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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 6 - Dec 2001
Volume 30, Issue 5 - Oct 2001
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Aug 2001
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Jun 2001
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Apr 2001
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Feb 2001
Selecting the target year
Overcome Effect of Catabolic Response in Mouse by the Egg Yolks from Laying Hens Intubated Astaxanthin
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 127~127
Analysis of Volatile Organic Components from Fresh and Decayed Onions
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1011~1020
Volatile organic components from onions stored in the different decay conditions were extracted by SDE apparatus and analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Components of 115, 143, 123 and 137 were identified in fresh onions, decayed onions without heating, half-decayed and complete-decayed onions after heating, respectively. These components included esters, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols and sulfur-containing compounds. Dimethyl trisulfide, dimethyl disulfide, dipropyl trisulfide and 3,5-diethyl-1,2,4-trithiolane were the main sulfur-containing components in fresh onions and decayed onions without heating. As spoilage of onions, the concentrations of sulfur-containing components of volatile extracts significantly decreased. Apart from sulfur-containing components, volatile organic components in half-decayed and complete-decayed onions after heating were mainly composed of esters, aldehydes, ketones and alcohols. Ketones of volatiles in complete-decayed onions after heating were high relatively.
Physicochemical Characteristics of Rubus coreanus Miquel
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1021~1025
Physicochemical properties of Rubus coreanus Miquel were examined. Unripened fruit, ripened fruit and leaf of Rubus coreanus Miquel were used as samples. The contents of water, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, dietary fiber, and crude ash were studied. The pH, soluble solid content, acidity and color were also measured. In terms of free sugar composition, concentration of glucose and fructose found in unripened fruit had increased in ripened fruit and sucrose was contained in ripened fruit. The major free sugars of leaf were glucose, fructose and sucrose. Citric acid, succinic acid and fumaric acid were found in all three sample groups, unripened fruit, ripened fruit and leaf. The citric acid showed the highest concentration in the unripened fruit as the concentration of 1.21%. Fifteen types of amino acids were analysed from the unripened and ripened fruit of Rubus coreanus Miquel. The leaf contained methionine in addition to those fifteen type amino acids in fruits. The glutamic acid contents of unripened fruit, ripened fruit and leaf were 411, 246.59 and 898.42 mg%, respectively. Among the minerals studied in this research Rubus coreanus Miquel held high level of potassium. The potassium concentrations of unripened fruit, ripened fruit and leaf were 645.07, 216.53 and 815.78 mg%, respectively.
Effect of Microwave Treatment on the Antioxidant Activity of Rice Processed By-products
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1026~1032
Microwave treatment was studied to investigate the antioxidant ability of rice hull and rice bran. The color changes were related to the intensity of microwave and to the treated time on rice bran. However, the electron donating abilities of rice hull and rice bran extract were not much affected by microwave intensity. Rice hull extract treated with a 100 W microwave showed 80% inhibition of lipid peroxidation when fish oil was treated with
. Also inhibition activity against lipid peroxidation in rice hull is more stable than that of rice bran when treated with microwave. Overall, rice hull extract showed better antioxidant activity than rice bran. It seems that rice hull contains higher antioxidant components as well as the browning reaction products having anti-oxidant activity during microwave treatment.
Effect of Extraction Solvent on Volatile Compounds of Garlic Oleoresin
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1033~1037
Garlic oleoresins were made by extracting with four solvents of methanol, methyl acetate hexane and acetone from chopped garlic, respectively, and the volatile compounds of each extract were separated by gas chromatography installed with polar (supelcowax-10
) and nonpolar (HP-5) capillary columns, respectively, and identified by matching mass data of mass selective detector and Kovat\`s retention index with references. The numbers of the volatile compounds identified the garlic oleoresin by polar and nonpolar columns from in garlic oleoresins were 41 and 32, respectively. In polar column, 13 pyrans, 11 sulfur-containing compounds 6 furans 2 alcohols and 2 heterocyclic compounds were identified. In nonpolar column, 11 sulfur-containing compounds 5 acids 3 furans and eugenol were identified. The major sulfur-containing compounds identified from the oleoresins were 3, 3'-thiobis-1-propene, methyl 2-propenyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, di-2-prnpenyl-trisulfide, 2-thiophenecarboxylic acid. The amount of these sulfur-containing compounds isolated from the oleresins were more abundant in polar column than in nonpolar column. The most efficient solvent for extracting volatile compounds of garlic was methanol but the most useful solvent for extracting sulfur-containing compounds was methyl acetate of less polarity.y.
The Comparison of Food Constituent in Different Parts of Pumpkin
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1038~1040
This study was conducted to investigate the constituents of pumpkin, to develop of health food using pumpkin. Crude protein contents of skin (19.82%) and fiber (16.43%) were higher than that of flesh. Crude lipids contents of skin (2.84% ) was higher than those of flesh and fiber. Major free sugars in pumpkin were sucrose, fructose and glucose. Total sugar contents in the flesh was higher than that of fiber. This tendency was opposite to reducing sugar contents. Also, free sugar contents in pumpkin were flesh (30.19 mg/100 g), fiber (22.99 mg/100 g) and skin (15.67 mg/100 g), respectively. The total Phenol and carotenoid contents in 100 g of fiber revealed 379.8
9.76 mg and 43.71
1.46 mg, corresponding to 47% and 62% of the total phenol and carotenoid contents of pumpkin. Total flavonoid content in 100 g of skin revealed 81.5
Inhibition Effects of Caramelization Products from Sugar Solutions Subjected to Different Temperature on Polyphenol Oxidase
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1041~1046
Solutions of fructose, glucose and sucrose were heated without catalyst at various temperature for different length of time. Changes in the formation of early caramelization product and browning intensity as well as pH of heated sugar solutions were determined. Reducing powers of caramelization products (CP) and their inhibitory effects on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were also determined and their correlations were discussed. The early CP and browning intensity increased with temperature and time, in the order of heated fructose>sucrose>glucose solutions (p<0.005), while pH decreased. pHs of sugar solutions heated at 20
showed in the range of 3.32 ~ 3.50. Reducing power of CP as well as their inhibitory effect on PPO also increased with temperature and time, respectively. Among sugar solutions, reducing power showed the same trends as above at both 15
(p<0.001). However, those of heated fructose solutions were the highest in the early stage, while those of heated sucrose solutions were the highest in the final stage at 20
. This is due to the difference in CP formed. Sucrose solution heated at 20
showed the highest inhibitory effect, reducing PPO activity by 34.6%. From these results, it is considered that the inhibitory effect of CP on PPO is partly related to their reducing power.
Pigment Content in Meju Fermented by a Monascus Species with Different Materials
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1047~1052
The pigment content in meju fermented by a Monascus species with different materials was studied. The relations between growth of M. pilosus and pigment production were positive and the correlation coefficient associated with this relationship was determined to be : r = 0.9879. Pigments produced by M. purpureus and M. pilosus were composed of 9 and 8 bands, respectively. One kind of them was yellowish, whereas the others were reddish. Total pigment levels in rice meju fermented by M. purpureus and M. pilosus were 335.25 and 1428.90
/g, respectively. Pigment levels in the mejus fermented at 3
showed higher than those at 20 and 4
. The order of pigment content in meju was polished rice > germinated brown rice > wheat > brown rice > waxy brown rice > germinated waxy brown rice. Pigment production by M. pilosus was higher than that of M. purpureus. Pigment content in rice meju prepared by adding 10% seed culture was highest, and pigment content of granulated rice was higher than that of powdered rice. Pigment production was not desirable in soybean meju fermented by seed culture, whereas the pigment levels in meju by adding 10% powdered rice and 10% powdered rice seed meju increased by 23.0 ~75.0
Antioxidative Activity of Mustard Leaf Kimchi Added Green Tea and Pumpkin Powder
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1053~1059
This study was conducted to estimate the content of antioxidant components and investigate the antioxidative activity of mustard leaf kimchi added pumpkin powder (P) and green tea powder (G). Mustard leaf kimchi added different ratios of P and G were prepared and fermented for 30 days at 5
(properly fermented time). The contents of chlorophyll, total phenol, carotenoids and ascorbic acid in mustard leaf kimchi samples were estimated. The 30 day fermented mustard leaf kimchi added 0.3% P and 0.2% G had relatively higher content of antioxidant components than the other kimchi samples. Based on this result, antioxidative activities of mustard leaf kimchi added 0.3% P and 0.2% G and control kimchi were investigated, that is, methanol extracts of the mustard leaf kimchi samples were prepared and investigated the antioxidative activities. The antioxidative activity of mustard leaf kimchi added 0.3% P and 0.2% G was significantly (p<0,05) higher than control kimchi, and that of the 30 day fermented mustard leaf kimchi at 5
was also significantly higher (p<0.05) than the fresh mustard leaf kimchi. Therefore, it is suggested that antioxidative activity of the 30 day fermented mustard leaf kimchi added 0.3% P and 0.2% G at 5
was the best compared to the other kimchi samples.
Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Kakdugi Added with Various Thickening Agents During Fermentation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1060~1067
Effect of various thickening agents on kakdugi fermentation was investigated by measuring physicochemical and sensory properties during fermentation at 2
. Paste of seven kinds of thickening agents (wheat flour (WF), waxy rice flour (WR), corn starch (CS), acid modified starch (AM), aretylated distarch adipate (AA), hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate (PP) and xanthan gum (XG) ) at 0.25% concentration was added to kakdugi. Total acidity during fermentation was not different among thickening agents, but slightly lower in XG than control at the 7th day of fermentation. At 0 day of fermentation, free sugar amount were higher in thickening agent addition groups than control, but rapidly decreased to below control at the 7th day of fermentation, except XG. Glucose and fructose which were the major free sugars, decreased rapidly during fermentation, whereas mannitol increased in all samples. Viscosity of kakdugi liquid was much higher in thickening agent addition groups than control at 0 day of fermentation, but rapidly decreased from 1 day of fermentation. However, initial viscosity was maintained only in XG. Hardness at the 7th day of fermentation was higher in WR, PP, XG than control. The result of sensory evaluation shows that there were no significant difference in sour odor, sour taste and savory taste among samples. Moldy odor was higher in WR, WF and AM, but was not significantly different in XG, PP, AA compared to control. Viscosity of XG and PP, and starchy taste of XG were higher than those of control. Overall preference of XG, AM, PP were not significantly different from that of control. Xanthan gum was considered to be a good thickening agent for kakdugi but it is necessary to find a minimum concentration for kakdugi since starch taste of xanthan gum.
Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Dongchimi Added with Soybean-Curd Whey
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1068~1075
Effect of soybean-curd whey on the dongchimi fermentation was investigated by measuring physicochemical and sensory characteristics during fermentation at 1
. Dongchimi was prepared with various levels (0, 2, 5, and 10%) of soybean-curd whey. During fermentation, whereas salt concentrations of dongchimi liquid (1.1 ~ 2.0%) were similar among treatments, greater decrease in pH, but greater increase of total acidity, reducing sugar content, number of lactic acid bacteria and turbidity were observed in dongchimi with soybean-curd whey than those of control from the 2nd to the 9th day of fermentation. But at the 16th day of fermentation, acidity, turbidity and number of lactic acid bacteria of dongchimi with soybean-curd whey were similar to those of control. Reducing sugar content of soybean-curd whey addition groups maintained higher than that of control. The Hunter color L value decreased gradually and that of dongchimi with soybean-curd whey was lower than that of control. b value of control increased, but soybean-curd whey addition groups decreased during fermentation. Hardness and fracturability, determined by texture analyser, were higher in soybean-curd whey addition groups than control. Sensory evaluation showed that the scores of turbidity, sweet taste, savory taste, hardness and over-all preference were significantly higher in soybean-curd whey addition groups than control (p<0.05) ; the highest with 5% soybean-curd whey addition followed by 2% addition. dongchimi with 5% soybean-curd whey addition was the most preferable one with the score of 6.5.
Detection Characteristics of TL, ESR and DNA Comet for Irradiated Peanuts by Origins
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1076~1081
Gamma-irradiated peanuts, Korean and Chinese origins, were investigated on detection properties by thermoluminescence (TL), electron spin resonance (ESR), and DNA comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis). TL measurement showed that the non-irradiated sample revealed a glow curve with low intensity at about 25
, while the irradiated samples showed higher intensity around at 18
. TL ratio (TL
) of area for TL
glow curve to TL
was below 0.05 for the non-irradiated sample and 0.2 or more for the irradiated ones, thus identifying each other. ESR spectroscopy for the irradiated peanuts using outer skin showed negligible signals induced by irradiation, indicating ESR is little applicable to the detection of irradiated peanuts. In DNA comet assay, the non-sample had no or very short tails, whereas the irradiated samples revealed the cells with long tails. Significance in the increase of their lengths depending on irradiation dose (r=0.761/Korean, r=0.768/Chinese) was also found. There was no remarkable difference in detection properties by origins of samples in all determinations, It is concluded that TL analysis or DNA comet assay is suitable for detection of irradiated peanuts and a combined method is recommendable for enhancing the reliability of detection results.
Detection of Irradiated Starches from Korea and China by Viscometric Method
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1082~1087
A study was carried out to establish the detection method for irradiated cereals. Starchs were ground and irradiated at 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10 and 15 kGy using a Co-60 irradiator. The viscosities decreased in all samples by increasing irradiation dose. The viscosity of the potato, corn and sweet potato from Korea dropped from 35.00
0.86 and 14.02
0.62 in the control to 11.38
0.80 and 2.74
0.80, respectively, in the samples irradiated at 15 kGy. These trends were similar to samples from China. Regression expression and coefficients of viscosity of potato, corn and sweet potato starch from Korea were 0.97 (y=-4.6197x+38.284), 0.88 (y=-1.5146x+12.023) and 0.88 (y=-1.5146x+12.023), respectively, those of viscosity of starches from China were 0.69 (y=-28.849x+152.25), 0.81 (y=-3.38x+20.56) and 0.88 (y=-2.668x+18.505) at 50 rpm. All samples resulted in a decrease in specific parameter by increasing rpm after irradiation. Parameter values showed dose-dependent relationship between unirradiated and irradiated samples and indicated that all values of unirradiated samples were higher than the those of irradiated ones. These results suggest that the detection of irradiated potato, corn and sweet potato starch at various irradiation doses is possible by the viscometric method.
Sensory and Mechanical Characteristics of Yukwa Added Safflower Seed Powder
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1088~1094
The quality of Yukwa added with safflower seed powder (SSP) was investigated using chemical, sensory and mechanical properties, The result of chemical properties showed that degree of expansion of Yukwa were decreased as the amount of SSP increased, while fat absorption increased. Yukwa with 1% SSP was the best in appearance, taste and overall preference of acceptability. Lightness decreased by the addition of SSP, while redness and yellowness increased. Texture measurement showed that hardness was the lowest in the Yukwa with 5% SSP, and cohesiveness was the highest in the Yukwa with 1% SSP. Hardness and brittleness of mechanical properties were positively correlated with the acceptability. The degree of expansion was positively correlated with cohesiveness and springiness. Fat absorption and moisture content were positively correlated with gumminess in the mechanical properties. Yukwa with 1% SSP showed a good overall preference.
Processing and Storage of Spinach Products Using Cook-chill and Sous Vide Methods
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1095~1101
Spinach was minimally processed into the unseasoned side dish to be used for Korean food service industry, using the techniques of cook-chill and sous vide. Spinach was blanched at 10
for 6 minutes, vacuum-packaged in the unit of 500 g by plastic film of low gas permeability, pasteurized at 9
and then cooled rapidly at 3
. The chilled products were then stored at 3 and 1
with measurement in their quality. Six log cycle (6D) inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and 13 log (13D) thermal destruction of Streptococcus faecalis were compared as two pasteurization conditions, which corresponded to heating for 22.8 and 30.0 minutes at 9
, respectively. Milder heat processing based on 6D process of L monocytogenes gave better quality of color, texture, ascorbic acid and chlorophyll than the conditions of 13D process of S. faecalis. Any microbial growth in total aerobic, psychrophilic and anaerobic bacteria was not observed until 8 days at 1
and 14 days at 3
, which might be regarded as strict guidelines of shelf life. Storage times based on the changes in physical and chemical quality were longer than those based on strict microbial quality in case of the products pasteurized by 6D process of L. monocytogenes. The seasoned vegetables prepared from sous vide processed spinach were found to be inferior in sensory quality to those from freshly blanched one.
Establishment on the Preparation Condition of Pumpkin Honey Kochujang by Response Surface Methodology
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1102~1107
The mixing conditions of kochujang added pumpkin extract were optimized by response surface methodology. The organoleptic color of pumpkin kochujang showed the maximum score for the mixing condition of 433.63 g pumpkin extract, 81.76 g red pepper powder and 17.03 g meju powder. The organoleptic aroma of pumpkin kochujang revealed the maximum score for the condition of 437.07g pumpkin extract, 83.65 g red pepper powder and 11.90 g meju powder. The organoleptic taste of pumpkin kochujang showed the maximum score in 382.94 g pumpkin extract, 63.44 g red pepper powder and 13.10 g meju powder. The optimum mixing conditions for overall acceptability of pumpkin kochujang were 442.04 g pumpkin extract, 62.58 g red pepper powder and 16.30 g meju powder.
Preparation of Semi-solid Infant Foods Using Sweet-pumpkin
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1108~1114
This study was conducted to develop semi-solid infant foods using pumpkins. Purees were made from pumpkin and sweet-pumpkin, and were manufactured with blending, steaming or blanching. The moisture content of sweet-pumpkin puree was lower than pumpkin puree, but viscosity, Hunter\`s L, a, b values,
-carotene and riboflavin contents were higher. Steaming puree from sweet-pumpkin had the highest score in overall-preference and was selected as the ingredient far infant foods. In amylogram, gelatinization temperature was decreased and amylograph viscosity was increased, as the content of modified starch became high. Semi-solid infant floods were prepared with steaming puree from sweet-pumpkin, modified corn starch, rice powder and dairy products such as milk, whole milk powder and skim milk powder. After sterilization of infant foods, Hunter\`s color values were little changed. And the viscosity of infant foods were increased generally, but kept in 3% modified starch group. Sensory evaluation results showed that sweet-pumpkin puree 40%, rice flour 7%, skim milk powder 3% and water 50% was optimum ratio of infant foods.
Studies on the Storage of Functional Red Soybean Curd
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1115~1119
We prepared a functional red soybean curd (RS) from Ang-Khak according to various concentration (RS1 : red rice powder 0.1 g/10 mL, RS2: 0.2 g/10 mL, RS3: 0.3 g/10 mL, RS4: 0.4 g/10 mL, RS5: 0.5 g/10 mL, CS: control soybean curd). During the storage period of red soybean curd, pH, acidity, and microbial counts showed a minimum change in RS5. And in the case of color, all groups have slightly increased in yellowness except RS1. In the case of texture, hardness, gumminess, and springiness appeared to be increased for a few days and then fell down. As water drained out of soybean curd during storage at 1
, it became so stiff and then rotten that the hardness of soybean curd increased in the early stage and then decreased after all. After a week, we could find a better preservative effect of RS than CS. Resultly, we need more efforts to prolong the shelf-life of soybean curd with applying the functionality of Ang-Khak.
Commercial Wheat Flour Quality and Bread Making Conditions for Korean-style Steamed Bread
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1120~1128
This study was to investigate the flour quality and bread making condition required for Korean-style steamed bread, using 5 commercial wheat flours (protein content from 8.2 to 12.5%), They were compared in making steamed bread (SB) and baked roll bread (BRB). Straight dough method was used and the temperatures of dough and fermentation were controlled at 26
, respectively. The first fermentation was conducted at various times (0, 20, 40 and 60 min) and then forty min of proofing (2nd fermentation) was used for all bread dough. As the 1st fermentation time increased, volumes of both SB and BRB increased 4.3 ~8.7% and 27~40%, respectively, but the SB flattened and the total bread scores of SB decreased due to the lack of smoothness and shininess of the bread surface and poor grain. Contrary to that, the total bread scores of BRB increased. SB made from the flour containing 10.5% of protein, was of its highest quality: relatively high volume, smooth, semiglossy and white surface, good texture, followed by SB made from flours containing 10.9%, 9.5%, 12.5%, and 8.2% of protein content, respectively These results suggest that the 1st fermentation process was not needed for SB making. Total bread scores of SB were better correlated with farinograph dough stability than protein contents and volumes of SB were correlated with farinograph development time. Therefore, in steamed bread making, flour dough rheology is important as well as protein content.
Suitability of Various Domestic Wheats for Korean-Style Steamed Bread
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1129~1136
This study was to investigate the suitability of six domestic wheat cultivars for the Korean-style steamed bread made under optimal conditions. Six wheat flours milled from cultivars of Greu, Kumgang, Eunpa, Taptong Kobun, and Allgreu contained 13.8, 13.7, 13.7, 13.0, 11.7, 11.0% of protein. Control bread was made from blend (protein 10.5%) of 50% high strength and 50% low strength wheat flours milled from imported wheats. The volume of steamed bread made from Kumgang was highest followed by Eunpa, Tapdong, Kobun, Greu, control bread, Allgreu. Especially, the bread qualities of Kumgand and Kobun were superior to the control bread, showing better surface characteristics such as smoothness, glossiness, and whiteness, better shapes and desirable texture. Domestic wheat flours, having medium strength with high protein content above 13.0% were suitable for steamed bread except for Greu. Volumes of steamed bread made from domestic wheat flours were correlated with protein and ash content, flour color (L value), farinograph dough development time and stability, whereas spread ratio, total bread score and overall acceptability were correlated with farinograph dough stability It is concluded that flour quality is more important factor than protein content when domestic wheat flours are chosen for Korean-style steamed bread.
Microbiological Changes and TBARS Values during Storage of Kochujang-Gulbi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1137.1~1141
Kochujang-gulbi, a traditional food in Chonnam province of Korea, was prepared with kochujang and dried gulbi slices. The crude lipid contents of kochujang and gulbi in the product were 3.08% and 15.6% at 0 day, respectively. After 7 days, the lipid contents were changed to 8.15% and 9.72%. The moisture content and VBN of kochujang and gulbi in the product were reached to the equilibrium after 7 days. In the kochujang-gulbi product, the TBARS value in gulbi was reduced because the lipid from gulbi permeated into kochujang, while the value in kochujang was increased. To prevent the growth of microorganisms and lipid oxidation from the kochujang-gulbi, 0.5% (w/v) garlic extract, citron essential oil, or ethanol was added to the product. The garlic extract and ethanol were very effective to inhibit the growth of mold and yeast at 2
. The products treated with the garlic extract and citron oil were shown significantly lower microbial number than control for 30 days storage. The addition of citron oil to kochujang-gulbi showed lower TBARS value than other treatment.
Genotoxicological Safety of Hot Water Extracts of the
-Irradiated Glycyrrhizae Radix, Aurantii nobilis Pericarpium and Bupleuri Radix in vitro
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1137.2~1245
-irradiated medicinal herbs were examined the genotoxicological safety to consider the possibility of application of the irradiation technology for hygienic purpose. The three medicinal herbs -Glycyrrhigae Radix, Aurantii nobilis Pericarpium and Bupleuri Radix- were irradiated with
-rays at the practical dosage of 10 kGy. The hot water extracts of the irradiated herbs were examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100, (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary(CHO) cells. In the Salmonella reversion assays both with and without metabolic activation, the number of revertant colonies was not increased with each extract from the irradiated herbs, compared with negative controls. No significant difference in formation of the colonies was observed between non-irradiated and 10 kGy-irradiated herbs. These results indicated that no mutagenicity of the irradiated herbs was detected. In the micronucleus tests in cultured CHO cells, the incidences of micronucleus were not increased with irradiated herbs, and no significant difference in the incidences was observed between non-irradiated and irradiated herbs. These results indicated that no cytogenetic toxicity of the irradiated herbs was detected. The results of the two in vitro tests suggest that the irradiated herbs do not show mutagenic effects and cytogenetic toxicity. Further tests of in vivo genotoxicity and chronic toxicity are needed to determine the safety of the herbs irradiated with
-rays at practical doses.
Quality of Accelerated Salt-fermented Anchovy Sauce Prepared with Fig
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1142~1146
To facilitate fermentation of liquid anchovy sauce, 3% unripe figs, ripe figs, or fig leaves were added to the sauce and fermented at
for 60 days. The anchovy sauce prepared with ripe figs showed higher protease activity and better red-pupple color than others. Amino-nitrogen content in anchovy sauce treated with ripe figs was attained to 600 mg% within 10 days. Total free amino acid content in the product with fig addition showed about twice higher, 4543.21 mg%, than the control, 2255.29 mg%. Hypoxanthin was found as a major components of nucleotide and their related compounds in the fermented anchovy sauce. However, using the unripe figs and fig leaves impart greenish color and grass taste to the product.
Characteristics of Model Beverages with Gardenia Blue Pigments
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1147~1151
We investigated stabilities of blue pigment extracted from Gardenia jasminoides at various conditions to check its applicability for beverages. Gardenia blue pigment with maximum absorption at 587 nm was obtained from the reaction of glycine and genipin (aglycone of geniposide). The blue pigment was found to be relatively unstable at acidic pH but very stable at alkaline conditions with half-life values of 102 days and 126 days at PH 9.0 and PH 11.0, respectively. The pigment also showed high thermal stability with half-life value of 55, 18, and 2 days at 50, 70, and 9
, respectively. The addition of inorganic ions, sugars, and amino acids to model beverage containing this blue pigment increased retention rate at room temperature while addition of vitamin C decreased the stability. The sensory evaluation of the model beverage showed that inorganic ions and amino acids increased overall acceptability, indicating that the blue pigments of Gardenia jasminoides can be used as a natural colorant for leverage.
Comparison of the Palatability Related with Characteristics of Beef Carcass Grade B2 and D
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1152~1157
Two kinds of samples were prepared from the loin in the carcass with grade B2 and D, which were chilled for 24 hour after slaughter. The fresh beef in this study were obtained by chilling the loin for 1 day after wrapping them. On the other hand, the chilled beef were obtained by cutting the loin by 500 g and chilling them for 30 day after vacuum packing. The experiment was carried out to compare the palatability related with characteristics of loin with grade B2 and D and to investigate the chilling effect of the loin with grade D. In the case of fresh beef, it was found that the loin with grade B2 has better meat color, but lower pH, lactic acid content, and myoglobin content, than them of the loin with grade D. Also, the loin with grade B2 has lower tenderness due to its low hardness and chewiness, and high myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI). Furthermore, it has high monounsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid (MUFA/SFA) and ATP content, and good raw meat aroma. It also shows an excellent palatability of cooked meat, although it has low cooking loss and heat shotening. On the other hand, the loin with grade D has higher chilling effect on hardness, chewiness, MFI and MUFA/SFA, than them of the loin with grade B2. However, in the case of chilled beef, the loin with grade D shows much worse tenderness, cooked meat aroma, and palatability than them of the loin with grade B2.
Antimicrobial Effects of Ethanol Extracts of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. on Lactic Acid Bacteria
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1158~1163
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of ethanol extract of Pinus densiflora (PD) on the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), A-1, B-9, K-7, M-7 isolated from kimchi. The growth of isolated LAB was inhibited significantly in the modified MRS broth containing 40 mg/mL PD ethanol extract. Ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest antimicrobial activities against LAB strains compared to other fractions. The addition of PD ethanol extract to kimchi did not change the pH of kimchi greatly compare with the control during the fermentation for 25 days. Change of titratable acidity in control was more higher than in the PD ethanol extract added kimchi during fermentation. The growth of total bacteria and LAB was inhibited about 1 to 2 log cycle by the addition of PD ethanol extract during the kimchi fermentation for 25 days at 1
. Sensory quality of PD ethanol extract added kimchi was lower than that of control.
Antimutagenic and Antimicrobial Effect of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Extracts
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1164~1170
Antimutagenic and antimicrobial effects of cucumber extracts were investigated. Antimutagenic effects of cucumber extract against aflatoxin (AFB
) as indirect mutagen and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrcsoguanidine (MNNG) as direct mutagen using the Ames assay system with Salmonella typhimurium TA100 were studied. 1.25~5.0% of methanol extract exhibited 11 ~ 17% of antimutagenity against AFB
and 46~85% of antimutagenity against MNNG. Among fractions of methanol extract, hexane fraction exhibited the highest antimutagenic effect against AFB
(89%) and butanol fraction exhibited the highest antimutagenic effect against MNNG (95%). Antimicrobial effects of cucumber extract were investigated on the eleven microorganisms. Methanol extract showed anitimicrobial effect on eight microorganisms. Among these tested microorganisms, Klebsiella pnemonia KCTC 2208, pseudomonas aeruginosa KCTC 2004 were the most sensitively inhibited with 13 mm clear zone on holo test. Hexane fraction showed anitimicrobial effect only on Vibrio parahaemolyticus KCTC 2471. Chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions showed a weak effect. V. parahaemolyticus showed the lowest minium inhibitory concentration (MIC) (500 ppm) among eleven tested microorganisms by methanol extract. Sterilization effect of 1% methanol extract on P. aeruginosa incubation is 10 times stronger than 0.5% methanol extract. It estimated to need 26 min for the sterilization of 90% P. aeruginosa cell counts by 1% methanol extract but 250 min by 0.5% methanol extract.
Effect of Cassia tora Ethanol Extract on the Lipid Levels of Serum and Liver in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1171~1176
This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Cassia tora ethanol extract on the lipid levels in serum and liver of rats fed high cholesterol diet. Experimental rats were divided into the following 4 groups: normal diet group, high cholesterol diet group, high choleslerol-0.25% C. tora ethanol extract group and high cholesterol-0.5% C. tora ethanol extract group. After 4 weeks, rats were sacrificed and analyzed the serum lipid profiles, activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (AST), aspartate aminotransferase (ALT), hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and malic enzyme (ME). It was also determined the contents of total cholesterol, triglyceride and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in liver. There was no difference in weight gains between experimental groups. The concentrations of serum total cholesterol, free cholesterol, triglyceride and free fatty acid were tended to be decreased in C. tora groups compared with control group. HDL-cholesterol concentration was significantly decreased in high cholesterol diet group and slightly increased by C. tora ethanol extract feeding. The contents of liver cholesterol and triglyceride were higher in high cholesterol diet group than normal group, but significantly decreased by feeding of C. tora ethanol extract. Supplementation of 0.5% C. tora extract decreased significantly the activities of hepatic G6PDH and ME. Activities of serum AST, ALT and contents of liver TBARS were tended to be increased with high cholesterol diet and reduced by C. tora ethanol extract supplementation but had not significance. These results suggest that C. tora ethanol extract may exert a lipid lowering effect in serum and liver of rats.
Effect of the Ethanol Extract of Cassia tora L. on Antioxidative Compounds and Lipid metabolism in Hepatotoxicity of Rats-induced by Ethanol
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1177~1183
This study was done to investigate the effects of ethanol extract of Cassia semen (Cassia tora L.) on the activities of hepatic oxygen free radicals metabolizing enzymes and blood lipid profile in rats of hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol. Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 100~160 g were divides into 5 groups; control grouts (CON), Cassia semen ethanol extracts (200 mg/kg) treated group (CEL), ethanol (10 mL/kg, 35%) treated group (ETH), Cassia semen ethanol extracts (200 mg/kg) and ethanol treated group (CE1 ) and Cassia semen ethanol extracts (400 mg/kg ) and ethanol treated group (CE2), respectively. Compared with ETH, the growth rate of CE1 and CE2 were to be increased tendency, and in blood levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and the activities of alanine aminotranferase and asparate aminotranferase elevated by ethanol were significantly decreased (p<0.05). It was observed that the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, xanthine oxidase and glutathione peroxidase of rat liver increased by ethanol, were more decreased by the treatment of Cassia semen ethanol extract than the only ethanol-treated group. The content of glutathione depleted by ethanol treatment was increased in CE1 and CE2. TBA-reactants of liver increased by ethanol were decreased in CE1 and CE2, compared with ethanol-treated group. These results suggested that ethanol extract of Cassia semen may influence upon the ability of oxygen free radical detoxication and lowering of blood lipid level on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rat.
Effects of Hijikia fusiforme Extracts on Lipid Metabolism and Liver Antioxidative Enzyme Activities in Triton-Induced Hyperlipidemic Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1184~1189
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Hijikia fusiforme extracts on serum lipid and liver antioxidative enzyme activities in triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats divided into 7 groups : We injected saline to a normal group (N), saline and tween 80 to control groups (CS, CT) and tot extracts to experimental groups (CSA, CTEtOH, CTE, CTH) for 7 days and then injected triton at the last day. Serum and liver free cholesterol contents were significantly lower in hexane-treated group (CTH) than control group (CT) whereas serum HDL-cholesterol content was higher in aqueous extract group (CSA) than control group (CS). Total cholesterol and phospholipid contents in serum and liver were lower in aqueous extract group (CSA) than control group (CS). Serum and liver triglyceride contents were significantly lower in ethanol (CTEtOH) and hexane treated group (CTH) than control group (CT). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances of liver were lower in tot extract groups (CSA, CTEtOH, CTE, CTH) than control groups (CS, CT). Superoxide dismutase activities in liver were significantly lower in aqueous extracts group (CSA) and hexane treated group (CTH) than control groups (CS, CT). Liver catalase activity was the lowest in ethylacetate extract group. These results showed that some Hijikia fusiforme extracts have reduction effect of lipid and antioxidative effect in triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats.
Effects of Dietary Xylooligosaccharides on HMG-CoA Reductase Activity and Lipid Cmposition of Liver in Rat Fed High Cholesterol Diets
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1190~1196
This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary xylooligosaccharides on HMG-CoA reductase activity and lipid composition of liver in rat fed high cholesterol diet. Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 100
10 g were randomly divided into groups of one normal diet, and four high cholesterol diet containing 1% cholesterol. The high cholesterol (1%) diet groups were classified into xylooligosaccharides free diet (C group), 5% xylooligosaccharides diet (C5XO group), 10% xylooligosaccharides diet (C10XO group), and 15% xylooligosaccharides diet (C15XO grcup) according to the levels of dietary xylooligosaccharides supplementation. The experimental diets were fed ad libitum for 4 weeks. The hepatic lipid contents, cholesterol and triglycerides in xylooligosaccharides supplemented groups were significantly lower than those of C group. An antithrombGsis index, a ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids of liver was significantly increased in 10% xylooligosaccharides supplemented groups compared to that of C group. The activity of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase, a rate limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis, in xylooligosaccharides supplemented groups was more significantly increased than in C group. These results suggest that dietary xylooligosaccharide may be act as potential substitute for a dietary fiber to improve lipids metabolism in rat fed high cholesterol diet.
Effects of Dietary Xylooligosaccharide on Hepatic UDP-Glucuronyl Transferase Activity and Compositions of Fecal Sterols in Rat Fed High Cholesterol Diets
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1197~1203
This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary xylooligosaccharide on UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UDP-GTase) activity and excretion of fecal sterols in rat fed high cholesterol diet. Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 100
10 g were randomly divided into five groups, one with normal diet and four with high cholesterol diets containing 1% cholesterol (w/w). The high groups with cholesterol diet groups were classified into xylooligosaccharide free diet (C), 5% xylooligosaccharide diet (C5XO), 10% xylooligosaccharide diet (C10XO), and 15% xylooligosaccharide diet (C15XO) group according to the five groups of dietary xylooligosaccharide by weights. The experimental diets were fed ad libidum for 4 weeks. Fecal weights were increased 86% by xylooligosaccharide. Fecal total lipid contents including fecal neutral and acidic sterols in xylooligosaccharide groups were significantly higher than those of the normal and C groups, and especially that of C10XO group was the highest among all experimental groups. Activity of UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UDP-GTase) in liver in C group was 35% higher than that of normal group and the activities in C5XO, C10XO and C15XO groups were 15%, 41%, and 21% higher than in C group, respectively. Fecal bile acid excretions per day were increased 3.1, 3.6 and, 2.8 folds in C5XO, C10XO, and C15XO groups, respectively, compared with that of C group. Contents of neutral sterol, coprostanol, and coprostanone were higher in xylooligosaccharide groups than in C group. These results suggest that dietary xylooligosaccharide may act as potential substitute for a dietary fiber capable of improving a gastrointestinal function and lipid metabolism.
Hypolipidemic Effects of Korean Softwood Components
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1204~1209
As a basic study to find bioactive principles for the hypolipidemic effect from natural sources, various biological influences of MeOH extracts of Thuja accidentalis L. and Juniperus chinensis var. horizontalis Nakai on rats were examined. The concentrates obtained from the organic layer and aqueous layer fractions of each species were orally administered to rats and then their effect on the body weight, organ weight, serum lipids profile, and blood glucose concentration were examined. Among the samples tested, the organic layer of Juniperus chinensis var. horizontalis exhibited the possibility of the hypolipidemic effects. The corresponding layer was chromatographed to give three fractions and reexamined their effects on rats. The results demonstrated that the fraction corresponding for the R
0.4~0.7 which was the mixture of many minor components showed the effect of lowering the blood-lipid bevel effectively without any side effects. Besides, communic acid, identified from and isolated as a major component of the species exhibited the possibe hypolipidemic effects.s.
Effects of Dietary Restriction on the Serum Lipid Level in OLETF Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1210~1214
To determine the effects of dietary restriction on obese type 2 diabetes we measured body weight, blood glucose and serum lipid level in dietary restricted Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. OLETF rats (obese diabetic rats) and LETO rats (control rats) were grouped into 3 groups; control (free feed) group, 20% dietary restricted (20% DR) group and 40% dietary restricted (40% DR) group. Body weight of rats was measured every weeks and the level of glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and HDL-cholesterol in blood of rats were also determined at 12 weeks after dietary restriction. Body weight of control, 20% DR and 40% DR groups were increased by 41%, 20% and 10%, respectively in LETO rats and by 24%, 10% and -2%, respectively in OLETF rats. Blood glucose level of LETO rats were decreased by 12% on 40% DR compared to control group but the differences between control group and 20% DR group was not observed. The blood glucose level of OLETF rats were decreased by 20% in 40% DR group and by 15% in 20% DR group. The levels of blood triglyceride in 20% DR and 40% DR group were decreased by 20%, 15% in LETO rats and by 37%, 32% in OLETF rats, respectively Total cholesterol revel was not changed by dietary restriction in LETO rats, but significant changes were observed in OLETF rats by both 20% and 40% dietary restriction. HDL-cholesterol levels were also increased by dietary restriction in both LETO and OLETF rats. These results suggested that body weight and blood glucose, serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were decreased by dietary restriction and these changes are more susceptive in diabetic rats than non-diabetic animals.
The Effect of Powdered Herb of Aster scaber Thunb. on Antioxidant System in Ethanol-Treated Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1215~1219
The present study was conducted to investigate effect of powdered herb of Aster scaber Thunb. (chamchwi) on antioxidant system in ethanol-administrated rats. Four week-old Sprague Dawley male rats which had initial body weights of 97.10
4.50 g were randomly divided into three groups: control (ethanol treated, vitamin E-deficient group); 5% chamchwi (ethanol-treated, 5% chamchwi powder-supplemented group): 10% chamchwi (ethanol-treated, 10% chamchwi powder-suplemented group). Three groups of rats were suplemented with three experimental diets for 4 weeks and orally administrated 10% ethanol (v/v) daily via drinking water in the last experimental week. Contents of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance). glutathione in liver and kidney and serum albumin were determined. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) in liver and kidney were also analyzed. Relative weight of liver and spleen to body in chamchwi groups was lower than that in control group (p<0.05). The most remarkable result was that liver TBARS contents in chamchwi groups (5% chamchwi group, 46
in MDA value; 10% chamchwi group, 35
) were significantly lower (p<0.05) than that in control group (66
). The supplement of chamchwi powder lowered the activity of manganese- superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase in liver and GSH-px in kidney. The levels of glutathione in liver and kidney and serum albumin were not significantly different in all experimental groups (p<0.05). These results indicate that powdered herb of Aster scaber decreases lipid peroxidation and acitvity of Mn-SOD increased by alcohol-induced oxidative stress in liver of rats.
Effect of Chicory Extract on the Lipid Metabolism and Oxidative Stress in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1220~1226
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of water-soluble extract from roasted chicory on the lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The experimental groups were divided into three groups ; the normal group, the cholesterol group and the chicory group. Roasted chicory extract was supplemented at 5.0% (w/w) level in the cholesterol diet. Concentration of total cholesterol in serum was significantly higher in the cholesterol group than in the normal group, but this increase in the cholesterol group was significantly decreased by the cholesterol diet supplemented with chicory extract. Concentration of HDL-cholesterol in serum was significantly lower in the cholesterol group than in the normal group, but this decrease in the cholesterol group tended to increase in the chicory group. However, concentrations of triglyceride, phospholipid and nonesterified fatty acid in serum were not significantly different among the groups. Concentrations of triglyceride and cholesterol in liver were significantly higher in the cholesterol and chicory groups than in the normal group. Feces weight and the excretion of cholesterol and bile acid into feces were significantly higher in the chicory group than in other groups. Concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in homogenates and microsomal fractions of liver were not significantly different among the groups. On the other hand, concentration of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as an useful marker of oxidative stress in urine was lower in the chicory group than in other groups. Concentration of serum glucose was signnificantly lower in the cholesterol group than in the normal group, but that of the chicory group was significantly higher than in the normal group. These results demonstrated that dietary chicory extract exerted the decreasing effect of cholesterol level and oxidative stress in cholesteral-fed rats.
In vitro Genotoxicological Safety of Fresh Vegetable-Extract Juice by Gamma Irradiation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1227~1236
Genotoxicological safety on 10 kGy-gamma irradiated vegetable juices such as Oenanthstolonifera DC., Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea var. acephala and Angelica keiskei was determined by the Salmonella typhmurium reversion assay, the SOS Chromotest using in Escherichia cloi PQ37 and chromosome aberration test in cultured Chinese hamster lung (CHL) fibroblast cells. Vegetable juices exposed to 10 kGy-gamma ray revealed negative results in these three in vitro mutagenetic tests.
Inhibitive Effects of Baik-Kimchi Against Amaranth Toxicity in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1246~1252
A feeding experiment was conducted on rats to investigate the inhibitive effects of baik-kimchi against the toxicity of Amaranth (Am, Food Red No.2) on growth, fecal weights and bulk, and the digestibility of protein and lipid. The body weight of the Am diet group (5% Amaranth) remained at the lowest level of all diet groups, because of diarrhea symptoms throughout the feeding period, 229.8 g of total body weight or 79.4% of the basal diet group (289.4 g). However, in the baik-kimchi diet group (10% baik-kimchi powder+5% Amaranth) no diarrhea symptoms were evident and total body weight remained at a similar level (280.3 g) to the basal diet group. It therefore appears that baik-kimchi offers an inhibitive effect against the toxicity of Am. In the baik-kimchi diet group, the total fecal weight (173.99 g/3 weeks) was 15 times that of the basal diet group (11.13 g/3 weeks) suggesting that baik-kimchi has the effect of increasing fecal bulk. The large intestine and the cecum of the baik-kimchi diet group were significantly (p<0.05) heavier than those of the Am diet group. The digestibility of protein (50.26%) and lipid (58.37%) in the Am diet group was very low in comparison with these in the baik-kimchi diet group (87.30% and 92.12%, respectively). This result indicates that the low digestibility of these nutrients in the Am diet group was directly responsible for the decrease of weight. Consequently, it is demonstrated that baik-kimchi can inhibit the effects of the toxicity of Am in rats.
Effects of Green Tea Catechin on Bone Disorder in Long-Term Cadmium Treated Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1253~1259
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of green tea catechin on change of bone tissue in long-term cadmium treated rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 100
10 g were randomly assigned to one normal group and three cadmium treated groups. Cadmium groups were classified to catechin free diet group (Cd-0C group), 0.25% catechin diet group (Cd-0.25C group) and 0.5% catechin diet group (Cd-0.5C group) according to the levels of catechin supplement. Animals were raised for 20 weeks. Cadmium were supplied as drinking water of 50 ppm Cd
. Effects of catechin were analyzed on changes of bony tissue in long-term cadmium treated rats by determining the accumulated cadmium in bone and bone mineral density and micro- photographs of bony tissue. The cadmium accumulation of tibia and femur were higher in Cd-treated groups than in normal group, but they was lowered by catechin supplementation. The bone mineral density (BMD) of tibia and femur in Cd-0C group was significantly lower than in normal group, but it of catechin supplemetation group was similar to normal group. Microphological changers were appeared under a light microscope and an electro microscope reveal no structural changes in bony spicules, marrow cell distribution and cellular morphology in all groups. The bone weight and length tend to decrease in Cd-0C groups. Catechin supplementation in long-term cadmium treated rats depressed the cadmium accumulation in bony tissue that led to improve the bone mineral density in tibia and femur.r.
Protective Effects of Extracts of Hovenia dulcis Thunb on Hepatotoxicity in Carbon Tetrachloride Intoxicated Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1260~1265
This study was performed to investigate the protective effects of Hovenia dulcis Thunb on hepatotoxicity in carbon tetrachloride-intoxicated rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (220~240 g) were used as experimental groups, which were divided into 7 groups; Control group,
-treated group, hexane fraction pretreated and
-treated group, chloroform fraction pretreated and
-treated group, ethylacetate fraction pretreated and
-treated group, butanol fraction pretreated and
fraction pretreated and
-treated group. After 6 days, the activities of aminotransferase, contents of cholesterol, TG and hepatic lipid peroxide content in chloroform fraction pretreated and
-treated group were significantly decreased (p<0.05) compared to the only
-treated group. The content of glutathione and activities of GST in chloroform fraction pretreated and
-treated group were also significantly increased (p<0.05) compared to the only
-treated group. In addition, activities of SOD, catalase and GSH-Px in chloroform fraction pretreated and
-treated group were significantly decreased (p<0.05) compared to the only
-treated group. These results indicated that the chloroform fraction of Hovenia dulcis Thunb methanol extract showed hepatoprotective effect in carbon tetrachloride-intoxicated rats.
Cytotoxic Effects and Components of Lipid Fractions from Soybean Products on Cancer Cell Lines
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1266~1271
The cytotoxic effects of lipid extracts from soybean products were studied using K562 human leukemia cell, Yac1 mouse leukemia cell and S 180 mouse sarcoma cell. Total lipids from soybean powder, soybean curd residue and doenjang were extracted with chloroform/methanol (2 : 1) and water saturated butanol, consecutively, and fractionated into acetone supernatants (AS fraction) and acetone precipitates (AP fraction) by adding excess acetone. AS fraction of doenjang lipids showed the strongest cytotoxic effects on K562, Yac1 and S180 cancer cells, whereas each lipid fraction of soybean curd residue also showed relatively weak cytotoxic effects on cancer cells but soybean powder did not. AS and AP fractions of doenjang contained more free fatty acids than those of soybean curd residue and soybean. And when lipid fractions were digested with 0.4 N KOH/methanol, doenjang lipid fractions showed to contain some alkali-stable substances which showed positive reaction with ninhydrin solution on silica TLC separation.
Effect of Korean Gu-Gi-Ja Tea on Plasma Hormone in Cd-administered Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1272~1277
This study was designed to investigate the effects of Korean Gu-Gi-Ja tea on plasma hormone such as renin and aldosterone water in cadmium administered rats. The cadmium administered rats were given 50 ppm and 100 ppm of CdCl
disolved in the distilled water. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100
10 g were divided into 6 groups according to body weight. The control group was fed standard diet without cadmium. The experimental groups, which were fed standard diet containing 50 ppm and 100 ppm cadmium and Gu-Gi-Ja tea group. The results of this study were as follows; food intake, body weight gain and kidney weight content in cadmium administered groups were lower than those in Gu-Gi-Ja tea group. The contents of cadmium in kidney of the rats were determined by using ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrcphotometer). In kidney accumulation of Gu-Gi-Ja tea groups were lower than those in cadmium administered group. Plasma levels of renin activity was increased by Cadmium administration group, compared with Gu-Gi-Ja tea and cadmium administred group. Plasma levels of aldosterone activity was increased by cadmium administration group, compared with Gu-Gi-Ja tea and cadmium administred group. This results suggested that Gu-Gi-Ja tea has a lowering effects on the accumulation of cadmium in kidney and it is believed that the Gu-Gi-Ja tea has some protective effects to cadmium administered lenin and aldosterone hormone in rats, but the mechanism of these effects was obscure.
Overcome Effect of Catabolic Response in Mouse by the Egg Yolks from Laying Hens Intubated Astaxanthin
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1278~1282
Effect of the egg yolks from laying hens intubated, p.o., astaxanthin (designated AEY) on the catabolic response overcome of mice was examined. Female ICR mice (6~7 weeks of age) were adapted in a temperature- and humidity-controlled house for one week and randomly divided into 5 groups (6 mice/cage/treatment). Mice were intubated p.o., AEY (5, 10 and 15 mg), control egg yolk (CEY, 10 mg), or fish oil (5 mg) dissolved in 0.2 mL phosphate buffered saline (PBS) every two days for 14 days. At day 15, the 0.1 mL of lipopolysaccharide solution (LPS, 30
/0.1 mL 10 mM HEPES) was injected through tail vein, and then, the body weight of mouse and the amount of feed intake were measured over a period of 72 hours. Control group mice were received only PBS and LPS. AEY treatment suppressed the loss of mice body weight in a dose-response manner. Twenty four hours post LPS injection, the reduced body weight per mouse of AEY 5, AEY 10, and AEY 15 mg treatment groups was 3.70, 3.54, and 3.25 g, respectively. Body weight suppression effect of AEY treatment was greater than that of CEY, but less than fish oil. AEY treatment did not alter thymus weight, but increased the weight of spleen or liver. These results indicate that AEY suppressed the loss of body weight by LPS via any function of the spleen and/or liver.
Effect of the Egg Yolks from Laying Hens Intubated Astaxanthin on the Macrophage Activity, Hemagglutinin-titer and Hemolysin-titer
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1283~1286
Effect of the egg yolks from laying hens intubated, p.o., astaxanthin (designated AEY) on mouse humoral immunity was investigated using male ICR mouse (6~7 weeks of age). Mice were adapted in a temperature- and humidity- controlled house for one week and randomly divided into 5 treatment groups (9 mice/cage/treatment). Mice were intubated p.o., AEY (100, 250 and 500
) or control egg yolks (CEY, 250
), dissolved in 0.1 mL DMSO, for consecutive 4 days. At day 5, carbon suspension (pilot drawing ink 3 mL+3% gelatine 3 mL) was injected 3
L Per 1 g body weight through tail vein. Carbon clearance time was measured at 5 and 35 minutes Post the injection of carbon suspension. Another two experiments were conducted to determine the hemagglultinin-titer (HGT) and hemolysin-titer (HLT) with male ICR mouse (8 mice/cage/treatment). Mice treated with AEY were induced immune activity with SRBC. HGT and HLT were measured from the blood at day 1 and 3 after treatment of SRBC. AEY treatment reduced the carbon clearance time. Especially the carbon clearance time by 500
AEY treatment was 5.00 minutes, which was very short time compared with 9.42 minutes by control and 9.01 minutes by CEY. AEY group showed slights higher values of HGT and HLT than CEY group and control. At day 1, HGT in control, 250
CEY and 250
AEY groups was 5.50, 5.63, and 6.00, respectively. Similiarly, HLT in control, 250
CEY and 250
AEY groups was 4.75, 5.38, and 5.50, respectively, at day 1. These results suggest that AEY exhibited immunity-enhancing effect.
Antimutagenic and Quinone Reductase Inducing Activities of Hericium erinaceus Extracts
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1287~1292
The effect of Herricium erinaceus on the mutagenicity in salmonella assay and quinone reductase activity in hapalclc7 cells were studied. Antimutagenic as evaluated by Ames test, the extract and fractions of JHerricium erinaceus had no effects on the mutagenicity by themselves. However, methanol extract and fractions from Hericium erinaceus showed strong inhibitory effect on the mutagenesis induced by N-methyl -N'-nitor-N- nitroso-guanidine (MNNG) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P). Among the solvent fractions of methanol extract, the hexane fraction, the chloroform fraction and the ethylacetate fraction exhibited stronger inhibitory activity against MNNG and B(a)P induced mutagenesis than butanol and water fractions. The methanol extract, the extract, the chloroform and the ethylacetate fractions of Hericium erinaceus induced the activity of quinone reductase, an anticarcinogenic marker enzyme, in murine hepalclc7 cells while the others did have little effect on the enzyme activity
Dietitians′ Perception on Usage of Cook/chill Vegetables in Institution Foodservice
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1293~1300
We surveyed dietitians'perception on usage of cook/chill vegetables, The questionnaires were distributed to 245 dietitians working in elementary schools and other institutions in Busan area. According to the survey, 75.9% of the dietitians perceived that minimally processed ready -to-use vegetal)toes would be helpful for the institutional foodservice They answered that problems of vegetable usage in the foodservice mainly come from long preparation time (45.4%), a large quantity of leftover (13.1%), and a high ratio of disuse (16.0%). Degree of preparedness from raw vegetables was highest for garlic, and was in tile order of platicodcm, onions, carrots, Potatoes, Korean cabbage and radish.40.9% of the dietitians answered that it was necessary Ic develop cook/chill vegetables in their institute restaurants. The high career group ( >6 yrs.) was, however, significantly (p<0.05) negative against the use of cooHchill vegetables. The dietitians were expecting that developing cook/chill vegetables would save cooking time and processes (4.43/5.00), and reduce waste (4.53/5.00) greatly. They also estimated that focal hygiene and quality would be improved, and labor cast be reduced moderately. On the other hand, they thought that the cost of flood would not be reduced.
The Effect of Polyphenol Oxidase on Deodorizing Activity of Apple Extract against Methyl Mercaptan
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1301~1304
Deodorizing activity of polyphenol cxidase (PPO) extracted from apples was investigated by measuring the changes of methyl mercaptan as an indicator of halitosis in human mouths. In the studies of apple extracts on deodorizing activity, the deodorizing activity was increased with the amount of apple extracts. In the cases of adding PPO to the low molecular fraction of apple extracts, the deodorizing activities were increased with the amount of the law molecular fraction of apple extracts and the reaction time of the extracts with PPO. Deodorizing activities of PPO is thought that o-quinone as an intermidiate produced by an oxidative reaction of PPO during enzymatic browning reactions may react with methyl mercaptan to form a non-volatile and sulfur-containing compound .
Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Removal of Undesirable Color from Green Tea Extracts
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 30, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1305~1308
Green tea extracts were used to investigate the improvement of color and the changes of physiological ac-tivities for the better application to food, cosmetics or pharmaceuticals by removing undesirable color. Hunter color L-value of the green tea extract was increased and a- and b-value were decreased by irradiation re-gardless of doses, resulting in a bright yellow-colored green tea extract from dark brown. Both inhibition effect of tyrosinase and electron donating ability were not changed by irradiation treatment (P>0.05). Irradiation tech-nology can be applied to various functional products to improve color without changing physiological activities.