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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 6 - Dec 2001
Volume 30, Issue 5 - Oct 2001
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Aug 2001
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Jun 2001
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Apr 2001
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Feb 2001
Selecting the target year
Physicochemical Properties of Starches from Flavored Glutinous Rice Varieties
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 765~769
Starches of flavored glutinous rice were analyzed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and tested on the starch granule susceptibility to 15% H
, glucoamylase and
-amylase. The shape of starch granules form flavored glutinous rice varieties was polygonal and the size was 4~6
m in diameter. According to DSC, glutinous rice starch showed onset temperature (T
) range 59.8~62.5
and KR92021-B-B-42-3-B and KR92021-B-B-165-1-B showed higher enthalpy (
H) on gelatinization than others. The starches from KR92021-B-B-5-2-B and KR92021-B-B-42-3-B showed lower hydrolysis rate using 15% H
than KR92021-B-B-165-1-B. KR92021-B-B-5-2-B showed higher degree of hydrolysis of glucoamylase and
-amylase than the others.
Detection Characteristics of Hydrocarbons from Irradiated Legumes of Korean and Chinese Origins
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 770~776
To compare chemical properties of irradiated legumes (soybean, peanut, red bean, mung bean) produced in Korea and China, radiation-induced hydrocarbons from the samples were investigated. The legumes were gamma-irradiated at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kGy, from which lipid was extracted with hexane. Hydrocarbons were separated by florisil column chromatography and then analyzed with GC-MS method. The chromatograms of irradiated samples showed several radiation-induced hydrocarbons, which were affected by the fatty acid compositions of legumes. Hydrocarbons, such as 1, 7, 10-hexadecatriene (16:3),6,9-heptadecadiene (17 : 2), 1, 7-hexadecadiene (16 : 2) and 8-heptadecene (17 : 1), were predominantly detected in soybean, peanut and red bean irradiated at 0.5 kGy or above, whereas 17 : 1 was not found in mung bean. The detected amount of hydrocarbons increased with irradiation doses. There is no apparent difference in qualitative and quantitative profiles of the corresponding hydrocarbons depending on the origin of legumes.
Effects of the Gamma Irradiation on Composition of Free Amino Acid, Fatty Acid and Organic Acid of Soybean-Based Fermentation Food
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 777~781
The effects of gamma-irradiation on the nutritional components of some Korean soybean-based fermentation foods were studied. Doenjang (soybean paste), kochujang (red pepper paste) and chungkukjang were prepared, irradiated at 0, 5, 10 and 20 kGy, and their compositions of free amino acid, free fatty acid and organic acid were determined. Compositions of free amino acid and free fatty acid in gamma irradiated sample were stable compared to non-irradiated control. Content of citric acid and succinic acid increased, while that of malic acid decreased in the gamma irradiated chungkookjang, but there were no significant changes in organic acid composition in organic and kochujang.
Taste Characteristics and Functionality of Two Stage Enzyme Hydrolysate from Low-Utilized Longfinned Squid
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 782~786
The taste characteristics and functionality of low-utilized small longfinned squid as affected by two stage enzyme hydrolysis were examined. In taste active-components, total free amino acid contents in hot-water and autolytic extract, two stage enzyme hydrolysate (TSEH) of longfinned squid were 2,792.5 mg%, 8,393.8 mg% and 9,186.1 mg%, respectively. The major free amino acids were Pro, Leu, Glu, Tau, Lys, Arg, Phe, Val and Ile. As for quarternary ammonium bases, betaine was the principal component (593.8 mg%) and also contents of TMAO, AMP in longfinned squid TSEH were 234.8% mg% and 51.0 mg%, respectively. The major inorganic ions in TSEH were Na(874.0 mg%), K (398.2 mg%), Cl (1,213.1 mg%) and PO
(995.9 mg%). From the results in sensory tests, TSEH was superior to other extracts on the aspects of taste characteristics such as umami intensity, sweetness, taste harmony and transparency of extract. Also TSEH of longfinned squid revealed very higher Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibition ratio (92.1%) than those of hot-water and autolytic extract.
Flavor Constituents in Enzyme Hydrolysates from Shore Swimming Crab and Spotted Shrimp
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 787~795
For the developing natural fisheries flavoring substances using crustacea, the flavor constituents of enzyme hydrolysates from shore swimming crab (crab) and spotted shrimp (shrimp) were investigated. In taste-active compounds of both enzyme hydrolysates, total free amino acid contents of crab and shrimp enzyme hydrolysates were 5,226.7 mg% and 8,757.3 mg%, respectively. The major amino acids were taurine, glutamic acid, proline, asparagine, glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, lysine anserine and arginine. As for ATP related compounds, AMP was the principal component and small amounts of IMP was detected in both enzyme hydrolysates. In the quarternary ammonium bases, betaine was the principal component (593.8mg%), and contents of TMAO and betaine in both samples were 60.7 mg% and 850.0 mg%, 124.1 mg% and 755.9 mg%, respectively. The major components were Na, K, P and Cl in inorganic ions. The major fatty acids of both sample were 14 : 0, 16 : 0, 16 : 1n7, 18 : 1n9, 20 : 5n3 and 22 : 6n3, and composition ration of n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of were 27.8% and 28.5%, respectively. Total 99~109 volatile compounds were detected as a cooked odor of crab and shrimp enzyme hydrolysates by SDE apparatus/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The volatile flavor compounds identified from cooked crab enzyme hydrolysate were composed of 6 acids, 10 alcohols, 7 aldehydes, 11 ketones, 1 ester, 5 phenols, 4 benzenes, 22 hydrocarbons, 1 furan, 21 nitrogen containing compounds and 11 micellaneous compounds. And the volatile flavor compounds indentified from cooked shrimp enzyme hydrolysate were composed of 13 acids, 10 alcohols, 6 aldehydes, 10 ketones, 3 esters, 2 phenols, 5 benzenes, 36 hydrocarbons, 1 furan, 14 nitrogen containing compounds and 8 micellaneous compounds.
Isolation and Characteristics of Yersinia spp. from Mineral Spring Waters
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 796~801
A total of 277 mineral spring water samples in Kangwon province from 1999 to 2000 were analyzed for the presence of Yersinia spp. by the conventional Food and Drug Administration protocol, and presumptive strains were identified by morphological, cultural and biochemical tests according to Bergey’s manual. Also, the biotypes, serotypes, and susceptibility to 12 antibiotics were tested. Among the total 277 mineral spring water samples, 40 samples (14.4%) were found to be contaminated with Yersinia species. Among the 40 strains of Yersinia spp. isolates, 33 strains (82.5%) for Yersinia enterocolitica, 4 strains (10%) for Yersinia frederiksenii, 2 strains (5%) for Yersinia intermedia, and 1 strain (2.5%) for Yersinia sakazaki were identified, respectively. Of 40 Yersinia spp. isolates, Yersinia enterocolitica (82.5%) was the most predominant species in the mineral spring water samples compared to other Yersinia species. Compared to direct culture method after KOH treatment and KOH treatment method after cold enrichment for better isolation ratio of according to comparision of Yersinia species, the detection ration (18.5%) of KOH treatment method after cold enrichment was about 3 times better than that (6.1%) of direct culture method after KOH treatment. According to serotypes of Y. enterocolitica isolates, O : 5 (12.9%) was the most predominant and followed by O : 3 (9.7%), O : 8 (6.5%), and O : 9 (3.2%), and others. For biotypes of Y. enterocolitica isolates, 1A (71.0%) was the most predominantly abundant and followed by 3A (12.9%), 3B (9.7%), 1B (3.2%) and 5 (3.2%). Also, an antibiotic susceptibility test showed that Yersinia spp. isolates were very susceptible to the antibiotics tested, but they were very strongly resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin and carbenicillin.
Cloning and Expression of the dapD Gene from Brevibacterium lactofermentum in E. coli
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 802~805
The dapD gene of Brevibacterium lactofermentum encoding tetrahydrodipicolinate N-succinyl transferase, one of the enzymes involved in lysine biosynthesis, was cloned by complementation of Escherichia coli dapD mutnat. The recombinant plasmid pLS1 was found to contain a 3.6 kb DNA fragment. Southern hybridization analysis confirmed that the cloned DNA fragment originated from B. lactofermentum. The data of L-lysine production showed that the B. lactofermentum dapD gene was expressed in E. coli.
Effects of Commercial Salts on the Growth of Kimchi-Related Microorganisms
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 806~813
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of various kinds of commercial salts including Chunil, Hanju, Guwoon and Bamboo salts on the growth of microorganisms involved in kimchi fermentation. Among various microorganisms related to the kimchi fermentation, the growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pichia membranaefaciens and E. coli was examined. Based on the conditions of kimchi fermentation, 3% and 5% concentration of each salt were studied. Also, the temperatures at 1
of the cultural condition were examined. The growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides was inhibited depending on the reduction of cultural temperature and increase of concentration of salts. There was no considerable difference on the growth of Leu. mesenteroides in the different the kind of salts. However, the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum was strongly inhibited by the 5% concentration of Bamboo salt during incubation at 18
. When Lactobacillus plantarum was cultured at 1
, its growth was remarkably decreased regardless of the kind and concentration of salts. In the case of Pichia membranaefaciens, Bamboo salt strongly inhibited its growth at all cultural temperatures. Apparent inhibitory effect on the growth of E. coli was observed by the Bamboo salt treatment during the incubation at 18
. At the cultural temperature of 1
, similar results obtained.
The Changes of Ascorbic Acid and Chlorophylls Content in Gochu-jangachi during Fermentation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 814~818
This study was carried out to investigate changes in salinity, pH, ascorbic acid, chlorophyll and its derivatives of the different gochu-jangachi (unripe hot pepper preserved in soybean paste and soy sauce). As the fermentation proceeded, the salinity of these samples stored at 15
was higher than that stored at 5
. The pH of samples was slowly lowered and little different during the fermentation at 5
. In the during fermentation at 15
, the pH of gochu-jangachi with soybean paste was maintained over 5 until 60 days and that of gochu-jangachi with soy sauce was dropped under 5 after 32 days, after that the value was slowly decreased. As fermentation time passed, the content of ascorbic acid in gochu-jangachi was decreased rapidly at 15
than at 5
and that was disappeared after 16 days (soybean paste) and 20 days (soy sauce). In both samples, the degradation of chlorophyll a was faster than chlorophyll b, especially at 15
. The degradation of chlorophylls or production of pheophytin and pheophorbide were closely related to the ascorbic acid content during fermentation.
Characteristics of Kakdugi Radish Cube by Spring Cultivars during Salting
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 819~825
Characteristics (salt concentration, weight loss, soluble solid content, moisture content, pH, textural properties) of kakdugi radish cube (2
2 cm) were evaluated during salting. Four different radish cultivars harvested in spring were immersed into 5, 10 or 15% brine (radish : brine - 1 : 2) at 15
for 5 hr. The time required to reach the optimum salt concentration (3.0%) was different among cultivars; in 10% brine solution, 5 hr for ‘Bakbong’and ‘9621’, and 4 hr ‘Bagkwang’ and ‘Housebommu’, in 15% brine, 3 hr for ‘Bakbong’and ‘9621’, and 2 hr for ‘Bagkwang’and ‘Housebommu’. While the highest value of weight loss of kakdugi radish cube was observed with ‘Bagkwang’, the lowest, ‘Bakbong’. There was a decrease of pH of kakdugi radish during salting ; while ‘Bakbong’ showed little change in pH, ‘Bakbong’and ‘Housebommu’ showed large decrease of pH. Hardness and fracturability decreased during salting; the highest value of hardness was observed with ‘Bagkwang’, the lowest, ‘Bagkwang’. ‘Bakbong’ has the lowest moisture content, but the highest soluble solid content, while ‘Bagkwang’and ‘Housebommu’ have the highest moisture content, but the lowest soluble solid content. There was a similarity of characteristics of kakdugi radish cube between two cultivars, ‘Bagkwang’and ‘Housebommu’.
Effect of Monascus Koji on the Fermentation and Quality of Kimchi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 826~833
The effects of Monascus koji on the fermentation and quality of mul-kimchi (CCK) were investigated. Monascus koji at a final concentration of 1% against total amounts of saline and salted Chinese was added to MK and CCK, respectively, and fermented at 1
. The koji of MK and CCK had a little effect on pH and acidity. Antimicrobial effect of water extracts from Monascus koji showed at the concentration of 3% for L. brevis and 5% for L. acidophilus and L. bulgaricus, respectively. Whereas no effect was founded in the strains of L. plantrum, L. GG and Leuc. mesenteroides. It was possible to control the color of kimchi by using Monascus koji instead of red pepper. Especially, color acceptability of MK added the koji was greatly improved. The content of reducing sugar and the score of sweet taste were slightly increased in the kimchi added the koji, whereas no great difference in the crispness was found. Overall acceptability of CCK was not apparent, but that of MK was greatly enhanced. It is apparent that the inhibitions of HMG-CoA reductase in MK and CCK added 1% Monascus koji were 10~20 and 7~16%, respectively.
Changes in Kimchi Quality as Affected by the Addition of Boiled-Dried Fusiforme
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 834~838
To investigate the effect of boiled-dried fusiforme for making kimchi, it was added as 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% to brined Chinese cabbage by weight, respectively. Quality characteristics such as pH, titratable acidity, reducing sugar content, microbial loads were measured. Titratable acidity of 0.1% treatment showed a retarded increase compared to other samples, and maintained a higher reducing sugar content. Lactic acid bacteria numbers of boiled-dried fusiforme added kimchi were lower approximately by 2 log
CFU/mL after 10 day, which value was almost same as the control group. A 0.1% treatment of boiled-dried fusiforme showed no significant differences compared to the control in sensory evaluation.
Effects of Gamma Irradiation on the Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities of Korean Soybean-Based Fermented Food
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 839~843
The effect of gamma-irradiation on the hydrolytic enzyme activities of some Koran soybean-based fermented foods was studied. Doenjang (soybean paste), kanjang (soy sauce), kochujang (red pepper paste), chungkukjang and meju were prepared and irradiated at 0, 5, 10 and 20 kGy. Then activities of protease, amylase, lipase and fibrinolytic enzyme were determined. Hydrolytic enzyme activities of meju, chungkukjang and doenjang were relatively higher than those of kanjang and kochujang. Amylase, protease and lipase activities were not affected by 10 kGy and were slightly (about 10%) inactivated by 20 kGy of gamma irradiation, with no statistical significance. Fibrinolytic enzyme was stable in all treatments.
Thermostability of Polyphenol Oxidase from Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 844~847
Factors affecting thermostability of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from potato were studied for the purpose of providing useful information for food processing operations. The enzyme was most stable at pH 7.0 and it was inhibited to 70% after heat treatment at 8
for 1 min. The z-value for the thermal inactivation of the PPO was 12.17
. The thermostability of the enzyme was reduced by addition of sodium chloride. And the activity was inhibited by addition of reducing reagents such as 2-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol.
Effects of Heat Treatment on the Antigenicity of Gamma-Irradiated Egg White Albumin
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 848~853
This research was conducted to study the effects on antigenicities (allergenicity) and structural changes of gamma-irradiated hen’s egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) by heating. Three groups of OVA solution (2.0 mg/mL) were prepared; 1) heat treatment; 2) irradiation after heating; 3) heating after irradiation. Samples were isothermally heated and/or irradiated at the absorption dose of 10 kGy. Competitive indirect ELISA was individually formatted with egg-allergic patients IgE (P-IgE), and mouse murine monoclonal IgG (M-IgG) and rabbit polyclonal IgG (R-IgG) for evaluating bindinhg abilities of antibodies to OVA in the sample solutions. Binding abilities of antibodies to thermally denatured OVA were changed : R-IgG to the sample treated with above 6
, M-IgG to that above 7
, and P-IgE to that above 8
, respectively. P-IgE did not well recognize OVA heated at 8
and the above. However, binding abilities of M-IgG and R-IgG highly in creased. Significant differences of binding abilities were not observed in all samples with the combination of heat treatment and irradiation, regardless the order of the treatment. Turbidity of samples in creased both by heating and by irradiation, and the increase by irradiation was much higher than by heating. These results showed that allergenicity of OVA reduced by gamma irradiation was not affected by heating.
Changes of Free Radical Concentration with Irradiation Dose and Storage Time in Gamma-Irradiated Dried Vegetables
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 854~857
Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was used to detect free radicals in irradiated dried vegetables. Dried carrot, mushroom and green onion were irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 kGy at room temperature using a Co-60 irradiator. Free radicals were detected in irradiated dried carrot, green onion and mushroom, while those were not detected in non-irradiated samples. Since concentration of free radicals linearly increased with applied doses (1~7 kGy), highly positive correlation coefficients (
=0.9747~0.9919) were obtained between irradiation doses and free radical concentrations right after irradiation. Although concentration of free radicals slowly decreased with storage time, the characteristic ESR signals of free radicals slowly decreased with storage time, the characteristic ESR signals of free radical in irradiated samples were observed even after 3 months of storage at room temperature.
Evaluation of the Addition of Sodium Lactate and a Fat Replacer in Very Low-fat Bologna (model system) on the Product Quality and Shelf-life Effect during Refrigerated Storage
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 858~864
This study was performed to investigate the effect of sodium lactate (SL, 60%) and a mixed fat replacer (FR) on the product quality and shelf-life effect of low-fat bologna sausage (LFBS) in a model system during refrigerated storage. Low-fat and regular-fat bologna sausages had pH values ranged from 6.15 to 6.30 and water activity values ranged from 0.95 to 0.96. LFBS had a moisture content of 74~76%, <2% fat and 14~15% protein, whereas regular-fat bologna had 60% moisture, 22% fat and approximately 12% protein in the final products. Expressible moisture (%) increased (p<0.05) in all bolognas, resulting in the soft texture, as the storage time (weeks) increased. LFBS manufactured with SL and a FR had lower (p<0.05) the cooking loss (%) and had higher (p<0.05) texture profile analysis (TPA) values than the regular-fat counterpart. As the sodium lactate level increased up to 5% in the formulation of LFBS, vacuum purge and TPA hardness values also increased (p<0.05), but thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values decreased (p<0.05). Total plate counts of LFBS were reduced (p<0.05) when the addition level of 60% SL solution was more than 3.3%. This result indicated that the increased level of SL (>3.3%) in the combination of a FR in the formulation of LFBS improved the product quality and did inhibit the total microbial growth of LFBS during storage, as compared to the control.
Effect of Chitosan on Shelf-life and Quality of Buckwheat Starch Jelly
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 865~869
Isolation and identification of the major bacteria causing spoilage of buckwheat starch jelly, and the effects of chitosan concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0%) on shelf-life and quality of buckwheat starch jelly were investigated. Eight strains were isolated from spoiled buckwheat starch jelly and identified as Serratia liquefaciens and Staphylococus lentus. During storage of buckwheat starch jelly for 6 days at 18
, viable counts were lower at higher chitosan concentrations, especially at 1.5% and 2.0%. Water activity was less reduced at higher chitosan concentrations. Color L* value decreased, and a* values increased slightly with storage periods. In sensory evaluation, buckwheat starch jelly containng 1.0% chitosan was evaluated the best, with lower overall acceptability at higher chitosan concentrations. Buckwheat starch jelly containing 1.0% chitosan showed a longer shelf-life by 1~2 days than the control.
Optimization on the Preparation Conditions of Instant Rice Gruel Using Paecilomyces japonica mycelia
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 870~876
Cordyceps is very famous of its board biological activities and vital function in traditional medicines. Fourdimensional response surface methodology was used for monitering of instant rice gruels. The organolepitc color of instant rice gruel prepared using mushroom and glutinuous rice showed the maximum score in 38.52% rate of glutinous rice 321.46 mL content of added water and 1.30 g content of P. japonica mycelia. The organoleptic taste of instant rice gruel prepared using mushroom and glutinous rice showed the maximum score in 64.86% rate of glutinous rice 270.66 mL content of added water and 2.32 g content of P. japonica mycelia. The organoleptic flavor of instant rice gruel prepared using mushroom and glutinous rice was maximized in 36.75% rate of glutinous rice, 323.40 mL content of added water and 1.42 g content of P. japonica mycelia. The organoleptic mouth-feel of instant rice gruel prepared using mushroom and glutinous rice was maximized in 65.33% rate of glutinous rice 275.37 mL content of added water and 2.41 g content of P. japonica mycelia. The organoleptic overall palatability of instant rice gruel prepared using mushroom and glutinous rice showed the maximum score in 40.94% rate of glutinous rice 352.79 mL content of added water and 1.27 g content of P. japonica mycelia.
Effects of Emulsifiers on the Properties of White Layer Cakes Prepared from Geurumil Flour
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 877~881
A domestic wheat variety (Geurumil flour) was evaluated for the properties of white layer cake, and compared to a commercial soft wheat flour. Geurumil flour contained more protein, ash, and lipid contents than commercial soft wheat flour. Very little difference in cake batter pH was observed between soft wheat flour and Geurumil flour, and the addition of emulsifiers tended to decrease the pH of Geurumil cake batter The specific gravity of the cake batter was lower in Geurumil flour than in soft wheat flour, and decreased effectively by the addition of emulsifiers due to batter aeration. Specific loaf volume was influenced by the addition of emulsifiers and demonstrated the highest values at the level of 1 ~ 2%. Addition of Ester-400 (monoglyceride) showed better cake properties in terms of volume, symmetry and uniformity index than sucrose-fatty acid ester did, and thus appeared to be more effective in improving baking performance. The changes in firmness of cakes during storage at
were observed, and Ester-400 showed some Positive effects on retarding cake staling.
Qualities of Bread Added with Korean Persimmon(Diospyros kaki L.folium)Leaf Powder
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 882~887
The purpose of this study was to investigated quality properties of breads prepared from wheat flour with persimon leaf power. Results showed that the volume of bread was lessened, the weight of bread went up, and baking loss rate diminished as persimmon leaf powder content incremented. The experiment showed that bread was maintained in the low level of springiness and cohesiveness was relatively reduced as time lapsed, whereas 3.0 and 5.0% test group remained significantly high level. There was a rapid increment in chewiness and gumminess, which tended to show significantly low as compared to control group, Results of sensory evaluation showed that the preference scores decreased as the persimmon leaf powder contents increased (p<0.05), flavor made no significant differences up to 3.0% test group, however, 5.0% test group containing elutionsuch as catechin or tannin produced sour and bitter taste so strongly that made if feel uncomfortable with. The augment of content indicated a low prederence in terms of texture, in an overall preference had no significant differences as compared to the control group, and 0.5% test group. Through the results of these of these experiments, we can conclude that the highest quality of persimmon leaf powder content is no more than 0.5% in making bread added with persimmon leaf powder
Changes in Physicochemical Components of Soy Sauce during Fermentation from Anchovy Sauce
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 888~893
Soy sauce has a long history used as a food ingredient. However, hydrolyzed vegetable protein, mono-sodium glutamate, starch syrup, and fructose are added to soy sauce during fermentation for the taste and flavor of product. But consumers have been reluctant to the taste of these artificial additives. In this experiment, anchovy sauce was used to prepare soy sauce to enhance the quality and brine was used as a control. To evaluate the quality of soy sauce added with anchovy, total nitrogen (TN) and soluble nitrogen contents, total soild contents, total sugar reducing sugar. lactic acid content and protease activity were monitored during fer-mentation. Total microbial numbers and lactic acid bacteria were not significantly changed among the cases. Aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. and lactic acid bacteria were not significantly changed among the cases we studied, For the total sensory test, it was also estimated that the cases using anchovy sauce were superior to the control. From the results mentioned above, we could obtain shorter fermenation period as well as the quality improvement in the case of using anchovy sauce instead of salty water in the fermented soy sauce production.
Effect of High Calcium Diet on the Zinc and Copper Balance in Korean Female Adolescents
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 894~899
Intakes and excretions of zinc and copper were determined for 8 female adolescents (aged 16.4
0.5 y; body mass index 20.4
; body fat 33.3
2.5%; bone mineral density of lumbar spine in L2-L4; 0.96
) when they consumed diets basal and high in calcium for 6 days each. All subjects consumed a basal Ca diet containing 800 mg, Korean RDA level of the subjects, and a high Ca diet containing 1200mg, RDA plus 2 SDs of calcium intake. The diets provided 58% of energy intake as carbohydrate, 25% as fat, and 17% as protein. Food, urine and fecal samples were collected during the last 3 days of each feeding period and were assayed. Mean daily intakes on the basal and high calcium diets, respectively, were 6.57 and 6.37 mg for zinc and 910 and 812
for copper. Fecal excretion of copper and zinc in relation to intake was significantly greater on the high calcium than on the basal calcium diet. Hence, apparent absorption rate was significantly lowered from 98.7% on the basal calcium diet to 97.9% on the high calcium diet for zinc from 66.3% to 56.4% for copper, respectively. Urinary loss of copper was not detectable but that of zinc was 0.38mg on the basal diet and 0.47mg on the high calcium diet. Copper retention was 899
/day on the basal calcium diet and 792
/day on the high calcium diet, and zinc retention was 3.95
0.91mg/day and 3.11
0.89mg/day. Thus, copper and zinc retention was significantly decreased on the high calcium diet (p<0.05). Summarizing the results, apparent absorption and retention of zinc and copper were significantly decreased by calcium supplementation. Therefore, it is suggested that interactions among minerals should be considered in determining RDA.
Quantitative Analysis of Dietary Fibers from Perilla frutescens Seeds and Antimutagenic Effect of Its Extracts
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 900~905
In this study, the levels of insoluble dietary fiber(IDF) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) in Perilla frutescens seed were quantified and antimutageinc effects of perilla seeds extracts (method extract, hexane extract, methanol soluble fraction and dietary fiber)was carried out IDF and SDF values of perilla seeds were 16.1% and 1.1% , respectively, with 17.2 of total fiber content. Among the solvent extracts of perilla seeds, methanol extract and methanol soluble fraction (MSF) effectively inhibited the mutagenicity induced by aflatoxin B
)in Salmonella typhimurium TA100, Methanol extract of perilla seeds showed 91% inhibition against AFB
mutagen under the 2.5 mg/assay concentration, and MSF inhibited the mutagenicity of 87% by adding 1.25,g/assay. However, perilla seed extracts showed low inhibition rate on the mutagenicity induced by N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitosoguanidine(MNNG). And also, SDF and hexane extracts from perilla seeds did not show the antimutagenic effects against AFB
and MNNG. On the hand, IDF extracted from perilla seeds inhibited 21% of mutagenicity induced Trp-P-2 due to the carcinogen binding effect.
Effects of Kimchi Supplementation and/or Exercise Training on Body Composition and Plasma Lipids in Obese Middle School Girls
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 906~912
The effects of aerobic exercises and/or supplementation of kimchi on changes of the body composition and plasma lipids of obese middle school girls were studied. Thirty eight girls, 28 obese girls and 10 normal weighed girls, were paricipated. Among obese girls, 8 were assigned to exercise group (FG) 12 were grouped as kimchi group (KG) , and 8 were asked to practice excercise and to take kimchi simultaneously(excercise kimchi group, EKG). Ten girls whose weight is normal asked to remain o their own diet during 6 weeks of experiment (control group, CG)/ EG practiced jogging and rope-jumping for 60 minutes four times a week and KG took 3 g of freeze-dried kimchi packed in a 500 mg capsule daily which is equivalent to 30 g of fresh kimchi, EKC, EG and KG showed beneficial effects on changes of the body composition and plasma lipids compared to those of CG, EG showed greater effect than KG in reducing body fat resulted decrease in BMI, fat mas,. abdominal fat, and triglyceride concentration and increase in HDL-cholesterol. KG seemed to have greater effect on lowering plasma cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol than EG/ But the greatest effects in terms of reduction in weight, BMI fat mass, abdominal fat, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, and increase in HDL-cholesterol were observed from EKG. These results indicate that kimchi supplemenation while practicing excercise might improve the obese state by reducing body fat content as well as reducing plasma lipids.
The Effect of Kimchi Pill Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Concentration in healthy people
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 913~920
The effect of kimchi pill supplementation on plasma lipid concentration of middle aged healthy people were studied. Freeze-dried mustard leaf added (30%) Korean cabbage kimchi and powdered glutinous parch were used to prepare kimchi and placebo pill, respectively. Experimental group if six participants took 3 g of freeze-dried kimchi as a pill daily for 6 weeks which is equivalent to 30 g of fresh kimchi and control group of six people took same amount of placebo. The diet intakes for the kimchi and placebo group fairly remained unchanged during 6 weeks of trial. When the effect of kimchi pill supplementation was expressed as average percentage changes based on each individual changes, the plasma triglyceride concentration of kimchi pill group was sig-nificantly decreased by 16.8% during trial (p<0.05)while that of placebo group increased by 9.8%, But no changes in plasma and LDL cholesterol concentrations of both groups were observed. HDL cholesterol of kimchi pill group significantly increased by 11.7%(p<0.05), therefore the ratio LDL/HDL cholesterol was significantly decreased by 6.7%(p<0.05) while that for the placebo group increased. The atherogenic index at the kimchi group was also significantly decreased by 10.8%(p<0.05). Kimchi supplementation seemed to have beneficial effects on controlling plasma triglyceride and HDL cholesterol in middle aged men.
Cytotoxicity and Antigenotoxic Effects of Cordyceps militaris Extracts
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 921~927
This study was performed to investigated the effects on the cytotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of Cordyceps militaris extracts on the human cancer cell lines. The ethanol extract and five fractions which were hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, butanol and aqueous were screened for crytotoxicity on human lung carcinoma(A549). human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) human epitheloid carcinoma(HeLa), human fibrosarcoma(HT1080) human hepatocellular carcinoma(Hep3B), human gastric carcinoma(KATOIII) and chronic myelogenous leukemia(K562) cell by SRB and MTT assays. The results showed that growth inhibition rates of the human cancer cell in the presence of Cordyceps militaris were inhibited with increasing concentration of the extract. The ethanol extract from Cordyceps militaris had strong inhibitory effects in1 mg/mL treatment by SRB assay , showing 89.4%, 85.7%, 72.9% and 65.5% inhibition in HT1080, HeLa, Hep3B and A549, respectively. The treatment of 1 mg/mL hexane fraction by SRB assay had the strongest cytotoxicity with 97.0% on HT1080 followed by MCF-7(92.9%) and HeLA(90.3%). The inhibition ration on KATOIII by MTT assay was much higher in the butanol (83.7%) and aqueous (80.4%) than in the ethanol extract (61.5%) And also, K562 showed similar tendency with KATOIII. The effects of Cordyceps militaris extracts on the frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) induced by N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidime(MNNG) were investigated in the bone-marrow cells of ICR male mice. The amount of 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg of each extract were administered to animals immediately after injection of MNNG, and the exposure time was 36 hours. Significant reductions(p<0.05) with 39.7%, 52.7%, 71.4% and 83.9% were observed in the frequencies of MNPCE when 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg of the hexane fraction of Coryceps militarus extracts were given to the mice.
Protective Effect of Hericiumerinaceus Extracts on Hepatic Injury Induced by Benzo(
)pyrene in Mice
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 928~932
The protective effect of Hericium erinaceus methanol extract was investigated on benzo(
)P) induced hepatotoxicity in mice, Hericium erinaceus extract was intraperitioneally injected once a hay for successive 5 days. followed by treatment with B(
)P on the fifth day. The elevated activities of serum aminotransferase and hepatic cytochrome P-450 by B(
)P was decreased by pretretament with Hericium erinaceus extract. Moreover, hepatic lipid peroxide content and glutathions S-transferase activity increased by B(
)P were significantly decrease, but depletion of glutathione content induced by B(
)P was prevented by Hericium erinaceus extract. In addition, the increased activities of superoxide diamutase, catalase and glutathions peroxidase after B(
)P-treatment were decreasd. Immunoblott analysis of hepatic microsomes showed that methanol extract of Hericium erinaceus suppressed protein level of the cytochrome P-450 1AI increaed by B(
)P. These results suggest that Hericium erinaceus extract may protect liver from damage induced by B(
The Effect of Fermented Milk by Bifidobacterium bifidum on Serum Lipid Metabolism in Rats Treated High Fat Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 933~936
Selecting B. bifidum K-7 out of the bifidobacteria separated from healthy adults in the age of 20s which shows high degree of acid tolerance and bile tolerance, as the main bacterium, this study of find how the bifido-bacteria cause hypocholesterolemic effect in the high fat diet. In order to do this Sparague-Dawley male rats with the initial weight 200 g in average were assigned to four experimental group: 1) high fat diet & milk, 2) high fat diet & the milk added with bifidobacteria, 3) high fat diet & the milk added with microencapsulated bifidobacteria, 4) high fat diet & the fermented milk by bifidobacteria. The numbers of bifidobacteria ingested daily per rat through each type of the above mentioned milk are 10
CFU respectively. Hypocholesterolemic effect and high level of serum phospholipid were observed in the group fed with fermented milk being compared with the group fed wih no bacterium but not in the groups fed with the milk with bifidobacteria and microencapsulated bifidobacteria. Thus, it was confirmed that the hypocholesterolemic effect is not due to the bifidobacterium itself but to the fermentation on milk.
Experession of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide in the Hypothalamus of Fasting and Anorexia Mutant Mice (anx/anx)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 937~942
The present study was conducted to identify the mechanism about the regulation of appetite by examining the expression patterns of vasoactive intestinal peptide in the hypothalamus of either fasted for 24 hours or anorexia mutant mouse. In order to investigate expression pattern of the vasoactive intestinal peptide, immunohisto-chemistry was employed along with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and dot blotting. Immunohistochemistry has shown that level of expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide and appetite-suppessing neuropeptide, was lower in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and higher in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the anorexia mutant group than in the comparable regions in the control group. This pattern was repeated in the fasting group, which also showed lower and higher levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide expression in the SCN and PVN respectively, In contrast, the vasoactive intestinal peptide mRNA level in the entire hypothalamus via RT-PCR and dot blotting was similar in the fasting and control groups, while it was significantly increased in the anorexia mutant group.
Isolation an Identification of the Active Compounds from Green Mustard Leaves against Oxidative Stress in Bovine Brain Tissue
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 943~948
Green mustard leves were found to effectively prevent lipid peroxidation of bovine-brain tissue by ascor-bate/Fe system, The 50% methanol extracts mustard leaves were separated into four solvent faction using n-hexane,. EtOAc, n-BiOH and water. Then n-BiOH fraction exclusively exhibited the antioxidative activities at concentration above 100
/mL/ The n-BuOH fraction was further isolated to a single compound using TLC analysis and silica gel chromatography. The active antiodidative compounds were identified as sinapic acid methyl ester and ferulic acid methyl ester by
C-NMR, The sinapic acid methyl ester and ferulic acid methyl ester were prepared by methylating of sinapic acid and ferulic acid with diazomethane. The results strongly suggested that sinapic acid and ferulic acid could be emplyed as a potential antioxiative agents for preventing the bovine brain lipid peroxidation. lipid peroxidation.
Anticoagulating Activity of Persimmon and It Processed Foods
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 949~953
Persimmon has been considered to have a therapeutic value diseases in Korea, Dried, persimmon was applied to a wounded part for an anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, Anti-coagulating activity has been detected in persimmon by a thrombin-induced clotting assay using human plasma. The anti-coagulating activity was detectible in stem, pulp, core, leaf, and seed of persimmon The stem part of persimmon contains maximal anti-coagulating activity after-size-fractionation. Both of an anticoagulant and its denaturating factor were present in persimmon pulp. The concentration of anti-coagulating activity was determined and compared in different harvesting time, species, and available foods. The level of anti-coagulating activity was highest in persimmon(Fuyu)harvested in November. The anti-coagulating activity was decreased significantly in its processed foods. Persimmon could be expected to be effective in prevention of diseases induced by excess coagulation.
Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase Activator from Persimmon and Its Processed Foods
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 954~958
Perismmon has been consumed for long times in Korea and used as a drug for a long time in Korea, It was known to help alcohol intoxication. Ingested alcohol is metabilized by alcohol dehydrogenease and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver. Alcohol dehydrogenease activator and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activator(ALDHA) was detercted in persimmon. The oncentration of ALDHA was determined and compared in different havesting time, species, and available processed foods. The level of ALDHA was highest in persimmon (Fuyu) harvested in November. Lower ALDHA activities were found in its processed foods. Persimmon and its processed foods are expected to be effective in decreasing the concentration of alcohol and acetaldehyde after alcohol intake.
Antimicrobial Effects of Scutellariae Radix Extract against Listeria monocytogenes
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 959~963
To investigate the antimicrobial effects of Scutellariae Radix extract against L.monocytogenes from foods, L. monocytogenes strains isolated from livestock, processed food from meat and milk, and frozen foods, were examined for their sensitivity to Scutellariae Radix extract. 30 L. monocytogenes strains were isolated from total 178 samples(16.9%); 13(14.0%) strains from beef 6(20.7%) strains from pork, 9(39.2%) strains from chicken and 2 (16.7%) strains from frozen foods but was not found from processed products, The serotypes of isolated L.monocytogenes were serotype O-1 strains (23, 76.7%) and serotype O-4 strains(7, 23.3%) on antisera agglutination test. The growth curves of isolates were shown lag phase, logarithmic phase, stationary phase and death phase as typical sigmoid curve on the preservative-free hams. After 6 hours. Scutellariae Radix extract contain group differ from control group on preservative-free ham samples, and the isolates were inhibited in more than 1000 ppm Scutellariae Radix extract on the inhibitory growth curve of L.monocytogenes. The mor-phological changes were observed by transmission electron microscope and the microbial cells membrane was destroyed by Scutellariae Radix extract.
Antimicrobial Characteristics of Scutellariae Radix Extract
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 964~968
It was carried out for research and development of natural antimicrobial on Scutellariae Radix extract against food-borne infection bacteria .Scutellariae Radix extract showed remarkable antimicrobial activites against Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Vivro parahaemolyticus when examined by disk method, it was very stable on the wide rane of temperature and pH,.The growth rates of Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Vivro parahaemolyticus were decreased at the concentration of more than 500 ppm Scutellariae Radix extract, Indicating that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)of the Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Vivro parahaemolyticus to Scutellariae Radix extract were around 500 ppm . The morphological changes were observed by transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope and the microbial cells membran was destroyed by Scutellariae Radix extract. It was identified that the membrane integrity of the sensitive cells was disrupted by exposure to Scutellariae Radix extract as the
-galactosidase test on experimental substrate ONPG(o-nitrophenyl-
Disinfection State and Effective Factors of Utensils & Equipments Used to Foodservice of Elementry Schools in Busan
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 969~977
The purpose of this study was to investigate disinfection state and effective factors of utensils and equipments used to foodservice of elementary schools in Busan area, The questionnaire which was administered to 160 dietitians was used in this study as a survey method. The results were as follows. The disinfection method of tray was mainly used by electric gas. Table and other products of stainless steel sanitized by sodium hypochlorite and hot water, but above 51% of slicer. grinder and peeler were not sanitized after used. The products of wood and plastic also used mainly sodium hypochlorite and hot water as sanitizers. In disinfection time, knife, wood spoon and plastic products should be sanitized on demand, but 30.9~53.5% of this utensils except rice scoop were sanitized on demand that showed deficiency of cognition for sanitation. The disinfection of most of utensils and equipments was conducted every day, but food case, slicer, peeler, grinder and wood spoon showed lower disinfection frequency than other products, The method of disinfection was related to dietitians age and career number of total serving, duration of foodservice and serving place, The disinfection time was also affected by dietitians age and educational level, and serving place. The disinfection frequency was affected by number of employee, number of total serving and duration of foodservice. Therefore based on the results of this study, it should be given to the microbiological study on disinfection method of utensils such as slicer, grinder, peeler, large spoon, plastic prouducts and the dietitians sanitation training also should be conducted continuously.
A Comparative Study of Dietary Behaviors and Nutrient Intakes According to Alcohol Drinking among Male University Students in Chungnam
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 978~985
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of alcohol drinking on dietary behaviors and nutrient intakes among the university male students. The subjects were divided three group; no-alcohol group(n=83), alcohol group(n=78), and high-alcohol group(n=78).And they were observed general characteristics, life style, eating pattern, food frequency and nutrient intake using questionnaires. The mean age, height, weight and BMI of the subjects were 25.8
6.1 years old 171.5
5.4 cm, 63.4
9.7 kg and 2.3
, respectively. The types of residence and person who prepares meals were significantly different among the groups: the frequency of self-boarding and preparing meals oneself in high-alcohol group were higher than in other two groups. The frequency of physical exercise and cigarette smoking in high-alcohol group were higher than in other two groups. There were no significant differences in skipping meals among three groups. However, the most common reson why high-alcohol group skipped meals was due to a eating habit, while a lack of time in other two groups. The results show that the high-alcohol group tended to eat more often instant ramien, soybean sprout, anchovy, and coffee compared to the other two groups. The energy intakes in alcohol and high-alcohol groups were lower than those in no-alcohol group. In conclusion, high-alcohol students have unhealthy dietary behaviors in the light of high frequency of cigarette smoking, eating habit of skipping meals and instant foods, and therefore showing a strong need of proper education in alcohol withdrawal and meal management for them.
A Study on the Evaluation of Food Intake of Middle School Students in Kangneung
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 986~992
To assess the food intake and diet quality of middle school students who live in Kangneung area, a dietary survey using 3-day food record was conducted with 226 subjects. Seventy five percent of total food intake was in the form of plant foods and the rest in the form of animal food. Diet qualify was assessed by food group pattern, dietary diversity score (DDS), and dietary variety score (DVS). When counting the major food groups consumed, 53% of subjects had a DDS of 3 and 35% of subjects had a DDS of 4. When investigating the consumption pattern of the major five food groups, only 10.2% of subjects consumed foods from all five groups. The groups most frequently missed were dairy products (73.0%) and fruits (71.7%). On average, subjects habitually consumed 22.6 different foods daily, with the mean score of diet variety for males (22.1) being significantly lower than for females (22.9). Correlation coefficients between nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) and DVS ranged from r=0.40 for vitamin B
to r=0.61 for phosphorus. NAR also improved as the number of foods or food groups consumed increased (p<0.001). Associations between the NAR and high level of DVS was more positive than those between the NAR with DDS. When assessing the dietary quality of subjects using DDS and DVS, many people appeared not to have a desirable food intake. Therefore, to lead them to have nutritionally balanced diet, educating students and their parents on nutrients and suggesting guidelines for a desirable diet is considered to be essential so that they can intake from all of major food groups and have various foods in their diet.
Development of Nutritional Counseling Internet Program for Weight Reduction Using Expert System
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 993~999
The purpose of the study was to develop a nutritional counseling program using expert system to assist obese people to lose weight through behavior modification in the internet. The counseling internet program for weight loss was developed by the accumulation of knowledge for dealing with eating habits and exercising behaviors into expert system tool, Knowledge Engineering Agent (KEA) by a dietitian without any help of computer expert. KEA was built based on the theory of Multiple Classification Ripple Down Rules. To accumulate knowledge into KEA, survey was performed in 150 obese people, the dietitian reviewed and consulted each survey case, and the consulted contents were learned and accumulated into KEA. Survey questionnaires were the same as those of the internet consulting program, and they included general characteristics, dietary habits, lifestyle, and exercise patterns related to obesity. KEA was used for nutritional counseling of obese people after KEA had enough knowledge for weight loss based on behavior modification by the dietitian. To accumulate knowledge to KEA, the dietitian selected proper factors inferred from the survey questionnaire of each case, and added the conclusions for them. Conclusions were made for helping clients to correct bad eating behaviors and accumulate good behaviors for losing weight. When clients answered survey questionnaires in a counseling internet program, KEA gave the recommendation how to eat, to exercise and the deal with stress in a real time for each case. If KEA did not have enough knowledge for a specific case, the conclusion window wrote no conclusion and the dietitian needed to add conclusions for the case. The conclusions for the new case added to the KEA knowledge base. In conclusions, a counseling internet program for weight reduction can be used for give advices how to deal with obesity in a man-to-man way in a real time using KEA where nutritional knowledge based on behavior modification for weight loss was accumulated.
The Reduction Effect of Yeast Hydrolysate SCP-20 on Premenstrual Syndrome
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 1000~1003
A yeast hydrolysate SCP-20 with anti-stress and mitigative effects for premenstrual syndromes (PMS) was composed with crude protein (57.5%) and carbohydrates (28.1%). For the investigation of anti-stress effect in the immobilization stressed rats, the weights of spleen, thyroid and kidney in the group of SCP-20 sdministration were significantly different from those in the group not given SCP-20. Total power (TP), suppression indicator of stress, was obtained from frequency of heart rate variability. TP was changed by the administration of SCP-20 suggesting that SCP-20 has the autonomous nervous control effect. In premenstrual assessment form(PAF), the administration of SCP-20 reduced the intensity of somatic symptoms, emotional symptoms, and behavioral symptoms.
Protein Quality Evaluation and Effect of Plasma Lipid Contents of Acid Hydrolysates of Cocoon inn Rats Fed by High Cholesterol, High Triglyceride and High Sucrose Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 5, 2001, Pages 1004~1009
Acid hydrolysates of cocoon was gained by acid hydrolysis of 2 N HCl, 11
, 48 hours, neutralization and desalting from the cocoon. The amino acid compositions of acid hydrolysates of cocoon were glycine 43.25%, alanine 34.39%, serine 10.05% and valine 2.44%. The contents of essential amino acid was 10.05%. Food efficiency ratio of acid hydrolysates of cocoon group was equal to the reference protein, casein. Liver weight, GOT, GPT activity, serum albumin and serum total protein level of rats were not significantly different among the experimental groups. Therefore, the protein acid hydrolysates of cocoon is not of high quality. When the rat fed with high cholesterol, high lipid, and high sucrose diet was administered with 5% acid hydrolysates of cocoon, its plasma lipids concentration of acid hydrolysates of cocoon was favorably affected: its triglyceride was decreased, and the level of phospholipid and HDL cholesterol were increased. There was also an unfavorable effect: the levels of LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol went up. Therefore, the acid hydrolysates of cocoon is not a good protein food source, but is can be used a cosmetic, medical, or packing material. Further research will reveal how it will affect or improve plasma lipid.