT assay on HepG2, HeLa, C6, MCF-7 and HT-29 cells and for their activity to induce quinone reductase (QR) in HepG2 cells. Among various fractions of Punica granatum L., the PGMEE showed the strongest growth inhibition at 500
/mL which resulted 92.5% on Hela cell lines and 97.8% on C6 cell lines. The PGMEA and PGMB also showed significant growth inhibition. The assay of QR induction on HepG2 cells, grown in the presence of PGMEE at the concentration of 50
/mL, was 1.4 times more effective compared with the control value of1.0. These results suggested that useful cancer chemoprevention materials could be isolated from PGMEE fraction of Punica granatum L.
Cytotoxicity and Quinone Reductase Induced Effects f Daucus carota L. Leaf Extracts on Human Cancer Cells
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 86~91
The anticarcinogenic effects of various food components on human cancer cells have received much attention in recent years. The precise effect and mechanisms of anticarcinogens in food materials on cancer cells have rarely been investigated. This study was carried out to determine the effects of Daucus carota L. leaf (DCL) extracts on cytotoxic and chemopreventive effect on human cancer cells. The experiment was conducted to determine cytotoxicity of Daucus carota L. leaf extracts on HepG2, Hela and MCF-7 cells by MTT assay. Among various partition layers of Daucus carota L. leaf, the ethylacetate partition layer (DCLMEA) at 500
/mL was shown to be most effective on MCF-7 cell lines. The four partition layers which are DCLM, DCLMH, DCLMB and DCLMH were less effecitve in inducing cytotoxicity than DCLMEA was. We also determined the induction of intracellular quinone reductase (QR) activity by adding DCL extracts on HepG2 cells. Among various partition layers of DCL extracts, DCLMH and DCLM were tested to be most effective with results such as 4.9 and 4.73 with a control value of 1.0.
Effects of Pueraria flos and radix Water-extracts on levels of Several Serum Biomarkers in Ethanol-treated Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 92~96
The present study was investigated effect of each water extract from Pueraria flos (PF) and Pueraria radix (PR) on serum several biomarkers in ethanol-treated rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups: Normal (None-treated group); Ethanol (only ethanol-treated group); EPF I (ethanol-treated, supplemented group); EPR (ethanol-treated, PF II-supplemented group); EPR I (ethanol-treated, PR I-supplemented group) ; EPR (ethanoltreated, PR II-supplemented grou). Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered 25% ethanol (5 g/kg body weight/day) and sacrified 5 weeks post treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and
transpeptidase activities were significiantly lowered by feeding of PF or PR than those of only ethanol-treated group. Whereas serum glucoseand liver glycogen contents were significantly decreased (p<0.05) by ethanol administration and increased decreased (p<0.05) by PF or PR supplement. This results indicate that Pueraria flos and radix water extract supplement improves alcoholic disorder.
Protective Effects of Extracts of Diospyrus kaki Folium against Hepatotoxicity in Carbon Tetrachloride Intoxicated Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 97~101
This study was done to investigate the protective effects of Diospyrus kaki Folium on carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200~230g) was used. Experimental groups were divided into normal group and
-treated group and then
-treated groups were divided into 7 groups: only
-treated group, methanol extract pretreated group, butanol fraction pretreated group and
fraction pretreated group,
treated groups were injected with
0.6 mg/kg (ip). The activities of ananine aminotransferasein hexane, chloroform and
fraction pretreated groups were significantly decreased (p<0.05) compared to the only
-treated group and also activity of aspartate aminotransferase and hepatic malondialdehyde content in
fraction pretreated group were significantly decreased (p<0.05) compared to the only
-treated group. The activity of alkaline phosphatase in chloroform and
fraction pretreated groups were decreased compared to the only
-treated group but the difference was not statistically significant. The activity of
-glutamyltranspeptidase in hexane, chloroform and ethylacetate fraction pretreated groups were significantly decreased (p<0.05) compared to the only
-treated group. The contents of cholesterol and triglyceride were not influenced in any fraction pretreated groups, but HDL-cholesterol content in hexane and chloroform fraction pretreated groups were significantly increased (p<0.05) compared to the only
-treated group. Therefore, these results demonstrate a possible hepatoprotective role of
fraction of Diospyrus kaki Folium methanol extract in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats.
Inhibitory Effect of Leek Greek Juice on
-induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 102~106
To investigate the effects of leek green juice on the damaged liver of
-treated rats, Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing about 100g, were divided into 4 groups ; control group (CON), leek green juice-administered group (LGJ),
-treated group (CCL) and leek green juice and
-treated group (LCL). After 6 weeks, the activities of sGPT and sGOT, and content of hepatic TBA-reactants, elevated by
treatment, were markedly decreased by administering leek green juice, compared to CCL. It was also observed that activities of hepatic SOD and GSH-Px were elevated by
-treatment as compared to CON, but concomitant treatment of leek green juice and
decreased those levels adjacent to CON, whereas catalase activity did not show significant decreasing effects compared to CCL. The hepatic content of glutathione, decreased by
, was more abundantly increased by leek green juice administration than by CCL. These results suggest that leek green juice is believed to b a possible protective effect for the carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rat liver.
Effect of Meristotheca papulosa on Lipid Concentration of Serum and Liver in Rats Fed High Fat Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 107~111
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Meristotheca papulosa on lipid concentration of serum and liver in rats fed high fat diet for 4 weeks. Experimental groups ere divided into normal group (5% corn oil), high fat diet group (5% corn oil+20% lard), high fat diet and 5% or 10% Meristotheca papulosa treated group. The weights of kidney, heart and tests were not significantly different among the group, but weight of liver was significantly decreased by supplement of Meristotheca papulosa (10%). The contents of serum total lipid, trigly-ceride, total cholesterol, free cholesterol, cholesterol ester and atherogenic index were decreased, while HDL-cholesterol was increased by Meristotheca papulosa supplementation compared to high fat diet group. Meristotheca papulosa supplement has obvious effects on lowering hepatic total lipid, triglyceride and total cholesterol. Our findings suggest that Meristotheca papulosa supplement can improve lipid metabolism in high fat fed rats.
Effects of Defatted Safflower and Perilla Seed Powders on Lipid Metabolism in Ovariectomized Female Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diets
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 112~118
To study effect of non-fat components present in plant seeds on lipid metabolism, defatted safflower and perilla seed powders were used in high cholesterol diets for ovariectomized (ovx) female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 227
15g. Experimental groups were six as follows; normal group without ovariectomy and cholesterol-free diet, sham and ovx-control groups with high cholesterol and cellulose for dietary fiber, ovx-est group with the same diet as ovx-control but with eight subcutaneous injections of 50
-estradiol. ovx-safflower and ovx-perilla with 29% and 16% (w/w) of each defatted powder in high cholesterol diets at the expense of cellulose. Weight gains were lower in normal and sham groups and food efficiencies were lower in normal,ovx-est and ovx-safflower groups compared with ovx-control. Uterus weights were dramatically reduced by ovariectomy but restored completely by 17
-estradiol and partially (~5%) by defatted safflower. Plasma levels of total cholesterol were not different among ovx-control, sham, vx-est and ovx-safflower groups (90.8~95.1 mg/dL) but that was lower in ovx-perilla (80.4
6.2 mg/dL). Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels were lower in sham (76.6
7.0 mg/dL) and ovx-perilla (79.2
5.8 mg/dL) groups. Liver cholesterol levels were lower in sham, ovx-est, ovx-safflower and ovx-perilla groups (26.6~29.8 mg/g) than ovx-control (36.5
3.2 mg/g). But liver TG levels were reduced only sham and ovx-est groups compared to control group. Fecal excretions of bile acid and cholesterol were highest in ovx-safflower group (30.8
5. and 32.1
5.7 mg/g) compared with other ovx groups (20.8~23.1 and 12.1~19.5 mg/g). These results suggest that both perilla and safflower seeds contain groups (20.8~23.1 and 12.1~19.5mg/g). These results suggest that both perilla and safflower seeds contain non-fat and non-fiber components having lipid lowering effects.
Effects of Sardine Oil Fedding and Vitamin E Supplementation on Histopathological Changes and
-L-Fucosidase Activity in Experimental Hepatocarcinogenesis
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 119~126
Effects of Sardine Oil Feeding and Vitamin E Supplementation on Histopathological Changes and
-L-fucosidase activity in experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 80~90 g were fed the diet containing either 15% corn oil (CO) or sardine oil (SO) with or without vitamin E supplements (dl-
-tocopherol acetate 800 IU/kg diet) for 8 weeks. After 2 weeks of feeding, the rats were given a single intraperitoneal injectin of diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 200 mg/kg BW). From the fifth week, rats were given 0.02% acetylaminofluorene (AAF) in diet for 4 weeks. At the seventh week, 0.05% phenobarbital in liver and hepatic glutathione S-transferase palcental form positive (GST-P+) foci were examined by Hematoxylin& Eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemical method, respectively. Serum
-L-fucosidase activity was determined. The livers fromt he carcinogen treated rats showed significantly increased formation of GST-P+ foci at sacrifice points while the livers fromthe non-carcinogen treated groups showed almost no foci. Although GST-P+ foci formation was not affected by dietary oil, it was increased unexpectedly by vitamin E supplementation. Histopathological changes were similar to patterns of GST-P+ foci formation in almost all groups. Serum
-L-fucosidase activities were increased by carcinogen treatment in all dietary groups.
-L-fucosidase activities were positively correlated with GST-P+ foci formation. There results suggest that excessive vitamin E supplementation can enhance hepatocarcinogenesis although the mechanisms involved are not clearly understood.
Antimicrobial Activity of Omija (Schizandra cheinensis) Extracts
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 127~132
This research was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial activities of ethanol extracts from omija against the 12 icroorganism including bacteria, yeast and mold. The extracts inhibited the growth of bacteria, but not yeast or mold. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of B. subtilis and S. aureus was 1.6~3.2 mg/mL, and those of gram(-) bacteria, including E. coli, were 6.3~12.5 mg/mL. Growth of B. subtilis and S. aureus were retarded by adding 900 ppm and 300 ppm of ethanol extracts. Anthimicrobial activity of the ethanol extracts was not destroyed by heating. In comparison of endocarps extracts with the ethanol from the seed extracts, the ethanol extracts of endocarps showed the high antimicrobial activity.
Screening for Antioxidant Activity of Edible Plants
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 133~137
The antioxidant activitiesof methanol extracts of twenty one vegetables were tested using the method of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) reactivity and TBARS substance assay in vitro. The methanol extracts of the leaves from three plants such as Aster scaber, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Petasites japonicus were found to be th most effective on DPPH radical scavenging activity. The next effective ones were the leaves of Capsicum annuum, the peels of Ipomoea batatas and Solanum tuberosum, the stems and leaves of Ipomoea batatas, the levels of Solanum melongena, the fruits of Solanum melongena, the green fruits (seed) of Capsicum ammuum in order, and the others did not show a considerable activity. When tested on lipid peroxidation using a lipid peroxidation generation system mediated by
in rat liver homogenates. the peels of Cucumis melo, the leaves and the fruits of Solanum melongena, of Solanum melongena, The levels of Aster scaber and Chrysanthemum coronarium, the stems and leaves of Ipomoea batatas and the peels of Ipomoea batatas were found to exhibit a good protective activity against lipid peroxidatian in the order of effectiveness.
Component Characteristics of Each Extract Prepared by Different Extract Methods from By-products of Glycyrrhizia uralensis
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 138~142
Solid contents, free sugars, phenlic compounds and glycyrrhizin of extracts obtained from by-products of Glycyrrhizia uralensis by three different methods, i.e., shaking, heating, and static methods, were determined. Solid contents of extracts obtained by shaking, heating and static method were 15.6%, 15.0% and 5.3%, respectively. Phenolic compound contents of them were 11.33 mg/100 mL, 11.21 mg/100mL and 10.15 mg/100 mL. Main free sugars in the extracts from the by-products of G. uralensis were fructose, glucose, sucrose, and maltose. Glycyrrhizin content of the extracts from the by-products of G. uralensis were 2.79%, 3.54% and 0.63%, respectively. Extract obtained by the shaking methods had an ability of donating electron to DPPH. The relative antioxidant effects of th extract obtained from the shaking method showed 70% inhibitory effect of peroxidation on egg yolk lecithin. n
Production of Carotenoid from Halophilic Erythrobacter sp. and characterization of Physiological Properties
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 143~151
A marine bacterium producing carotenoid was isolated from the Yosu coastal area of South Korea, which was recorded as MCK-1. It was identified as Erythrobacter sp. Optimium conditions of marine carotenoid fermentation from Erythrobacter sp. were pH 6.0, a temperature of
, 16 mM mannitol as a carbon source, 0.5% tryptone as a nitrogen source, 0.1 mM
ion as a mineral source and 1
M of cyanocobalamine as a growth factor in a jar-fermentor. Erythrobacter sp. was produced 351.27 mg/100mL of the marine carotenoid in these optimum conditions. This marine carotenoid was composed of 4 different conpounds, like as notoxanthin (61.4%), can thaxanthin (24.6%), fucoxanthin (8.2%), and zeaxanthin (5.8%). Physiological properties including antibacterial activity, cytotoxic effect, antioxidative effect and free radical scavenging activity were characterized with crude carotenoid. Carotenoid exhibited no antibacterial activity against E. coli and lactobacillus bulgaricus, but showed cytotoxic effect against cancer cells such as HepG2 (Hepatocellular carcinoma, human, ATCC HB-8065) and HeLa (Cervical carcinoma, human, ATCC CCL-2) cells. The impediment ratios for HepG2 and HeLa cell were 37.14% and 33.78%, respectively. This carotenoid expressed a strong antioxidative effect (77%) against CCL-13 5
/mL and 50
/mL crude carotenoid, respectively.
Major Foods for folate and Their Folate Contents of Korean Child-bearing Women
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 152~158
In this study, we determined major foods and food groups which contributed to the intake of folate in korean child-bearing women. Folate content of the major foods was also analyzed. A total of 91 healthy women with childbearing potential participated. They were divided into one of three groups by age; A (15∼24 yrs), B(25∼34 yrs) and C (35∼49 yrs). Food consumption data of the subjects were obtained by the 24-hr recall method. The rate of contribution of each food to the total intake of dietary folate was determined. Seventy major foods for folate were selected from the 178 foods they consumed. Two sets of the 70 foods were collected from different markets. After extracting folates from the foods by heating with a HEPES-CHES buffer, the samples were treated with α-amylase, protease and folate intakes was Korean cabbage kimchi followed by laver, soybean sprout, rice, yolmu kimchi, eggs, lettuce, perilla leaves, sea mustard and radish root. Food items that contributed to folate intake were slightly different among the age groups. Although the folate content of Korean cabbage kimchi was 51.6 ㎍/100g, but due to the high amount of intake, it was ranked the first major food prviding folate. High folate foods containing over 100㎍/100g were laver, corn flakes, spinach, mungbean, sesame, quail's eggs, small radish kimchi, kidney beans, leeks and peanuts. However, based on the serving size, spinach, corn flakes, leeks, sweet potato, pepper leaves, quail's eggs, crown daisy, small radish kimchi and perilla leaves contributed above 50㎍ of folate per serving size.
A Study of Body Anthropometry and Dietary Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Korean Pre- and Postmenopausal Women
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 159~167
The objective of this study is to examine the factors affecting bone mineral density in pre- and postmenopausal women. The subject were 30 Korean premenopausal women with mean ages of 33.6 years, and 30 Korean post menopausal women with mean ages of 63.3 years without diagnosed diseases. Data for food and nutrient intake were obtained by the24-hour recall method. BMD of lumbar spine and femoral neck were measured by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Anthropometric measurement were made, and a blood sample was taken for assay osteocalcin. The results are summarized as follows: 16.67% of the subjects in the premenopausal women and 87.33% of the subjects in the postmenopausal women was less than the korean RDA level exceping phosphorus and vitamin C. In the premenopausal women, BMD of lumbar spine is correlated significantly with anthropometric measurement such as weight, waist circumference, BMI, and body fat mass BMD of femoral neck for the premenopausal women is correlated significantly with weight, BMI, waist circumference, body fat mass, hip circumference, and BMDs of both site are negatively correlated with lean body mass, total body water, but they are not related with intake of nutrients in this study. In the postmenopausal women group, BMDs of both site are not significantly correlated with anthropometric measurement, but BMD of lumbar spine showed positive relation with intake of energy, protein, and carbohydrate. In conclusion, adequate nutrient intake, especially energy, protein have been suggested to prevent the loss of bone mineral density in the postmenopausal women. Also, adequate body weight and BMI have been suggested in the premenopausal women.
A Study on Dietary Intake Pattern and Risk Factors of Atherosclersis in Korean healthy Adults by Dietary Survey
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 168~174
This study was conducted to investigate correlation between soybean and their products consumption and risk factors for atherosclerosis in the healthyKorean adults. Health behaviors such as smoking, exercise, alcohol consumption and dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of 193 healthy adult subjects aged from 26 to 69 were assessed by using interview and semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. The BMI, blood pressure and biochemical parameters of blood were examined as well as preferences for taste and family history of disease. Data were expressed as quartile according to soybean and their products consumption. The average daily soybean and their product consumption for 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th percentile group were 36, 78, 112, and 182g, respectively. The more consumption of soybean and their products, the more intake of energy, protein, lipid, fiber, Ca, cholesterol as well as frequency of exercise, smoking and drinking. Serum TG, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and AI as risk factors of atherosclerosis were positively correlated with smoking and drinking (p<0.05). Especially, serum TG was positively correlated with hypertension and BMI (p<0.01). But, no correlation between exercise, salty taste, meat preference, soybean products consumption and atherosclerosis risk factors was found, which means that life styles such as smoking and drinking rather than dietary habits might influence atherosclerosis in healthy adults. In conclusion, present soy products consumption should be increased by way of developing new generation soy products in order to exert anti-atherosclerotic effect by soybean in human.
Food Preferences and Nutrient Intakes of College Students in Kangwon Province
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 175~182
The main focus of this study was set to help college students in Kangwon province to improve and correct dietary habits and to maintain healthy life. The nutritional status and food preference of college students were examined from May to July, 1999. The collection of the research data has been made on the basis of questionnaries for 184 college students residing in Kangwon province. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using SAS package program for descriptive frequency and statistical significance. The meal skipping ratio of the subjects were 2% and for the reasons of meal skipping 45% responded "lack of time". As for main dishes, cooked rice turned out to be the most preferred by the subjects and the second and third favored by female students were bread and noodle respectively. Most preferred side-dishes were meat soup, kimchi, laver Kui,squid Bockeum, fried squid, beef Chon, squid Chorim, soy Namul, Dubuk Changachi and squid Muchim. Less preferred side-dishes include radish soup, white kimchi, mugwort fry, liver Bockeum, liver sheon and egg plant Kui. No one-plate food was disliked by the subjects. Male liked Manndukuk and female liked cuttle fish rice. The intakes of nutrient except for energy, iron and calcium for female students were the same or above the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for Koreans.
A Comparative Study of Relationships among Eating Behavior, Intake Frequency of Food Group and Cardiovascular disease Related Factors in Vegetariand and Non-Vegetarians
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 183~192
The purpose of this study is to verify the relation between vegetarian diet and the risk factors of cardiovascular disease. To do the present study the vegetarians were selected; 127 Buddhist nuns (age : 23 ~ 79 yrs) from Oonmoon Temple in Choungdo District, Gyeongsang Book-do. For control subjects, 235 healthy female adults (age : 23~79yrs) were selected. They were the teachers, the nurses of the hospital of Gyeongsang National University and the housekeepers living in Chinju Gyeongsang Nam-do. This study was conducted from October 1996 to February 1997. The contents are consisted of anthropometric measurement, questionnaries about eating behavior and intake frequency of food group and clinical examination. The results were summarized as follows. The average ages of vegetarians and non-vegetarians were 44.2 yrs and 40.5 yrs respectively. Average body mass index (BMI) of vegetarians and non-vegetarians were 22.4 and 21.0, WHR were 0.8 and 0.8, percentage of body fat were 28.7 and 26.5 and the average duration of vegetarian diet of the vegetarians was 13.1 years. Eating behavior score of vegetarian was significantly higher than those of non-vegetarians. Eating behavior score was negatively of correlated with levels of serum total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and atherogenic index (AI). In intake frequency of green vegetable, lemon-yellow vegetable, bumb and seaweeds of the vegetarians more than those of non-vegetarians. Levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, AI, diastolic blood pressure, blood sugar and HDL cholesterol of non-vegetarians were significantly higher (p<0.01) than those of vegetarians, but ratio of HDL cholesterol/total-cholesterol was lower in non-vegetarians. Consequently, vegetable diet can be considerably diet help to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Identification of Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Isolated from Dried Laver (Porphyra tenera)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 193~195
A radiation-resistant bacterium was isolated from gamma irradiated dried laver (Porphyra tenera) and its microbiological characteristics were examined. As a result of resistance test to gamma irradiation, the isolate was survived
CFU/mL even at 30 kGy and significant shoulder line zone was shown until 20 kGy. The
value was 11.27 kGy. The isolate was gram-positive, non-motile coccus and catalase-positive. n culture, the red-pigmented smooth colony was observed. The biochemical test in API (analytical profile index) system showed that the isolate fermented glucose and fructose as the carbon source. Therefore, a radiation-resistant bacterium isolated from laver was potentially identified as Micrococcus roseus sp.
Growth Retardation of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by Leek Extract
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 1, 2001, Pages 196~198
The growth retardation of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by heat or acid treated leek (Allium tuberosum) extract was observed. Antimicrobial activity of the leek was the most effective when fresh leek extract was used, but it was stable after heat treatment at 68
for 30 min or 98
for 20 min. It was also relatively stable after incubated at pH 2.0 for 3 hrs. The antimicrobial activity in leek was not detected after dialysis with molecular weight cutoff of 12,000. Therefore it seems to be small molecule with molecular weight lower than 12,000.