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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 6 - Dec 2002
Volume 31, Issue 5 - Oct 2002
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Aug 2002
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Jun 2002
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Apr 2002
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Feb 2002
Selecting the target year
Flavor Characteristics of Volatile Compounds from Shrimp by GC Olfactometry (GCO)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 953~957
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.953
Volatile compounds from shrimp whole body (SWB) and shrimp shell waste (SSW) were isolated, and identified by the combination of SDE (simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction), GC (gas chromatography, HP-5890 plus)and MSD (mass selective detecter) or olfactometry. The peak numbers isolated from SWB and SSW were 20 and 46, respectively. The amounts of the volatile compounds isolated from SSW were higher than those of SWB. SWB produced more low-boiling compounds below 7
and SSW did more high boiling compounds over 10
. The volatile compounds identified from SSW were 9 pyrazines,5 acids,4 aldehydes, and 4 alcohols. These volatile compounds were evaluated by aroma extraction dilution analysis and gas chromatography olfactometry (GCO). Some compounds which were not detected by GC-FID and GC-MSD were found to be a strong shrimp flavor of log
FD 3 value by GCO. Strong shrimp odors were detected in low temperature while nutty aromatic odors and unpleasant oily smells were found in high temperature.
Irradiation-induced Volatile Compounds in Irradiated Chicken by P&T Method
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 958~964
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.958
To select the irradiation-induced marker components from volatile flavor compounds in irradiated chicken, and complement the extraction problems of liquid continuous extraction (LLCE) method, the volatile compounds of irradiated (0,1,3,5 and 10 kGy) chicken were analyzed by Purge and Trap (P&T) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. A total of 119 compounds were detected in irradiated chicken, and these compounds were composed mainly of 7 aldehydes,22 ketones,8 alcohols,30 esters,36 hydrocarbons,8 aromatic compounds and 8 miscellaneous compounds. Among these, only 21 compounds were detected in both LLCE and P&T methods, and the 98 other were detected in omly P&T method. Among volatile compounds detected in irradiated chicken, only 3 compounds such as hexene (r=0.96, p<0.01), propanol (r=0.93, p<0.05) and 1,3-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) benzene (r=0.96, p<0.05) were newly selected as marker compounds in irradiated chicken by P&T method, which showed significant and high positive correlation coefficient in the change of relative concentration according to the increment of irradiation dosage.
Inhibition Effect of Sanitizers against E. coli and a Hygienic Condition on the Surface of Utensils and Equipments Used to Food Service
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 965~970
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.965
This study was conducted to investigate inhibition effect of sanitizers against E. coli and a hygienic condition on the surface of utensils and equipments which were used to food service. Samples swabbed using cotton were collected from the surface of stainless steel, wood and plastic utensils and equipments which were used to food service at four elementary schools in Busan and analyzed by measuring the total, coliform and Salmonella spp. count. Total plate counts were 10
in most of utensils and equipments except plastic cutting board. There were lots of coliforms in slicer (2.8
) and peeler (1.1
). It was indicated that the sanitary condition of some utensils and equipments such as slicer and peeler should be improved promptly. To investigate inhibition effect of sanitizers against E. coli, the surface of utensils and equipments used in food service was treated at different concentration of sodium hypochlorite for 1 minute and 3 minutes, respectively. The plastic utensils and equipments were most effective aganist E. coli at 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite for 3 minutes. But the stainless steel and wood were most effective at 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite for 3 minutes. It was also treated with 70% ethyl alcohol for 10 seconds and 30 seconds, respectively. The stainless steel utensils and equipments were most effective aganist E. coli at 10 seconds, but plastic and wood were most effective at 30 seconds. Therefore, the results of this study indicated that standardization of disinfection method of utensils and equipments used in food service should be given and sanitation training for dietition should be conducted continuously.
Effect of Storage Temperature and Packing Method on the Fermentation Chacteristics of Kakdugi (Diced Radish Kimchi)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 971~976
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.971
Effect of storage temperature and packing method on the changes in pH, acidity, the levels of lactic acid bacteria, volume expansion of packages and the colorness during the fermentation of kakdugi (diced radish kimchi) were investigated. The fermentation characteristics were greatly influenced by the temperature. The pH of kakdugi fermented at 15
was 4.10 at 3 days, while the pH of kakdugi fermented at
was 4.03 at 18 days. The acidity of kakdugi fermented at
very slowly increased compared to that of the kakdugi fermented at 15
. The required days to reach the acidity of 0.6% (optimally ripened state) were 6 days at 15
, 7 days at 1
, 18 days at 5
and 30 days at
. Despite of different fermentation temperature, the numbers of Leuconostoc sp. in optimally ripened kakdugi were similar. However, Lactobacillus sp. in kakdugi fermented at
was the smallest in number. Also, the volume expansion of aluminum pack was the lowest in kakdugi fermented at
. Both pH and acidity of the kakdugi fermented in different packing condition did not show any difference at 1
for 20 days, however, the color of the kakdugi was affected by a packing method. Aluminium laminate package in which Ca(OH)
Pack stuck inside resulted in decolorization of kakdugi compared with aluminum package without Ca(OH)
pack or plastic jar. It showed the lowest redness and the highest lightness and yellowness. These results indicated that fermentation at
could increase storage period of kakdugi with minimum growth of Lactobacillus sp., and plastic jar might relieve the problem of volume expansion and decolorization of kakdugi.
Effects of Sea Tangle and Chitosan on the Physicochemical Properties of Traditional Kochujang
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 977~985
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.977
In order to improve the quality of traditional kochujang, submaterials like sea tangle and chitosan were added to kochujang and their effects on microbial characteristics, enzyme activities and physicochemical characteristics were investigated for 24 weeks of fermentation. The activities of
-amylase in kochujmg were higher in sea tangle added at 2% level and chitosan added at 0.1% level. However, acidic protease activity decreased as the ratio of submaterials increased. Viable cells of yeasts in the kochujang increased rapidly for 4~8 weeks of fermentation, and bacterial counts decreased in submaterials added groups. Moisture contents of kochujang increased until 12 weeks of fermentation, but water activity decreased. As the ratio of sea tangle increased, water activity decreased. Consistency of kochujang increased after middle of fermentation, and they increased remarkably by addition of sea tangle. The degree of increase in total color difference (
E) of sea tangle added group was lowest. The titratable acidity of kochujang decreased after 4 weeks, and they changed a little by addition of chitosan. Amino nitrogen contents of kochujang increased as mixing ratio of submaterials increased in the late period of aging. Ammonia nitrogen contents was lower in chitosan added kochujang at 24 week of fermentation. Reducing sugar contents of kochujang increased rapidly for 4~8 weeks of fermentation, and they increased as the ratio of chitosan increased. Ethanol contents of kochujang increased until 12~16 weeks of fermentation, with lower values in sea tangle added group. After 24 weeks of fermentation, the result of sensory evaluation showed that 0.1% chitosan added kochujang were more acceptable than sea tangle added kochujang in the taste, color and overall acceptability.all acceptability.
Preparation of Mushroom Mycelia-cultured Traditional Meju with Enhanced Anticaricinogenicity and Sensory Quality
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 986~993
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.986
Mushroom mycelia-cultured traditional meju (MTM) was prepared by inoculating 10% submerged-liquid culture of mushroom strains to five holes (1
3 cm) per side of the traditionally-fermented meiu (10
10cm), followed by incubating additional 4 weeks at
. Mushroom strains used were Neutari (Pleurotus ostreatus, PO), Yeongji (Ganoderma lucidum, GL), Synryeong (Agaricus blazei, AB), Ypsae (Grifola frondosa, GF), Pyogo(Lentinus edodes, PE), Dongchunghacho (Paecilomyces japonicus, PJ) and Sanghwang (Phellinus linteus PL). All MTMs showed an enhanced anticarcinogenicity against S-180 cell-induced mouse ascites cancer antimutagenicity against aflatoxin B
) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), and sensory qualities, relative to control meju. Such positive effects of MTM prepared with Sanghwang, Yeongji, or Synryeong were superior to those of MTM with Ypsae, Pyogo, Dongchunghacho, or Neutari.
Quality Characteristics of Soybean Sprouts from Heat-Treated Soybean
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 994~998
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.994
The effect of heat-shock treatment of soybean on the quality characteristics of soybean sprouts was investigated. Six groups of soybeans were heat-treated in 35, 40, 45
for 60 and 120 min respectively and then cultivated by a standard method to measure growth parameters, rot ratio, color, vitamin C content and sensory characteristics. Soybean sprouts of 4
/120 min treatment showed the higher weight, while 4
/60 min sample showed thicker hypocotyl and longer cotyledon than the control. In both rot ratio and viable cell count, the lowest values were obtained in soybean sprouts of control and also in 4
/60 min treated samples, while other heat-treated samples showed higher rot ratio and cell counts than the control. Heat treatment of soybean increased the lightness and decreased the yellowness of cotyledon of sprouts. Vitamin C contents of sprouts were increased by heat treatment. Sensory test showed that the heat treatment reduced benny odor and bitter taste but enhanced the nutty taste. Soybean sprouts of 4
/60 min resulted in significantly higher scores in overall appearance and palatability than other samples.
Effects of Salt Concentrations of Curing Solution on Myofibrillar Protein Extractability, Fragmentation, Water Holding Capacity, Salt Contents and Palatability of Cured Pork Loins
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 999~1004
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.999
In this study, pork loin was cured for 20 days in the 2
curing solution with the salt concentration of 3, 5, 7 and 9% respectively, and the effects of salt concentration and curing time on myofibrillar protein extractability (MPE), myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), water holding capacity (WHC), salt content, and palatability of pork loin were investigated. The pork loin cured in the 3, 5 and 7% curing solution showed the increased level of MPE and WHC up to 20 days of curing time, and the increased level of MFI up to 16 days of curing time. Also those values increased with the increasing salt concentration, regardless of the curing time. The pork loin cured in the 9% curing solution did not show any consistency in the results. The boiled cured pork loin showed better color up to 16 days of curing time, as the salt concentration of curing solution increased. The color of pork loin cured in the 3% curing solution was not uniform. The pork loin cured in the 9% curing solution showed good color, but its flavor and palatability were unacceptable. The palatability of pork loin could be improved significantly by curing it in the 5% curing solution for 16 days, and in the 7% curing solution for 12 days.
Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Low-Calorie Layer Cake Made with Maltodextrin
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 1005~1010
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1005
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of maltodextrin on the characteristics of low-calorie layer cake. Different levels of maltodextrin were added to the cake formula based on the weight of shortening. The specific gravity of cake batter was decreased by increasing the level of maltodextrin, whereas the viscosity showed an opposite trend. The microstructures of cake crumb observed by the scanning electron microscope showed the decrease of the number and size of air cells, and those of fat particles were also decreased by increasing the level of maltodextrin. The texture profile analysis of layer cake showed statistically significant differences according to the levels of maltodextrin. Hardness, gumminess and chewiness of the cake batter were decreased by adding maltodextrin, while springiness, cohesiveness and resilience increased. According to the sensory evaluation, the scores of taste and texture were decreased by adding maltodextrin, but the scores of appearance, color, flavor and overall preference of the layer cake increased. Overall results suggested that the addition of 35% maltodextrin could be the best replacing ratio for the low-calorie layer cake.
Nutrition Education Effect in Obesity Treatment for Children
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 1011~1017
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1011
The aim of this study was to investigate nutrition education effect in the long term and short term nutrition education intervention for childhood obesity. Seventy-seven obese children aged seven to twelve who visiting obesity clinic in a university hospital were given nutrition education therapy. Long-term as well as short-term education effect had been measured based on reducing level of Body Mass Index (BMI), Relative Body Weight (RBW) and lipid profile as well as dietary behavior. Identification of factors influencing the effect of nutrition education had been tested using multiple regression analysis as well as Main Whitney test. The result showed that nutrition education intervention had a significant impact on reducing the level of BMI, RBW and lipid profile during long term and short term period. Duration of clinic visit and total number of clinic visit were the most significant factors for the short term effect for obesity treatment. However, frequent clinic visit per month was not significant factor on short term effect. Therefore sustained participation for nutrition education by the obese individual seems more important factors than other factors especially for short term effect. Although, there was the tendency of reducing weight with longer duration and frequent clinic visit, and changing health behavior, none of the factors showed statistically significant effect on the long term effect for the obesity treatment. The results may imply that more complex factors involved for the long term treatment of childhood obesity than short term treatment.
Weight Control Behaviors among Korean Adults : Association with Dietary Intake
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 1018~1025
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1018
This study aimed to assess the prevalence of weight control behaviors and their association with food and nutrient intake among Korean adults. Study subjects were 7,340 Koreans aged 20 years and older in the 1998 Korean Health and Nutrient Survey. Cross-sectional data were collected on weight control behavior and diet using structured questionnaire by interview. Analysis of variance following after Duncan's multiple range test was used to test the differences in food and nutrient intake among three different weight control behavior groups(weight reducing attempt, weight gaining attempt, none). Current weight control behaviors were reported by 32% of the study subjects. There were significant differences in weight control behaviors between male and female subjects; weight reducing practices were 7 times greater than weight gaining practices among female subjects while it was only 1.5 times among male subjects. Weight control behaviors were not consistently associated with food and nutrient intake among male and female subjects. Moreover, greater food and nutrient intake were observed among those who trying to reducing weight than those who did not try. Therefore, it Is necessary to educate the Korean adults that balanced food and nutrient intake with sustaind weight control effort is the ideal way to achieve healthy weight.
Calcium Intake and Cognition on Calcium of Adolescents in Busan Area
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 1026~1034
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1026
The Purpose of this study was to identify calcium intake and cognition on calcium of adolescents in Busan area. Questionnaires including dietary habit, cognition on calcium, preference of calcium rich foods and diet record were developed. The questionnaires surveyed 285 adolescents consisted of 145 6th grade students (younger adolescents group, male: 72, female: 73) and 140 11th grade students (older adolescents group male: 66 female: 74). Adolescents appeared high cognition for function of calcium and milk but low cognition for nutrients related to absorption of calcium. Younger boy adolescents among them appeared the lowest score of cognition on calcium. The most preferred calcium rich foods in adolescents were ice-cream, laver and then yogurt whereas soybean and icefish dried appeared the lowest preference. Calcium intake of adolescents was 491.5~530.5 mg, 61.4~66.3% of RDA for Koreans, in female and 554.5~636.7 mg, 69.3~70.7% of RDA for Koreans in male. 64.9% of older girl adolescents showed calcium intakes under 66.7% of RDA for Koreans and this group also appeared less frequency of exercise than other group. Calcium intake of adolescents consisted of 44.6~53.3% from animal foods and 42.4~51.4% from plant foods. The adolescents consumed milk and milk products most, then vegetables and fishes as calcium source foods. Correlation analysis indicated that calcium intake was positively related to cognition on calcium of adolescents.
Short Term Effects of Sodium Intakes on Serum Lipids and Glucose in Adult Women
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 1035~1042
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1035
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of sodium intake on serum lipids and glucose. 20 young adult women were fed the diets containing 290.5 mEq (high-Na diet) and 51.3 mEq (low-Na diets) Na for 6 days, respectively. Serum lipids, glucose, and other parameters after high-Na diet and low-Na diet were compared. The results would be summarized as follows. The mean age, body weight, height, and blood pressure of the subjects were 22.9
2.5 years,54.7+6.6 kg, 160.0
4.8 cm, 110.3
19.7 mmHg, respectively. Body weight, BMI, and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher at the end of high-Na diet than of low-Na diet (p<0.001 p<0.001, p<0.05). However, there were not significantly different in height and systolic blood pressure between high- and low-Na diet. Serum cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol were not significantly different with Na intakes. Serum triglyceride was significantly higher at the end of high-Na diet than of low- Na diet (p<0.05) Serum apo A-I was significantly decreased in low-Na diet, while apo B was increased (p<0.001, p<0.001). Thrombin time and prothrombin time, blood aggregation time were significantly faster following low-Na diet (p<0.001, p<0.05). There was not significantly different in serum glucose between high- and low-Na diet. However, serum insulin was significantly higher following low-Na diet (p<0.01). It is concluded that diastolic blood pressure, serum triglyceride, serum apo A-I, blood aggregation time were decreased in low-Na diet, while serum apo B and serum insulin were increased. These results suggest that Na-restricted diet affects not only blood Pressure but other biochemical parameters in blood. Therefore, for the patients who need restricted Na diet, it would be suggested that various biochemical changes should be carefully considered along with dietary Na manipulation.
The Effect of Soy Isoflavone Supplementation on Urinary Isoflavone Excretion in Korean Postmenopausal Women
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 1043~1047
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1043
It is well known that soy isoflavones play beneficial roles in the prevention of chronic diseases such as breast cancer, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. However current data are not sufficient for estimating the level of isoflavone intake. To use the urinary isoflavone excretion as a maker of isoflavone intake,26 participants consumed the isoflavone extract capsule (90 mg soy isoplavones/capsule) daily for 3 months. The study compared effects of pre- and post-isoflavone supplement in the following parameters; physical examination, dietary recalls, and urinary isoflavon excretion. The average age, height and weight were 65.7 years, 149.4 cm, and 57.3 kg. Subjects maintained regular diet pattern, and average daily nutrient intakes between pre- and post- supplementation were not significantly different except vitamin A, carotene and vitamin C. There was no significant difference between pre- and post- supplementation in terms of daily isoflavone intake. The basal urinary isoflavone excretion was 8.37 mg/day (daidzein 6.23 mu genistein 2.14 mg), and average daily excretion rate was IS.8%. Urinary isoflavone excretion was significantly increased, after isoflavone supplementation for 3 months as compared the basal level (p<0.01). Our data suggest that urinary isoflavone level, especially daidzein and genistein, may be a useful maker to estimate isoflavone intake.
Effects of Different Fiber Content of Rice on Blood Glucose and Triglyceride Levels in Normal Subject
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 1048~1051
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1048
This study was conducted to determine the effect of different fiber content of rice on blood levels of glucose insulin and triglyceride in normal subject. Ilpum and Suwon 464, which have different fiber content were used for the test. Two types of rice containing 50 g of carbohydrate were pressure-cooked and fed to ten healthy male volunteers after an overnight fast. After a meal, the 60-min blood glucose levels of Suwon 464 and Ilpum were 90.3
4.8 mg/dL and 111.6
2.7 mg/dL, respectively (p<0.01). And the 120-min blood insulin levels of Suwon 464 and IlPum were 2.9
0.8 mg/dL and 7.7
1.6 mg/dL, respectively (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in triglyceride level between two rice varieties. The calculated glycemic index (GI) was 64.5% for Suwon 464, suggesting that Suwon 464 high in fiber can be useful in low-GI diets.
Effects of Dietary β-Glucan on Adiposity and Serum Lipids Levels in Obese Rats Induced by High Fat Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 1052~1057
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1052
This study was aimed to investigate the effect of dietary
-glucan obtained from bacterial fermentation on the adiposity and serum lipids level in dietary high fat induced obese rats. Experimentally, four weeks old male Sprague Dawrley rats fed high fat diet for 6 weeks to induce obesity, and subsequently fed one of three diets for further 6 weeks: 1) high fat control diet (0%
-glucan) 2) 1%
-glucan diet 3) 5%
-glucan diet. For comparison, normal control group fed AIN-76A diet. Food efficiency ratio of rats were tended to be decreased with
-glucan diet, but was not significantly affected. Visceral and peritoneal fat masses were lower in
-glucan groups compared to high fat control group and the effect of
-glucan was dose-dependent. Intake of
-glucan increased HDL cholesterol level and significantly reduced adipocyte size, and free fatty acid, when compared to those of high fat control group. These results suggest that anti-obesity effect of
-glucan may attributed to anti-lipogenesis.
Effects of Green Tea on Hepatic Antioxidative Defense System and Muscle Fatigue Recovery in Rat after Aerobic Exercise
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 1058~1064
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1058
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of green tea on hepatic antioxidative defense system and recovery of muscle fatigue in rat after aerobic exercise. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150
10 g were randomly assigned to one normal (N) group and aerobic exercise training groups. Exercise training groups were classified into two groups: training (T) group and green tea (TG) group which were supplemented the distilled water and green tea extracts by dringking water during experimental periods, respectively. The experimental rats in exercise training groups (T and TG) ran on a treadmill 30 min/day at a speed of 28 m/min (7% incline) 5 days/week or were cage confined (Normal group) for 4 weeks. And rats were sacrificed with an overdose of pentobarbital injection just after running. Hepatic xanthine oxidase (XOD) activities were not significantly different among three groups. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in T group was no significant difference from N group, but those of TG groups were significantly increased, compared with that of T group. Hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx) activites of TG groups showed a similar tendency to that of normal group, but it was increased to 20% in TG group, compared with normal group. The reduced glutathione (GSH) contents in liver was not significantly different from that of any three group. The oxidized glutathione (GSSG) contents in T group was increased to 69%, compared with the normal group, but TG group significantly decreased, compared with the T group. The ratio of GSH/GSSG in liver of T group was lower than that of normal group, but those of TG group was a similar tendency to that of normal group. Contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance(TBARS) in T group was increased to 52%, compared with that of normal group but those of TG group were recovered the normal level. Contents of hepatic glycogen in T group were decreased to 23% compared with those of normal group, while that of TG group was the same as normal levels. The contents of serum lactic acid in T group were increased to 261%, compared with normal group, but those of TG group maintained the normal level by green tea supplementations. In conclusion, the effects of green tea in exercise training rats would appear to reduce peroxidation of tissue as an antioxidative defense mechanism and promote recovery of muscle fatigue.
Effects of YK-209 Mulberry Leaves on Antioxidative Defense System of Liver in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 1065~1070
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1065
The purpose of this study was investigated the effects of YK-209 mulberry leaves on antioxidative defense system of liver in diabetic rats induced with streptozotocin (STZ). Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100
10 g were randomly assigned to one normal and four STZ-induced diabetic groups; YK-209 mulberry leaves free diet (DM group),0.1% YK-209 mulberry leaves diet (DM-0.1Y group),0.2% YK-209 mulberry leaves diet (DM-0.2Y group) and 0.4% YK-209 mulberry leaves diet (DM-0.4Y group). Diabetes was induced by intravenous Injection of 55 mg/kg body weight of STZ in sodium citrate buffer (pH 4.3) via tail vein after 4 weeks feeding of experimental diets. Rats were sacrificed at the 9th day of diabetic states. Liver weight in all four diabetic groups were higher than normal group, but YK-209 mulberry supplementation groups were lower than DM group. Hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly decreased in all diabetic groups, compared with normal group. Hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx) activity was 7.3% decreased in DM group, compared with normal group, but those of DM-0.1Y and DM-0.2Y groups were maintained the normal level. The hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was markedly increased by 144% in DM group, compared with normal group, but those of DM-0. 1Y, DM-0.2Y groups were maintained the normal level. The contents of lipofuscin in liver were increased by 100% in DM group compared with normal group, but those of DM-0. 1Y, DM-0.2Y and DM-0.4Y groups were decreased to 42% 43% and 44%, respectively, compared with DM group. The hepatic superoxide radical (0
-) contents in DM group were increased to 81%, compared with normal group, but those of DM-0.1Y and DM-0.4Y groups were similar to those of normal group. The present result indicate that YK-209 mulberry leaves regarded to suppress lipid peroxidation as an free radical scavenger system by the inhibition of oxidative stress.
Effects of YK-209 Mulberry Leaves on Disaccharidase Activites of Small Intestine and Blood Glucose-Lowering in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 1071~1077
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1071
The purpose of this study was investigated the effects of YK-209 mulberry leaves on disaccharidase activites of small intestine and blood glucose-lowering in diabetic rats induced with streptozotocin (STZ). Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100
10 g were randomly assigned to one normal and four STZ-induced diabetic groups; YK-209 0% mulberry leaves diet (DM group),0.1% YK-209 mulberry loaves diet (DM-0.1Y group),0.2% YK-209mulberry leaves diet (DM -0.2Y group), and 0.4% YK-209 mulberry leaves diet (DM -0.4Y group). Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of 55 mg/kg body weight of STZ in sodium citrate buffer (pH 4.3) via tail vein after 3 weeks feeding of experimental diets. Rats were sacrificed at the 9th day of diabetic states. The functional ingredients in the mulberry leaves, the 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) contents of YK-209 mulberry leaves was higher than those of the Cheongil mulberry leaves.
-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and rutin contents of YK-209 mulberry leaves were 1.3 and 1.4 times higher than those of the Cheongil mulberry leaves, respectively, and vitamin C contents of YK-209 mulberry leaves were also higher than those of the Cheongil mulberry leaves. Intestine index was increased in all diabetic groups, compared with normal group but not significantly different among all diadetic groups. Level of blood glucose was decreased in diadetic rats by supplementation YK-209 mulberry leaves. The disaccharidase activities in proximal part of intestine such as maltase, sucrase, and lactase in YK-209 mulberry leaves supplementation groups were significantly lower than those of DM group, In conclusion, this research indicated that the functional ingredients of YK 209 mulberry leaves were higher than those of the Cheongil leaveses, and YK-209 mulberry leaves has the hypoglycemic effect in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
Effect of Chitosan-Soybean Curd on Serum Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed High-Fat Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 1078~1083
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1078
Effects of chitosan-soybean curd (prepared using chitosan as a coagulant), commercial soybean curd and chitosan powder on serum lipid metabolism were investigated with rats fed high-fat diet for 6 weeks. Food intake of experimental groups fed high-fat (HF), chitosan-soybean curd (CSC), soybean curd (SC), or chitosan powder (CP)diet was lower compared to t]tat of normal group. Body weight gain was lower in rats fed the CSC, SC and CP diets than in rats fed the HF diet. There was no significant difference in total cholesterol concentration among all groups, but HDL-cholesterol concentration was higher and LDL-cholesterol concentration was lower in rats fed the CSC, SC, CP diets than in rats fed the HF diet. Total lipid level was lower in rats fed the SC and CP diets than in rats fed the HF diet. Increment of triglyceride level and decrement of phospholipid level in rats fed the HF diet were recovered significantly by the CSC, SC and Cf diet. Our results indicate that chitosan-soybean curd prepared under the commercial processing condition may provide the beneficial effect on lipid metabolism even though its effect didn't show any significant difference compared to that of commercial soybean curd under the present experimental conditions.
The Effects of Mortierella alpina Fungi and Extracted Oil (Arachidonic Acid Rich) on Growth and Learning Ability in Dam and Pups of Rat
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 1084~1091
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1084
Mortierella alpina, a common soil fungus, is the most efficient organism for production of production acid presently known. Since arachidonic acid are important in human brain and retina development, it was undertaken the growing effect containing diet as a food ingredient. Arachidonic acid rich oil derived from Mortierella alpina, was subjected to a program of studies to establish for use in diet supplement. This study was compared the growth and learning effect of fungal oil rich in arachidonic acid by incorporated into diets ad libitum. Sprague-Dawley rats received experimental diets 5 groups (standard AIN 93 based control with beef tallow, extract oil 8%, and 4%, and Mortierella alpina in diet 10% and 20%) over all experiment duration (pre-mating, mating, gestation, lactation, and after weaning 4 weeks). Pups born during this period consumed same diets after wean for 4 weeks. There was no statistical significance of diet effects in reproductive performance and fertility from birth to weaning. But the groups of Mortierella alpine diet were lower of weight gain and diet intake after weaning. The serum lipids were significantly different with diet groups, higher TG in LO (oil 4%) group of dams, and higher total cholesterol in LF (M. alpina 10%) of pups, although serum albumin content was not significantly different in diet group. The spent-time and memory effect within 4 weeks of T-Morris water maze pass test in dam and 7-week- age pups did not differ in diet groups. On the count of backing error in weaning period of pups was lower in HO(extracted oil 8%) group. In the group of 10% and 20% Mortierella alpina diet, DNA content was lower in brain with lower body weight, but liver DNA relative to body weight was higher than control. Further correlation analyses would be needed DNA and arachidonic acid intakes, with Mortierella alpina diet digestion rate.
Antioxidant Activity of Grape Seed Ethanol Extract According to Serial Solvent Fractionation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 1092~1096
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1092
Ethyl acetate and butanol fractions among the serial solvent fractions of grape seed ethanol extract contained the catechin at the levels of 35.7 mg/g and 20.2 mg/g, respectively However, the POV increasing patterns of two linoleic acid samples containing each solvent fraction were so similar that the difference in antioxidant activity by the catechin content of each solvent fraction could not be found. Each solvent fraction was fractionated on C18 cartridges into three subfractions which were mono-, dimers fraction (FI), oligomers fraction (FII) and polymers fraction (FIII) to examine the effect by the difference in degree of Polymerization of proanthocyanidin. The catechin contents of ethyl acetate subfractions (E-F) were in the order of E-FI (26.0 mg/g) > E-FII (18.6 mg/g) > E-FIII (13.7 mg/g) but the three subfractions showed nearly similar antioxidant activities, by the POV measurement at 1,000 ppm concentration. Also the catechin contents of butanol subfractions (B-F) were in the order of B-FI (35.3 mg/g) > B-FII (30.8 mg/g) > B-FIII (22.7 mg/g) but similar antioxidant activities were observed in all subfractions. In this study, similar antioxidant activities of each solvent subfraction in spite of different catechin contents inform that the degree of polymerization of proanthocyanidin as well as the total catechin content should be considered in quality control of grape seed extract produced for natural antioxidant.
The Antioxidant Ability and Nitrite Scavenging Ability of Poria cocos
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 1097~1101
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1097
This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of antioxidant ability and nitrite scavenging ability of Poria cocos Poria cocos mycelium and Poria cocos fermented with rice were extracted with water and ethanol for measurement of degree of fat acidification against fish oil. Lower TBARS values of Poria cocos mycelium and Poria cocos fermented with rice were shown compared with control. Iron chelating ability of Poria cocos mycelium against Fe
was higher than Poria cocos fermented with rice. Electron donating abilitv of water extract and ethanol extract of Poria cocos mycelium were 76.8% and 79.9%, respectively. Higher nitrite scavenging ability was shown at ethanol extract than water extract of Poria cocos mycelium.ium.
Effects of the Omija (Schizandra chinensis Baillon) extract on the metabolism and renal Cadmium contents in Cadmium administered rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 1102~1106
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1102
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Korean Omija extract on the hepatic and renal function in cadmium intoxicated rats. Male Sprague Dawley of 4 weeks old, weighing 100
10 g, were randomly assingned to four groups which received over four weeks one of the followings : deionized water for control (CW),3% Omija extract (OE),50 ppm cadmium water (CD) and 50 ppm cadmium water plus 3% Omija extract (CDOE). The results are as followes: there ware no significant differences between CD and CDOE in the body weight gain and food efficiency ratio. But Cadmium contents of kidney, GPT and LDH activities were significantly reduced in CDOE as compared to CD. Weight gain of kidney in CDOE, significantly higher than that of CD, increased to nearly normal level. GOT activities in CDOE, significantly different from that of CD, also considerably lowered to same level as that of tile normal rat group, CW The results suggested that Omija extract may have some protective effects from cadmium intoxication by reducing cadmium accumulation in kidney.
Effects of Pear Phenolic Compound on the STZ-treated Mice for Induction of Diabetes
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 1107~1111
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1107
This study has been carried out to investigate the effects of the Phenolic compound on the hyperglycemic mice induced with strentozotocin (STZ). The effects of the phenolic compound were assayed by the changes of the blood glucose creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN ) levels, and insulin-immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopical observation for
-cells of the Langerhan's islet, under the same experimental conditions. For this purpose male mice were fed with phenolic compound (PA group, IS mg/kg/day; PB group, 90 mg/kg/day)in their diet while the control group received the same commercial diet, for 6 weeks. The blood glucose contents was examined by tail vein blood once a week for 6 weeks. Samples of the pancreas removed after that period were processed for the immunohistochemical identification of
-cells as well as for measuring ultrastructural changes of
-cells. The levels of serum glucose were decreased significantly (p<0.05) on the PB group compared with the control and PA group. The blood BUN and creatinine levels are slightly decreased in the phenolic compound feeding groups compared with control group. The
-cells on Langerhnan's islet were destructed by administration of STZ, so that a few of insulin-positive cells were observed in the control group. A lot of insulin-positive cells were observed in the PB group compared with the control group. According to the electron microscopical observation
-cells are recovered from the damage in the PA group. The
-cell contained a lot of electron dense and pale granules compared with control group. These results suggest that administration of the pear phenolic compound to the mice helped recovery from the damage induced by STZ.
Effect of Dandelion (Taraxacum Officinale) Extracts on the Intestinal Microorganisms of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 1112~1118
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1112
This study was designed to test the effect of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) extracts on the intestinal microorganisms of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into normal, diabetic control and dandelion extract groups. The extracts were prepared by water, ethylacetate and ether from leaf and root, respectively. Diabetes was induced by injecting streptozotocin (55 mg/kg BW, i.p.) in citrate buffer. The extract was supplemented in 11.45g of raw dandelion / kg diet for 50 days. The growth of Lactobacillus was more enhanced in dandelion leaf-water and leaf-ethylacetate extract group than that of the diabetic control group, whereas the growth of E. coli decreased. Results indicate that the dandelion extracts would be effective to improve the intestinal microorganisms.
The Growth Inhibiting Effect of Enterobacteria, Clostridium pefringens KCTC 5014, by the Combination of Natural Products
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 1119~1125
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1119
The growth of C. pefringens was inhibited by the combination of natural products which have antioxidative capacity C. perfringens was controlled very effectively by each or the combination of Paeonia japonica, Atractylodis rhizome alba, Epimedii herba, Acori graminei rhizoma, Schizandraefructus, Lyciifructus, Cinnamomi cortex Sophorae flos Phellodendri cortex, Nelumbo nuclfera gaertner, Asparagi tuber, Mori cortex radicis, Astrafali radix and Coptidis rhizome The combination of Phellodendri cortex, Epimedii herba, Astragali radtx and Glycyrrhizae radix inhibited the growth of C. pefringen by 75% and increased the antioxidative activity by 4.4 times. This combination also eliminated more than 80% of hydroxyl radical. These natural products can be utilized as pharmaceuticals, functional foods, antiaging tea, and multifunctional fermentative beverages.
Induction of Apoptotic Cell Death and Depression of Bcl-2 Protein Levels by Trans-10,cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Human Prostate Cancer
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 1126~1133
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1126
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a collective term for a class of positional and geometric conjugated dienoic isomers of linoleic acid (LA) and has anti-cancer activity in experimental animals. We have previously observed that an isomeric mixture of CLA and trans-10,cis-12 (t10c12) inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner whereas LA and cis-9,trans-11 (c9t11) had no effect. The present study examined whether the CLA mixture and t10c12 induce apoptotic cell death. TSU-Prl cells were incubated for three days in serum-free medium in the absence or presence of individual fatty acids, and the DNA fragmentation assay was performed. Cells treated with the CLA mixture or t10c12 produced a distinct oligonucleosomal ladder with different sizes of DNA fragments, a typical characteristic of cells undergoing apoptosis. By contrast, LA and c9t11 had no effect. Western immunoblot analysis of total lysates revealed that t10c12 reduced anti-apoptotic, 26 kDa, Bcl-2 protein levels by 49
8% compared with controls, whereas this CLA isomer did not alter pro-apoptotic,21 kDa, Bax protein levels. These results suggest that growth inhibitory effect of the t10c12 CLA isomer may, at least in part, be attributed to Increased apoptotic death in TSU-Prl cells.
Selection of Flavonoids Inhibiting Expression of Cell Adhesion Molecules Induced by Tumor Necrosis Factor- a in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 1134~1141
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1134
Adhesion of leukocytes to the activated vascular endothelium and their subsequent recruitment/migration into the artery wall are key features in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and inflammatory diseases. These features have been mediated by cell adhesion molecules including vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and in tracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). This study examined whether flavonoids inhibit the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-
-induced monocyte adhesion via a modulation of the protein expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). TNF-
markedly increased the adhesion of THP-1 monocytes to endothelial cells and induced the expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin proteins in HUVECs. Micromolar concentrations of the flavones luteolin and apigenin and the flavonol quercetin near completely blocked the monocyte adhesion to the activated endothelial cells and the induction of these adhesion molecules. However, equimicromolar catechins of (-)epigallocatechin gallate and (+)catechin, the flavonol myr- icetin and the flavanones of naringin and hesperidin had no effect on TNF-
-activated monocyte adhesion. (-)Epigallocatechin gallate, (+) catechin, and naringin did not attenuate the TNF-
induction of these adhesion molecules. Furthermore, culture with luteolin and apigenin strongly blocked the expression of TNF-
-induced VCAM-1 mRNA and modestly attenuated ICAM-1 mRNA. Quercetin modestly decreased the TNF-
-activated VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 mRNAs. These results demonstrate that flavonoids classified as flavones and flavonols may inhibit monocyte adhesion to the TNF-
-activated endothelium, most likely due to a blockade of expression of functional adhesion molecules down-regulated at the transcriptional level, indicating a definite linkage between the chemical structure of flavonoids and the expression of cell adhesion molecules. Furthermore, the antiathero-genic feature of flavonoids appears to be independent of their antioxidant activity.
The Recipe Standardization and Nutrient Analysis of Aguyjjim (Local Foods in Busan)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 1142~1149
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1142
This study was designed to standardize recipe and analyze the nutrients of Aguyjjim (stewed angler), a kind of native local foods in Busan. The results of this study are summarized as follows. The form of angler and its way to catch for a bait were recorded in Jasanobo, but the recipe was not written. While angler was used as manure or feed once, it was boomed for Aguyjjim since 80's, accredited as high-quality fish and protein-rich food. The standard recipe of Aguyjjim was prepared (through 3 times experimental cooking), being based on the recipe of cookbooks and restaurants. Then standard recipe was subjected to sensory evaluation. All sensory properties (appearance, smell, texture etc.) of Aguyiiim were evaluated as “like slight S, moderately”in hedonic scale. Energy per 100 g of the Aguyjjim was 89 kcal. It contained protein (10.7 g), fat (1.3 g), fiber (2.6 g), Ca (45 mg), Fe (1.3 mg) and so on. Amino acid is mainly comprised glutamic acid and aspartic acid. Free amino acid contents such as asparagine, glutamic acid, taurine were high. Fatty acid primarily consisted of unsaturated fatty acid like oleic acid, linoleic acid. Traditional foods are based on that of local foods. However, there has been little study looking into the recipes and nutritional value of local foods. Aiming at development of traditional food, the present study offered the standard cuisine of Aguyiiim that is a kind of local foods in Busan. In addition, it presented the composition of nutrients, amino acids and fatty acids. This data would be helpful for houses, restaurants and food service facilities to revive the local foods.
Quantity Analysis of Nutrients in Soybean Sprouts Cultured with Germanium
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 1150~1154
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1150
This study was carried out to evaluate the nutritional value of soybean sprouts cultured in water with germanium. In the germanium treated soybean sprouts (GSP), the contents of moisture and ash were higher than those of control group (germanium non-treated soybean sprouts), with 88.7~90.2% and 16~24%, respectively. The contents of dietary fiber, vitamin C and total phenol of GSP were also higher than those of control group especially with more than 20~40% in total phenol being contained. Minerals of soybean sprouts were considerably increased during S-day cultivation. Of minerals, the contents of calcium and iron in GSP were higher than in the control. In particular there was no germanium in control group, but on the other hand, GSP had germanium of 159 ppm. Therefore, it may be suggested that, soybean sprout with germanium is better than soybean sprout without germanium in terms of nutrition.
A Study on the Perception and Attitude towards Food Waste Reduction by the Elementary School Pupils
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 1155~1162
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1155
Food waste in school foodservices is an important factor in managing expense or evaluating the acceptance of served meals and a serious environmental hazard factor in all countries. In this study, the perception and attitude towards food waste reduction and the recognition of environmental pollution of students from elementary school foodservices in Busan, Korea were investigated. The questionnaire was responded by 519 students (boy: 255, girl: 264) in the third and sixth grades. School lunch programs were proved to contribute to the improvement of students' food intake habits. The perception and attitude towards food waste reduction of the third grade students (3.61/3.73) were significantly higher than those of the sixth grade students (3.46/3.59) (P<0.01). Food waste education made a significant impact on the perception and attitude on food waste (p<0.01). When dislike food was supplied the students having the higher perception and attitude towards food waste reduction ate it more than those having the lower perception and attitude. The major reason for plate waste was shown to be influenced by the taste and amount of foods supplied in school lunch programs. Most of students recognized that food waste pollution (4.22) was one of the severest problems among the environmental pollutions, followed by air (4.13), tap water (4.09) soil (3.78), noise (3.55) pollution. The students separated the garbage in the house (72.6%) better than in school and the outside (55.2%). The perception of food waste was positively correlated with the attitude toward reduction of food waste and the recognition of environmental pollution (p<0.01). The attitude toward reduction of food waste was also positively correlated with meal quantity taken (p<0.01).
Antimicrobial Activity of Silver Ion against Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 31, issue 6, 2002, Pages 1163~1166
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1163
Antimicrobial activity of silver ion was tested against 3 kinds of food-borne microorganisms-Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus-using paper disk and broth medium methods. In paper disk method, silver ion showed antimicrobial activity against S. typhimurium and V. parahaemolyticus at the concentration above 2 ppm and 10 ppm, respectively, where as it was not detected in S. aureus with 20 ppm of silver ion concentration. In broth medium, the growth of S. typhimurium and V. Porahaemolyticus could be retarded at 0.3 ppm and 0.5 ppm of silver ion concentration respectively. In the presence of 1.0 ppm of silver ion, the growth of S. typhimurium was inhibited completely. In S. aureus, the growth was retarded at 5 ppm and was inhibited at l5 ppm completely.