Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 6 - Dec 2002
Volume 31, Issue 5 - Oct 2002
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Aug 2002
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Jun 2002
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Apr 2002
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Feb 2002
Selecting the target year
Analysis and Comparison of Cerebroside Components from Soybean Fermented Foods
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 177~183
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.177
Cerebroside fatty acids, sugars and long-chain sphingoid bases in raw soybean and soybean fermented foods (chongkukjang and deunjang) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-pH anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amerometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). Fatty acids of acid-hydrolyzed cerebrosides were derivatized to O-TMS methylester and analysed. The major fatty acids in raw soybean and chongkukjang cerebrosides were identified as 2-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid (16 : 0h), 2-hydroxydocosanoic acid (22 : 0h) and 2-hydroxytetracosanoic acid (24 : 0h). In the case of deunjang cerebroside, 24 : 0h (40.9%) and 22 : 0h (23.4%) were major fatty acids, but 16 : 0h, 23 : 0h, 25 : 0h and 26 : 0h were also detected. Long-chain sphingoid bases of acid-hydrolyzed cerebrosides from raw soybean, chongkukjang and deunjang consisted primarily of 4-tracts, 8-tracts-sphingadienine (dihydroxy base, d18 : 2
) and sis-tracts isomers of 4-hydroxy-sphingenine (trihydroxy base, tl8:1
) with much less amounts of phytosphingosine (tl8: 0) and isomers of sphingenine (d18 : 1). Although deunjang is a soybean food fermented by fungi and microorganisms for a long period, 2-hydroxyoctadec-3-enoic acid (18 : 1h) and branched 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine known as compositional cerebroside fatty acids in Aspergillus species were not detected. Mass spectrum for sugar derivatives in cerebrosides of soybean foods including raw soybean and fermented soybean showed that C-1 of glucose moiety was linked to ceramide backbone as like a monoglucosylceramide.
Change of Fatty Acid Content in Egg Yolk Oil of Various Chicken Eggs during Storage
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 184~188
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.184
The fatty acid contents of egg yolk from various chicken eggs such as general egg, ginseng egg, gamgoal egg and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) egg were analysed during storage at 4
for 3 weeks. The major fatty acids of all egg yolk oils were oleic acid (18 : 1) and palmitic acid (16 : 0). The contents of both fatty acids reached maximum at the first or second week and decreased at the third week. DHA was detected from 4 kinds of eggs stored for 2 or 3 weeks. The n-6/n-3 ratio was obtained under recommended intake range in fresh gamgoal egg and in general and DHA eggs stored far 0~3 weeks. For 3 weeks, polyunsaturated fatty acid / monounsaturated fatty acid/ saturated fatty acid (P/M/S) ratio of DHA e99 did not chance, but that of ginseng e99 gradually increased. The P/M/S ratio was generally maintained under recommended intake range in general egg stored for 3 weeks, in ginseng egg stored for 2 weeks and in DHA egg during all the storage period.
Physicochemical Properties of Corn Starch Oxidized with Sodium Hypochlorite
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 189~195
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.189
Corn starch was modified by oxidation with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as an attempt to expand the application of starches in food industry. Corn starch was oxidized with 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5% active Cl/g starch at pH 7.0 and
for 10 minutes. The size, shape and amylose content of oxidized starches were similar to those of native corn starch. As the extent of oxidation increased, solubility, swelling power and the amount of soluble amylose increased, X-ray diffraction patterns changed, and relative crystallinity decreased. In Brabender amylogram, oxidation did not chance the gelatinization temperature, but oxidized starches had a lower peak in viscosity and their cooled pastes gave less setback, compared with native corn starch.
Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Kakdugi Added with Xanthan Gum during Fermentation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 196~203
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.196
Effect of different levels (0 ,0.05, 0.15, 0.25%) of xanthan gum on kakdugi fermentation was investigated by analyzing physicochemical and sensory characteristics during fermentation at 2
. During fermentation, pH was maintained higher, and total acidity and number of lactic acid bacteria, maintained lower in xanthan gum groups, especially in 0.05% addition group than control. Free sugar amount were higher in xanthan gun groups than control, and glucose and fructose which were the major free sugars, decreased rapidly during fermentation, whereas mannitol increased in all samples, especially in xanthan gum groups. Liquid content of kakdugi was smaller in 0.05% xanthan gum group than control. Viscosity of kakdugi liquid decreased rapidly whereas initial viscosity was maintained in xanthan gum groups. Hardness decreased during fermentation, but at the 7th day of fermentation was higher in 0.05% xanthan gum group than control. The result of sensory evaluation shows that there were no significant difference in sour odor, moldy, sour taste and savory taste among samples. Starch taste was higher in 0.15% or 0.25% xanthan gum, but there is no difference in 0.05% group, compared to control. Overall preference until the 5th day of fermentation, xanthan gum group was not significantly different from that of control but at the 7th day of fermentation, 0.05% addition group was significantly higher than control.
Quality Characteristics of the Chungkookjang Fermented by the Mixed Culture of Bacillus natto and B. licheniformis
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 204~210
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.204
The quality characteristics and sensory evaluation of chungkookjang were investigated. The samples were prepared and fermented by the inoculation of Bacillus strains; B. subtilis, B. natto and B. licheniformis as a single starter, and mixed culture of B. natto and B. licheniformis on the industrialized model system. It was shown that microbial growth, protease activity, contents of amino-and ammonia-nitrogen and contents of organic acid were higher in B. subtilis inoculated sample, and were lower in B. licheniformis inoculated one. General quality characteristics of sample inoculated by mixed culture of B. natto and B. licheniformis took a middle position between each B. natto and B. licheniformis inoculated one. Fifty eight species of odor components were identified. Ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, acetic acid, benzaldehyde and alkyl pyrazines were identified in all samples and most of other flavor components were strain specific. The contents of unpleasant smell components, alkyl pyrazines and benzaldehyde, were lower in B. licheniformis inoculated sample. The sensory evaluations showed that chungkookjang manufactured from mixed culture of B. natto and B.licheniformis was most acceptable. Therefore, results indicated that chungkookjang manufactured from mixed culture of B. natto and B. licheniformis induced better sensory quality than that of the control.
Characteristics of Protease Produced by Rhizopus stolonifer, Rhizopus oryzae and Absidia corymbifera from Korean Traditional Meju
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 211~215
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.211
Pretense production and its characteristics were investigated for Rhizopus stolonifer, Rhizopus oryzae and Absidia corymbifera which were isolated from Korean traditional meju. The optimum culture conditions of the strains for the production of protease in basic medium [wheat bran : 1% glucose solution
The Microbiological Evaluation of Environments and Facilities at Food Service Operations in Elementary School
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 216~220
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.216
The microbiological examinations of food service operations were conducted for the hygienic evaluation at four elementary schools in Busan, Korea. Total one hundred and seventy two swabbed samples using sponge were collected from the surface of environments, utensils and equipments of food service facilities and analyzed by measuring the total, coliform and psychrotrophic count. Sampling sites were the surfaces of floors, drains, walls, knives, cutting boards, rubber gloves, vinyl aprons, plastic containers, carriers, shelves, trays, dry shelves, electric tray dryer, food containers, soup containers, rice cookers, frying pans, boiling cookers, refrigerators, dumb waiters and dishwashers. The swabbed samples kept in an ice-parked box were transported to a laboratory and analyzed. The results demonstrated that the degree of contamination depended on the sampling sites. Averages of total counts of surface swab samples were ranged from 0.62 to 7.79 Log CFU/200 cm
. The level of coliforms were ranged from not detectable to 5.26 Log CFU/200 cm
, and those of psychrotrophs from not detectable to 6.15 Log CFU/200 cm
. The severely contaminated sites were dumb waiters, drains, rice cookers, knives, plastic containers and floors. Also cutting boards, rubber gloves, carriers, drying shelves, vinyl aprons, boiling cookers, soup containers, frying pans and refrigerators were highly contaminated with the level of abode 3.5 Log CFU/200 cm
. Therefore, those sites should be focused and controlled according to control points of sanitation standard operating procedures (SSOP). Also, periodic microbiological examination in addition to visual examination is recommended on these highly contaminated sites indicated above results at food service operations in elementary school.
Effect of Soaking Conditions on Storage Characteristics of Acorn Mook
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 221~224
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.221
This study was to explain the properties of acorn sediments and characteristics in the texture of acorn mooks due to the differences in preparing conditions of acorn sediments. The hardness of mook increased at 4
during storage. The increase rate of acorn mook`s hardness after storage for 24 hrs at 4
were higher than those of others. X-ray diffraction of the retrograded acorn mooks was little different during storage at 4
. The syneresis of acorn mook was decreased with increasing the soaking treatment. The syneresis (%) of nontreated sample (0-0) was larger than those of the others.
Quality Characteristics of Sulgidduk Containing Chlorella Powder
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 225~229
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.225
The quality characteristics of sulgidduk, a steamed rice cake, with chlorellaa sulgidduk) were evaluated. Chlorella sulgidduk was prepared in the different ratio of chlorella powder (0, 0.2, 0.5 or 1%, w/w) and water content (15 or 20%, w/w). In mechanical texture characteristics, hardness, gumminess and brittleness were higher in 15% water content chlorella sulgidduk and lower in 20% water content chlorella sulgidduk than in the absence of chlorella (the control sulgidduk), wherease 20% water content chlorella sulgidduk and a significantly higher adhesiveness and cohesiveness values (p<0.05) compared with control 24 hours storage at
, the good texture characteristics were maintained in 20% water content chlorella sulgidduk. In sensory evaluation, the most favorite quality characteristics were shown in the sulgidduk with 0.2 and 0.5% chlorella powder.
The Quality Characteristics of Beef Jerky According to the Kinds of Saccharides and the Concentrations of Green Tea Powder
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 230~235
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.230
The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of beef jerky adding of many kinds of saccharides and three levels of green tea powder. Color and hardness were increased with the addition of green tea powder while tenderness was decreased. Moistureness Gf beef jerky added honey was higher than that of sugar, oligo saccharide. In color, the lightness was decreased with increasing concentrations of green tea Powder. Redness and yellowness values were increased. In measurement of texture, hardness were increased with the addition of green tea powder. The hardness of beef jerky by adding of honey appeared to be higher than that of sugar, oligo saccharide. Gumminess and brittleness were increased with the addition of green tea powder while springness was decreased. Springness in addition of 3% green tea powder was higher than control. The beef jerky added with 3% green tea powder and sugar had good overall perference.
Studies on Characteristics of Ostrich Egg Shell and Optimal Ashing Conditions for Preparation of Calcium Lactate
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 236~240
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.236
Characteristics of ostrich egg shell and optimal ashing conditions for preparation of calcium lactate were investigated. Average weight, girth, and length of ostrich egg shell with membrane (OESM) were 255.17 g, 39.50 cm, and 15.20 cm, respectively. Ostrich egg shell without membrane (OES) contained 0.35% moisture, 40.98% Ca as a maior mineral, 2.43% protein, and 235.0 mg/100 g of amino acids. Optimal ashing times for preparation of white-colored ashing powder from OES were 12 hr at
, 80 min at 80
, and 15 min at 90
, respectively. These ashing conditions resulted in ashing powder with yields of 54.5~54.6% and color values of 97.26 ~97.51 for
, -0.30~-0.34 for
, and 0.63~0.98 for
. Ashing powders, from three different particle size ranges of OES, did not show significant differences in yield.eld.d.
Preparation of Calcium Lactate from Ostrich Egg Shell
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 241~245
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.241
To effectively utilize ostrich egg shell as a calcium source, various conditions for preparation of calcium lactate from ashing powder (ashed for 15 min at 90
) were evaluated. Optimal conditions involved treatment of ashing powder with 30 mL lactic acid solution at room temperature for 15 min with a CaO : lactic acid ratio (mol/mol) of 1:2. Calcium lactate contained 39.70% calcium comparable to that (40.98%) in ostrich egg shell. Solubility of calcium lactate, 97.7%, was considerably higher than those (0.58% and 3.43%, respectively) of ostrich egg shell and ashing powder, indicating that the former can be utilized more effectively as a calcium source than the two latter.
Effect of γ-Irradiation on the Antioxidant Activity of Rice Hull, Rice Bran and Barley Bran
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 246~250
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.246
-irradiation to cereal processed by-products was examined for antioxidative ability. Rice hull (RH), rice bran (RB) and barley bran (BB) were irradiated with 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy of
-ray at 4.2 kGy/h. The amount of total phenol compounds of unirradiated RH, RB, and BB were 0.873 mM, 0.643 mM, and 0.377 mM, respectively. Irradiation up to 20 kGy did not show noticeable effect to the amount of total phenol compounds in RH, RB and BB. Electron donating abilities of RH, RB and BB were very similar, and they were not affected by irradiation. According to TBARS analyses, the inhibition abilities of lipid peroxidation of RH and RB were not affected by
-irradiation, while those of BB were decreased with irradiation. These results indicate that BB is more sensitive to
-irradiation than other rice processed by-products.
Physicochemical Characteristics of Bamboo Smoke Distillates Processed by Mechanical Steel Kiln and Traditional Earth Kiln
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 251~256
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.251
Fresh bamboo (Phyllostachys bambuoides sieb. et zucc.) was charred at the mechanical steel kiln and traditional earth kiln with subsequent condensation of its smoke to 10
. It was settled down for 12 months to remove tar components and then the middle layer of the liquid was collected as a bamboo smoke distillates to analyze its chemical composition and physicochemical characteristics for use as food additives or processing aids. The gravity, transmittance, reflectivity, and viscosity were 1.008, 89.05%, 1.36%, and 12.48 cp in the bamboo smoke distillates processed by mechanical steel kiln (MBSD) and 1.012, 98.33%, 1.34% and 9.05 cp in the bamboo smoke distillates by traditional earth kiln (TBSD), respectively. The color of TSBD was brighter than that of MBSD. The pH and titratable acidity, tar and remains were 3.55 and 2.830%, 2.803% and 0.671%, respectively, in the MBSD and 2.93 and 3.470%, 0.051% and 0.004%, respectively, in the TBSD. The major phenolic compounds of bamboo smoke distillates (BSD) were phenol, Ο-cresol, p-cresol, and guaiacol and the major organic acids were acetic acid, propionic acid, iso-butyric acid, and n-butyric acid, and major alcohols were methanol, furfuryl alcohol, and maltol. The contents of phenolic compound and alcohol were more in MBSD than in TBSD whereas the content of organic acid was more in TBSD than in MBSD. Therefore, toxic compounds for the human body, such as methanol from BSD should be removed for use as a food ingredient in the future.
Effects of Fatty Acids and Vitamin E Supplementation on Antioxidant Systems in the Liver and Serum of the Second Generation Rat
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 257~262
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.257
Effects of dietary fatty acids and vitamin E on antioxidant system were studied in rat liver and serum. Sources of dietary fat (10 wt%) were safflower oil (SO) poor in
3 fatty acid and mixed oil (MO) with computer-adjusted fatty acid ratios (AA/DHA
Hypolipidemic Effects of Peptide Fractions of Casein on Serum Lipids in Rats Fed Normal or High Fat Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 263~270
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.263
In the recent studies, many researchers are interested in foods as functional components rather than nutrient sources. Cow`s milk is considered as an excellent food sources because of its many nutrients. Casein is a major milk protein and has been reported to have hyperlipidemic and hypercholesterolemic effects. But several reporters have suggested that peptide fractions and hydrolysate of casein have hypolipidemic effects differing from intact protein, casein. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate how the casein peptide fractions affect lipid metabolism in rats fed normal or high fat diets. The peptide fractions and hydrolysate of casein were obtained by casein hydrolysis with trypsin. The male rats (Sprague-Dawley), weighing approximately 150 g, were fed each experimental diet containing casein (CAS), casein hydrolysate (CH), casein hydrolysate precipitate (Cpt) and two kinds of peptide fractions (CL & CB) for three weeks, respectively. In the exit I, the male rats were fed normal fat diets (7% soybean oil & cholesterol-free; Expt. I), and in the expt II, fed high fat diets (18% beef tallow & 1% cholesterol; Expt. II). Crude protein contents were calculated from nitrogen contents. Amino acid composition of each fraction was also analyzed. The concentration of total lipid, total cholesterol and triglyceride in serum, liver and feces were measured. As the results of study, tole rats fed peptide fractions with normal fat diets (Expt. I) had no effects on total lipid, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration in serum and liver and fecal excretion. However, in the rats fed hydrophobic casein peptide fractions (CB) with high fat diet, fecal lipids excretion were significantly increased and the lipids concentration of serum and those of liver tended to decrease, numerically.
Effects of Resistant Starch on Gut Functions and Plasma Lipid Profiles in Rats Fed High Fat Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 271~276
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.271
We have investigated the intestinal functions and hypolipidemic effects of resistant starch (RS) in rats. Experimental groups were CON (cooked starch 45% + RS 7%), RSIO (cooked starch 35% +RS 10%), RS20 (cooked starch 25%+RS20%), and RS30 (cooked starch 15%+RS 30%). The weight gains during experimental period were slightly decreased by intake of resistant starch and the weights of epididymal fat pad were lower in resistant starch intake groups than in CON, although the difference was not significant. In intestinal functions, water contents of fecal, transit time and colon cell proliferation were affected by resistant starch. Plasma total lipid and triglyceride concentrations were significantly decreased, dose-dependently, by resistant starch intake. Conclusively, it is important to intake resistant starch in order to decrease plasma lipids and to improve intestinal functions.
Adverse Effects of the Megadose Perilla Oil on the Rats Metabolism
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 277~283
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.277
In the present study, adverse effects of megadose of dietary perilla oil were investigated in an experimental model consisted of 6 groups of Wistar rats. To compare the adverse effects of megadose perilla oil with different kind of dietary fat, rats were fed one of the following diets for one month: 10% beef tallow (B
B), 10% corn oil (C
B), 10% perilla oil (P
B), 20% beef tallow (B
B), 20% corn oil (C
B), and 20% perilla oil (P
B) diet. The body weight gain rate seemed to be more affected by the size of fat contents than the species of fat in the diet, so the body weight gain rate of 20% fat groups were significantly higher than those of 10% fat groups in spite of the larger amount of flood intake in 10% fat groups than in 20% fat groups. The levers of plasma triglyceride and total-cholesterol in 20% fat groups were significantly increased in dose dependent fashion when compared to 10% groups, the values of beef tallow (B
B) group being the highest among all groups. Plasma glutainic pyruvic transferase activities and level of blood urea nitrogen had a tendency to increase along with increase of fat contents (%) in diets, the values of P
B group, the highest among all groups, being beyond the normal levers. The plasma carbon dioxide concentration of P
B group was the highest in all groups and exceeded the normal value, there being no significant difference among the plasma carbon dioxide concentration of others groups. The results showed that large dose and long term intake of dietary perilla oil had some adverse effects on hepatic and other organic functions in rats.
Effect of Okcheonsan on Blood Glucose, Lipid and Protein bevels in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Female Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 284~289
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.284
The effects of Okcheonsan powder on the body weights, the organ weights, the blood glucose level, the lipid and protein concentrations of serum and liver in diabetic rats were studied. Female rats (Sprague-Dawley, mean weight 313.6
18.5 g) were randomly assigned to one normal and two diabetic groups. They were fed experimental diets for 5 weeks. The diabetic groups were divided into the diabetic control (D-control group) and 3% Ok-cheonsan groups (D-Okcheonsan group). Rats were injected with streptozotocin intraperitoneally to induce diabetes. The body weights, the concentrations of total lipid and triglyceride of liver, the concentrations of total protein and albumin of serum in tole D-control and the D-Okcheonsan groups were significantly decreased compared with those in the normal group. The pancreatic weight in the D-control group was significantly more increased than that in the D-Okcheonsan group, but in the D-Okcheonsan group it was similar to that in the normal group. The fasting blood glucose levels and the atherogenic index in all the diabetic groups were significantly higher than those in the normal group. The concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol of serum, and the cholesterol of fiver in the D-Okcheonsan group were significantly lower than those in the D-control group. The concentration of HDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholestrol/total cholesterol ratio of serum were similar to those in all the groups. The concentrations of phospholipid of serum and liver in the D-Okcheonsan group were significantly decreased compared with those of the normal group, In conclusion, the Okcheonsan powder feeding could decrease the pancreatic weight, the concentrations of the triglyceride, the total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol of serum, and the cholesterol of liver in the diabetic rats. But the concentrations of the blood glucose, the hepatic triglyceride and the atherogenic index seems to be not affected by it.
The Effects of Sedum sarmentosum Bunge on Serum Lipid Concentration in Ovariectomized Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 290~294
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.290
The aim of this study was to investigate in an in vivo model the effects of ethanol extract and ethyl ether and ethyl acetate fractions of Sedum sarmentosum Bunge (SS). To investigate the effects of ethanol extract and ethyl ether and ethyl acetate fractions, Sprage-Dawley female rats were randomly assigned to groups as follows : Sham, OVX-control and ovariectomized rats supplemented with SS at 50 mg/kg bw/day, with SS at 100 mg/kg bw/day, with SS at 200 mg/kg bw/day, with ethyl ether fraction of SS at 10 mg/ka bw/day and with ethyl acetate fraction of SS at 10 mg/kg bw/day. Food intake and food efficiency ratio were not significantly different in groups. But body weight gain was decreased by supplementation of ethyl acetate fraction of SS compared to OVX-control. The levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride in serum were higher in ovariectomized control rats than Sham-operated rats, but supplementation of SS ethanol extracts at 200 mg/kg bw/day decreased the level of the lipid in serum. The level of HDL-cholesterol in serum increased by supplementation of SS ethanol extracts at 200 mg/kg bw/day (p<0.01). The levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride in serum were decreased by supplementation of ethyl acetate fraction of SS (p<0.01). On the other hand, the level of HDL-cholesterol in serum was increased by supplementation of ethyl acetate fraction of SS (p<0.05). On conclusion, it might be expected that ethanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of SS is believed to be a possible protective effects for the fatty serum increasing serum lipid.
A Study on the Nutrient Intake in Relation to Food Habit and Attitude of Cerebrovascular Accident Patients
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 295~305
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.295
This paper, in which whose subjects were 43 cerebrovascular accident patients analysed the effects of flood habits and attitudes on the nutrient intake. In respect to energy intake, the subjects took 106% of RDA. The protein intake was on the average of 119.1 g, which was 187% of RDA. The fat intake by the subjects on the whole was 60.5 g. The fiber intake of the subjects was 9.6 g. Those who like sweets took in significantly less energy and carbohydrate and more fat than those who didn`t like sweets. Those who liked salty flood took in 7890 mg of sodium while those who didn`t like salty food took in 5579 mg of sodium. The former took in significantly more sodium than the latter (p < 0.05). The examination of the amount of nutrient intake in terms of meal pattern, showed that those who had two meals a day were significantly higher in the level of weight and BMI was significantly higher (p<0.05) and the level of energy, protein, calcium, iron, vitamin A, vitamin C and cholesterol was significantly higher. Those who thought they had heavy meals took significantly more energy, protein, calcium iron, vitamin A vitamin B
and vitamin C than those who thought they had light meals. Rapid eaters took more nutrients than slow eaters. The multiple regression analysis has shown that the effect of the independent variables on the energy intake are in the order of eating speed, eating volume and eating frequency. They can explain 24.6% of the energy intake. As a result, the faster is eating speed, the heavier is eating volume, and the lower is eating frequency, the higher is the energy intake (p <0.01).
The Study of the Diet Style and Relationships among Vitamin and Nutrient Supplement Intakes, Serum Lipid Levels, Blood Sugar and Blood Pressure of Adult Female
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 306~314
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.306
The purpose of this study is to examine the relation between vegetarian diet and the risk factors of cardiovascular disease. The subjects of the study were 127 Buddhist nuns (age: 23 ~79 yr) for vegetarians and 235 healthy female adults (age: 23 ~79 yr) for non-vegetarians. This study covers food consumption survey, anthropometric measurement, amount of energy expenditure, physical activity and clinical examination. Average body mass index (BMI) of vegetarians and non-vegetarians were 22.47 and 21.08, waist/hip ratio (WHR) was 0.85 and 0.84, percentage of body fat (%BF) was 28.79 and 26.55, respectively. Average duration of vegetarian diet of the vegetarians was 13.16 years. The triglyceride levee of the vegetarians was significantly lower for those who take nutrient tablet compared to those who either take vitamins or who do not take any nutrient supplement. Taking vitamins or nutrient tablet did not give any significant difference in total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol for vegetarians, while significantly high triglyceride was observed for the non-vegetarians taking nutrient tablet than the ether non-vegetarians. Taking vitamins or nutrient tablet did not affect the lever of HDL-cholesterol for either vegetarians or non-vegetarians. Athrogenic index (AI) was lower for the vegetarian group tailing nutrient tablet and for the non-vegetarian group not taking vitamins and nutrient tablet, than the other respective groups. Blood sugar of the vegetarians who take nutrient tablet was significantly lower than those tailing vitamins, while blood sugar of the non-vegetarians not taking any nutrient supplement was significantly lower than those taking nutrient tablet.
Relationship of Food Preference and Body Size in Higher Grade Elementary School Boys in Daejeon City
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 315~321
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.315
This study was focused on identifying the difference of food preference according to body size of elementary school boys in Daejeon city. In order to measure the food preference, the degree of liking by means of a 5-point Hedonic scale was asked to 198 boys of 5th grade from six schools throughout Daejeon for 144 food items in 17 food groups composed of main dish, side dish and dessert : cooked rice, noodles or breads, as main dish, kimchi, tang.guk.zzigae, gui, zzim, bokeum, fried.pan-fried, jorim, muchim.namul or jangachi, as side dish, fruits, beverage, milk, rice cake or anacks, as dessert and for best preferred taste among five basic. The survey was conducted in rune, 1997 by questionnaires. Overall food preference of the subject was inclined to be higher in most of dessert food : fruits, beverage, milk or snacks, but to be lower in side dishes of Korean conventional food : jangachi, muchim, namul, jorim, kimchi and tang.guk .zzigae. The percentage of boys preferring cocked rice to noodle or bread as main dish was as much almost double in overweight boys as those of underweight or normal weight boys. None of the food group among 17 groups was significantly different in the food preference by body size of the subjects. However, food preference score of overweight group showed a trend to be higher in 11 food groups except less calorie-dense food groups such as fruits, noodles, rice cake, cooked rice, soup and stew and braised food (jorim) than normal or underweight group, and they seemed to prefer especially high-protein and high-fat foods. Being based on 3 points of preference score as the criterion for comparison, underweight group showed higher preference only in fruits group but showed lower preferences in 12 food groups among 17 groups than other groups.
Antimutagenic and Anticancer Effects of Ethanol Extract from Korean Traditional Doenjang Added Sea Tangle
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 322~328
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.322
This study was carried out to investigate antimutagenic and anticancer effects of ethanolic extract of Korean traditional doenjang added sea tangle. Most of the mineral content of doeniang was increased by addition of sea tangle. In the Ames test, the antimutagenic effect of ethanol extract of Korean traditional doenjang added 5% sea tangle was higher than that of control (no additive), 10%, and 15% sea tangle additions. The inhibition rate of ethanol extract (200
/plate) of doenjang added 5% sea tangle in the S. typhimurium TA100 strain showed 97.0% inhibition against the mutagenesis induced by MNNG. In addition, the suppression of ethanol extract (200
/plate) of doenjang added 5% sea tangle in the S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains showed 60.2% and 69.1% inhibition respectively, against the mutagenesis induced by 4NQO. The suppressions under the same condition against B(
)P and Trp-P-1 in the TA98 and TA100 strains were 71.7% and 87.3%, and 66.6% and 80.8%, respectively. In the anticancer effects, the cytotoxicity of doenjang added 5% sea tangle on the cell lines with human lung carcinoma (A549), human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), and human gastric carcinoma (KATOIII) were inhibited with increasing the extract concentration. The treatment of 1.0 mg/mL Doenjang added 5% sea tangle showed strong cytotoxicity of 56.4%, 87.67%, and 89.5% against A549, HepG2, and KATOIII, respectively.
Effect of Sarcodon aspratus Extract on Expression of Cell Cycle-Associated Proteins in HepG2 Cells
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 329~332
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.329
We investigated the effect of Sarcodon aspratus extract on expression of cell cycle regulators. Methanol extract of Sarcodon aspratus showed a growth suppression on HepG2. As shown by western blot analysis, the expressions of cyclin A and Dl known as cell cycle regulators were decreased after treatment of Sarcodon aspratus extract. On the other hand, the expression of cyclin Bl was increased in the presence of Sarcodon aspratus extract. Furthermore, the expression of p53, a tumor supressor gene, and p27, a cell cycle dependent protein kinase inhibitor, were increased, whereas the expression of PCNA was decreased. In conclusion, our study suggests that growth inhibitory effect of Sardodon aspratus methanol extract on HepG2 is induced by cell cycle arrest in the Gl phase caused by decrease in cyclin A, Dl expressions and increases in p53, p27 expression.
Antimicrobial Effects of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. Ethanol Extract on Listeria monocytogenes
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 333~337
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.333
To develope food preservative, antimicrobial activities of Pinus densiflora (PD) ethanol extract against Listeria monocytogenes Scott A. Listeria monocytogenes Brie I and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111 were investigated. The ethanol extracts of PD showed strong antimicrobial activities on Listeria monocytogenes. The crude ethanol extracts of PD were further fractionated by ether, ethyl acetate and butanol. The ether fraction from ethanol extract showed the strongest antimicrobial effects on Listeria monocytogenes in tryptic soy broth containing 40 mg/mL ether fractions compared with other fractions. The effect of ethanol extract of pinus densiflora against Listeria monocytogenes culture for growth stage in tryptic soy broth at 35
showed the strongest antimicrobial activites for lag phase. The morphological changes of the cells were observed with transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the cells were injured by treatment of 40 mg/mL ethanol extract of Pinus densiflora.
Antimicrobial Characteristics of Yellow-Pigment Produced by Monascus anka Y7
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 338~342
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.338
Antimicrobial activity of yellow pigment produced by Monascus anka Y7 (Y7) was studied. The crude yellow pigment of Y7 showed antimicrobial activity against some bacteria and yeasts. The diameter of inhibition zone against gram-positive bacteria was a little smaller t]fan that of gram-negative bacteria to the crude yellow pigment. Especially, E2 fraction obtained from the crude yellow pigment by TLC method showed high anti-microbial activity against E. coli.. The fraction had bright yellow pigment, showing fluorescent light and having the maximum absorption at 373 nm. Citrinin, a mycotoxin which had been characterized as an antimicrobial substance from a Monascus strain, was not detected in the E2 fraction and in the crude yellow pigment by the results of TLC and HPLC. This indicates that the antimicrobial activity of Y7 pigments did not any relationship with citrinin. Yellow degree (b/a of Hunters color value) of Y7 pigment was much higher than that of other natural colorants such as annatto, gardenia yellow and carthamus yellow. But the colors of all of the yellow pigments were similar by panels. Thus, the yellow pigment of Y7 could be used as a useful alternative colorant for food industry, having the advantage of antimicrobial activity.
Studies on the Standardization of Doenjang (Korean Soybean Paste) 1. Standardization of Manufacturing Method of Doenjang by Literatures
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 343~350
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.343
This study was conducted to standardize the manufacturing process of doenjang. The preparation methods, kinds and levels of the ingredients were determined by the statistical surveys of literatures obtained from cooking books, scientific papers and doenjang manufacturing factories. The standardized preparation of fermentation methods of doenjang were classified into two large groups, that were traditional and modified (commercialized) methods. Most soybeans used in doenjang preparation were the large size. To prepare traditional doenjang, soybeans were cleaned, scaled and cooked for 2 hrs at atmospheric pressure. These cooked soybeans were crushed in water and molded as brick shape. The molded soybean was dried for 2 days in the air, hung up by rice straw and fermented for 30~60 days under natural environmental condition (called meju). Recently soybean grain meju that inoculated with Asp. oryzae also frequently used to make traditional doenjang. The fermented meju was brined with a ratio of meju : salt : water
Fatty Acid Compositions of Lipids Extracted from Bullfrogs
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 351~354
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.351
The objective of this study was to analyze fatty acid composition in lipids extracted from bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana Shaw) inhabiting in Korea. Lipid contents in bullfrog legs and bodies were less than 1% (w/w, wet basis) and seasonal variation of the lipid contents was not observed. Lipids in bullfrog legs consisted of 26~31% (w/w) saturated fatty acids, 16~24% monounsaturated fatty acids, and 30~40% polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lipids in bullfrog bodies consisted of 23~28% saturated fatty acids, 29~44% monounsaturated fatty acids, and 16~30% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids in lipids extracted from bullfrogs were palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. Lipids in leg muscles contained 3~8% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 6~10% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Lipids in bodies had 1~3% EPA and 1~3% DHA.
Effect of Additive on Color Reversion of Irradiated Green Tea Extract
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 2, 2002, Pages 355~360
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.355
Effect of additive on color reversion of green tea extract, whose undesirable color had been removed by irradiation, was studied during storage. Hunter color L-vague of irradiated sample was significantly higher than that of nonirradiated control. The color of green tea extract with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) did not differ from that of the control but the green tea extract with ascorbic acid had higher L-value than the control during the whole storage (p<0.05), However, the sample irradiated at 20 kGy showed a faster color reversion than the sample with 5 or 10 kGy of irradiation. Hunter color a-values were decreased by irradiation and the sample with ascorbic acid showed the lowest. The result of Hunter color b-value was also similar to that of Hunter color a-value, indicating that when the irradiation technology is used for color improvement of green tea extract, the ascorbic acid can be added to minimize color reversion of the extract during delivery or storage.