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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 8 - Dec 2003
Volume 32, Issue 7 - Oct 2003
Volume 32, Issue 6 - Aug 2003
Volume 32, Issue 5 - Jul 2003
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Jun 2003
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Apr 2003
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Mar 2003
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
Detection of Radiation Induced Markers in Oranges Imported from the United States of America
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 1, 2003, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.1.001
Radiation induced markers were investigated for the detection of irradiated oranges imported from America. In the DNA comet assay, the non-irradiated and irradiated samples showed the comets with long tails in both seed and flesh. Though this tendency was maintained for 6 weeks, identification of non-irradiated or irradiated samples was impossible. In the thermoluminescence (TL) measurement, the non-irradiated samples revealed a glow curve with low intensity at about 28
, while the irradiated samples showed with higher intensity at around 18
. There were no remarkable changes in detection properties for 6 weeks after irradiation. The TL ratio of area for TL
glow curve to TL
was below 0.1 for the non-irradiated samples and 0.5 or more for the irradiated ones during storage. In the electron spin resonance (RSR) measurement, irradiated oranges showed an unspecific central signal in all parts (seed, flesh and peel), so the detection for radiation treatment of oranges was impossible. Based on the results, DNA comet assay and ESR were not useful for the detection, but TL was appropriate to search radiation induced markers of oranges during storage period. The detectable period during storage is confirmed by sensory evaluation.
Multistep Identification of γ-Irradiated Boiled-Dried Anchovies by Analysis of Thermoluminescence, Electron Spin Resonance, Hydrocarbon and 2-Alkylcyclobutanone
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 1, 2003, Pages 8~14
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.1.008
Multistep detection was peformed to identify irradiated dried anchovy. In thermoluminescence (TL) analysis, non-irradiated samples represented a lower peak at about 28
, but irradiated samples showed a higher peak at around 20
. The normalization with a re-irradiation step at 1 kGy could verify the identification results. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy for bones separated from irradiated anchovy revealed specific signals (g=2.002,1.998) derived from a hydroxyapatite radical, which intensities were in proportion to the irradiation doses and still detectable even after 6 months of storage at -2
. Six kinds of hydrocarbons (HC) were observed in dried anchovy samples and 1,7-hexadecadiene and 1-hexadecene were only detected in irradiated anchovy at 1 kGy or more. Also among 3 kinds of radiation-induced 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACB) observed, 2-dodecylcy-clobutanone and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone were unique in irradiated anchovy. As a result, the concentration of radiation-induced HCs and 2-ACBs were dependent on the irradiation dose and detectable after 6 months of storage. However, TL and ESR analyses were found simpler than the other methods for identification of irradiated boiled-dried anchovy.
Analysis of Functional Components of Leaves of Different Mulberry Cultivars
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 1, 2003, Pages 15~21
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.1.015
Quantification of functional components, such as ［l -deoxynojirimycin (DNJ),
-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and flavonoids］ of four different cultivars (YK-209, Cheongil, Yongchon and Kaeryang) and parts (upper, middle and lower) of mulberry leaves harvested in different areas and periods was performed by HPLC to select the best Quality of mulberry leaf suitable for manufacture of functional foods. Among four mulberry cultivars, YK-209 mulberry leaf had the highest DNJ, GABA and flavonoids levels. YK-209 mulberry leaf harvested in "Yeongcheon" area had greater DNJ, GABA and flavonoid contents than those harvested in "Sangju" area. Four major flavonoids of mulberry leaf were rutin, isoquercitrin, kaempferol-3-Ο-rutinoside, astragalin, and their levels varied greatly with cultivars. YK-BO9 mulberry leaf had the highest flavonoids content among four cultivars. DNJ, GABA and flavonoid contents of young YK-209 mulberry leaf were relatively higher in the upper part than those in the middle and lower parts. Additionally, levels of DNJ, GABA and flavonoids were higher in mulberry leaves harvested in the eariler growing season (May) than in the late growing seasons (June and August) . Particularly, among four flavonoids, rutin content had the highest in the mulberry leaf harvested in May, while isoquercitrin content did the highest in the mulberry leaf harvested in June and August. These results suggest that YK-209 mulberry leaf having high amount of functional components, such as DNJ, GABA and flavonoids, may be useful as potential source of beverages and tablets.verages and tablets.
Isolation and Identification of Antimicrobial Compound from Dansam (Saliuia miltiorrhiza Bunge)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 1, 2003, Pages 22~28
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.1.022
Antimicrobial effect of Dansham (Saliuia miltiorrhiza Bunge) was investigated. Methanol extract of dried Dansham was fractionated to hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, butanol and aqueous fraction. Chloroform fraction showed the highest inhibitory effect on the microorganisms such as B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli, L. monocytogenes and V. parahaemolyticus at 250
/disc. Chloroform fraction was further fractionated by silica gel column and thin layer chromatography (TLC). The antimicrobial compound was isolated from their fractions and its chemical structure was identified as a cryptotanshinone by GC-MS and
Characteristics of Sweet Persimmon Treated with Protopectinase from Bacillus subtilis EK11
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 1, 2003, Pages 29~34
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.1.029
In development of the processed food, it is important not only to make the food delicious but to enhance its storage span and thermal stability without change in color, which greatly affects the tastes. Protopectinase (PPase) from Bacillus subtilis EK11 hydrolyses or dissolves protopectin in the middle lamella of plant tissues with the resultant separation of plant cells from each other, called enzymatic maceration. With the PPase, persimmon was enzymatically macerated to separate cells to primary cell wall without damage. Recovery rates of persimmon treated with PPase and mechanical maceration were 95% and 85%, respectively. Total and reducing sugars, crude protein and fat in the enzymatic maceration were well preserved as in the mechanical maceration. Importantly, over 50% of vitamin C, which is the most unstable component during the mechanical maceration, remained with an intact form for one day after the enzymatic treatment. When the suspensions of persimmon macerated with both treatments were stored at 4
for 9 days, the mechanically macerated persimmon suspension was decolorized, whereas decolorization, was not found in the enzymatically macerated persimmon suspension. Moreover the mechanically macerated persimmon was greatly deteriorated after heat treatment at 10
for 60 min, whereas cells of the enzymatically separated persimmon suspension appeared to be stable, indicating increased thermal stability Thus, the PPase treatment of persimmon could be a better choice for preparation of highly valuable and functional processed food as well as for increase in preservation period.
Detection of Pathogenic Yersinia Enterocolitica in Drinking Water and Vegetables by Mutiplex-PCR
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 1, 2003, Pages 35~41
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.1.035
The study was conducted to develope a rapid method for the detection of Yersinia enterocolitica in spring water and vegetables via multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique using ail, yst, uirF and subgenus-specific Y16S primers. Specificity and sensitivity of multiplex PCR and application of best primers for the detection of Y. enterocolitica from spring water and vegetables were investigeted. Y. enterocolitica ATCC 27729 strains gave 356 bP and 200 bp (Y16S) and 134 bp (yst) bands. but Y. enterocolitica ATCC 9610 and ATCC 23715 strains gave 200 bp and 134 bp bands.In the meanwhile, non-pathogenic Yersinia species, such as Y. frederikseni, Y. inter-media, Y. kristenseni and Y. pseudotuberculosis gave only single 200 bp band, and other bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 25392, Shigella dysenteri. Staphylococcu aureus ATCC 25923 and Listeria mo-nocytogenes ATCC 19111 did not show any bands. Among primers, yst and Y16S primer showed the best sensitivity. Seven CFU/mL Y. enterocolitica cells could be detected with yst and Y16S primers and the sensitivity was significantly improved by the further 2nd PCR after 38 cycles of first PCR amplication. Spring water, cabbage and mushroom were inoculated with Y. enterocolitica to determine the sensitivity of multiplex-PCR for the rapid detection of Y. enterocolitica. Multiplex-PCR assay could detect 7 or 70 cells in spring water and vegetables using whole cell lysate with repeating PCR amplication.
Preparation of Carrageenan Hydrolysates from Carrageenan with Organic Acid
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 1, 2003, Pages 42~46
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.1.042
This research was carried out for searching the treatment conditions of organic acid and heating to prepare oligomers from the carrageenan. The applied treatments were autoclaving, micraowaving, and ultrasonicating with acetate, citrate, lactate, malate, and succinate. Among several physical depolymerization methods, auo-claving treatment was the most effective for hydrolyzing the carrageenan to low molecular compounds such as oligosaccharides. Citrate or malate was the most effective catalyst in hydrolyzing carrageenan to some oligo-saccharides among 5~7 different organic acids. An acceptable autoclaving condition for hydrolyzing carrageenan to oligosaccharides was to treat for 120 min at 110~12
. The maximum depolymerization ratio produced by autoclaving was about 23.0%. The depolymerized carrageenan prepared by autoclaving at 12
had oligo-saccharides of 5~7 species.
Quality Characteristics of Ginger Tea
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 1, 2003, Pages 47~51
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.1.047
To evaluate the quality of commercial ginger tea, we compared physicochemical (sugar content, pH, acidity, color, viscosity, transparancy) and sensory (7-point scoring test, 18 experienced panel members) characteristics of commercial ginger tea with home-made one. Additionally, we assessed the opinion of Food and Nutrition specialists, about commercial ginger tea. Questionaires were hand delivered to 530 subjects consisted of University students and faculties of Department of Food and Nutrition at 8 cities (Seoul, Incheon, Youngin, Taejon, Chungju, Taegu, Kwangju, Pusan) in Korea and the complete data of 328 subjects were statistically analyzed using SPSS Program for Window (mean, ANOVA,
). The questionaires were consisted of sociodemographics, frequency and occasion of purchasing, opinion of quality and improvement points. Commercial ginger tea was lower in transparancy, Hunter color (L and b value) and viscosity than home-made one. However, commercial tea was not significantly different in sugar content, pH, acidity and Hunter color a value compared to home-made one. Also, among sensory attributes, over-all preference and flavor, sweetness were not significantly different between commercial and home - made one, However, scores of color, taste and pungency of home-made ginger tea were significantly higher than commercial one (p<0.05). Factors to be improved for commercial ginger tea were in the order of ginger content (28.6%), flavor (25.2%) and sweetness (24.5%).
Characteristics of Cooked Rice by Adding Grains and Legumes
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 1, 2003, Pages 52~57
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.1.052
Nutritional compositions of the raw materials, such as well-milled rice, milled upland glutinous rice, milled barley, glutinous millet, SoRiTae, red beans and mung beans were analysed, and cooking characteristics and sensory attributes of mixed cereals were measured. Crude protein and crude fat in SoRiTae were 31.6% and 16.16%, respectively, and the highest among the raw materials. Crude ash was 3~11 times higher and crude fiber was 5~7 times higher in legumes than in grains. Iron content in SoRiTae was the highest as 7.8 mg/100 g, and calcium content was the highest as 71.0 mg/100 g in SoRiTae and mung beans. Phosphorus content was higher in glutinous millet and mung beans, and potassium content was greatly higher in legumes than in grains and the highest as 934 mg/100 g in red beans. Vitamin B
contents were higher in legumes than in grains, and niacin content was the highest as 5.51 mg/100 g in mung beans and was 3.77 mg/100 g in glutinous millet. Water uptake of the raw materials increased greatly after 5 min of soaking in water and then stayed at the almost same level. Water uptake was the highest in SoRiTae and decreased in the order of milled barley, milled upland glutinous rice, glutinous millet and well-milled rice. Hardness was the lowest as 142.8 g/cm
in cooked SoRiTae, and the highest as 206.3 g/cm
in cooked milled barley compared with 169.4 g/cm
in cooked well-milled rice. Cooking time increased and hardness of cooked mixed cereals decreased with the increase of water added. Moisture content decreased, while crude protein, crude ash and crude fiber increased as the increase of mixing ratio of SoRiTae and red beans in mixed cereals. Lightness decreased, while red and blue color increased, and hardness increased with the increase of mixing ratio of SoRiTae and red beans. Sensory evaluation showed greater preference in terms of color, roasted nutty, sweet taste and overall acceptance in the cooked mixed cereals with 8 and 10% of SoRiTae and red beans.
Effect of a Final Rolling Process on Okro Tea Quality
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 1, 2003, Pages 58~61
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.1.058
Moisture content was 79.5%, banjhi shoot was 77.8% of the total and the weight was 29.4 g/100 buds in the harvested plant leaves used for manufacturing Okro tea. Okro tea heated at 75
for 30 min showed the best quality among all the treatmants. Chemical components such as total nitrogen, theanine, arginine and chlorophyll were high in the tea treated at 75
for 30 min compare with those of other treatments. The sensory evalution test In terms of appearance shape color and taste showed greater preferences in Okro tea treated at 75
for 30 min than those of other treatments. The results suggested that heat treatment at 75
for 30 min was the best condition for the final rolling process in manufacturing of Okro tea.
Development of Functional Sponge Cakes with Onion Powder
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 1, 2003, Pages 62~66
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.1.062
Mass consumption of the surplus onion in the period of harvesting season by processing to various value-added functional food products would be one of the counterplot for stable market. This study was to develop functional sponge cakes with addition of onion powder, using physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation. The specific gravity and viscosity tended to increase according to the addition of onion powder. The water content was highest mark on the 4% onion powder added-cake. The color of lightness, yellowness, and redness of cake crust tended to decrease with the addition of onion powder. The addition of onion powder showed decrease in lightness and yellowness and increase in redness of cake crumb. The specific loaf volume was superior with the addition of 4% onion powder. The resilience, fracturability and adhesiveness showed a difference from the control. Sensory evaluation of cake indicated that addition of onion powder especially at the level of 2, 4%, enhanced appearance flavor, mouth feeling, and overall acceptability.
Quality Characteristics of Korean Wheat Noodle by Formulation of Foreign Wheat Flour and Starch
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 1, 2003, Pages 67~74
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.1.067
Quality characteristics of dough and noodles prepared from Korean wheat flours (Gru and Tapdong) were evaluated by substituting foreign wheat flours and starch in the formula. Korean wheat flours showed greater water absorption and weakness as well as protein and ash contents, but lower stability than the foreign wheat (control) By increasing substituted foreign wheat flours, water absorption of domestic Gru and Tapdong decreased. Dough development time decreased for Tapdong by substituting up to 30％ with foreign wheat flours. When imported wheat flours added in Gru and Tapdong, weakness of dough was decreased. Adhesiveness of dough was increased in all samples according to water adding, and Gru particulary showed the most high adhesiveness at 65% water and 10~20% replacement. From the mechanical texture test, Tapdong noodles were increased in cutting force by increasing amounts of imported wheat but decreased in extension distance. However, Cru noodles showed the opposite tendency. Hardness, adhesiveness, and chewiness of noodles were increased in all samples by increasing amounts of substitution with imported starch. As a result of cooked noodles test, Korean wheat noodles showed relatively lower values in cutting force and extension distance than in those of the control Studies of noodle-related characteristics of Korean wheat flours indicated that domestic soft wheat such as Gru might have high quality above the foreign wheat in noodle preparation by adding flours containing high amylose or low gluten.
Rheological Properties of Soymilk and Curd Prepared with Micronized Full-fat Soyflour
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 1, 2003, Pages 75~81
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.1.075
Rheological properties of micronized full-fat soyflour (MFS ) milk were determined according to solid content, heat-treatment and type of coagulants. Heat-treated MFS milk showed a pseudoplastic flow pattern. The consistency and flow index of heated MFS milk was greatly affected by increasing the concentration of MFS and/or soy protein isolate (SPI). Apparent viscosity of MFS milk was gradually decreased by heating below 6
, but was drastically increased by raising temperature further. Addition of coagulants and SPI resulted in dropping the temperature that allows to increase apparent viscosity drastically. A coagulant for MFS tofu was formulated based on the gelling Property of a single coagulant. The textural properties of MFS tofu were improved using 7.1% total protein fortified with SPI.
Manufacture and Stability of Low Calorie Mayonnaise Using Gums
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 1, 2003, Pages 82~88
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.1.082
Four kinds of low calorie mayonnaises containing 1.2% of sodium alginate, 1.0% of guar gum, 1.0% and 1.2% of xanthan gum and one control mayonnaise containing 78.5% of oil without gums were manufactured in pilot scale. Fresh control mayonnaise was higher in viscosity and turbidity than low calorie mayonnaise with gums. During storage at -1
, viscosity and turbidity of control mayonnaise decreased sharply, whereas those of low calorie mayonnaise with gums decreased slightly. Scanning electron microscopy showed that fresh mayonnaise was composed of heterogeneous population of dispersed spherical oil droplets (<10
), and oil droplet size of control mayonnaise was smaller than any other low calorie mayonnaise. During storage at -1
, a shift in oil droplet size toward larger oil droplets was frequently observed in control mayonnaise as a result of coalescence of oil droplets. Oil separation and turbidimetric study also confirmed that coalescence of oil droplets was occurring during this accelerated aging treatments.
Monitoring the Manufacturing Characteristics of Aloe Gel-State Food
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 1, 2003, Pages 89~95
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.1.089
Four-dimensional response surface methodology was used for monitoring the manufacturing characteristics of aloe gel-state food. The optimum conditions predicted for each corresponding sensory properties of aloe gel-state food were 87.38 mL (content of aloe juice), 0.16 g (content of konjac) and 0.19 g (content of carrageenan) in coloror of gel-state food, 83.84 mL, 0.17 g and 0.20 g in aroma of aloe gel-state food, 83.20 mL.0.15 g and 0.27 g taste of aloe gel-state food and 98.95 mL, 0.10 g and 0.23 g in texture of aloe gel-state food. Maximum chewiness of aloe gel-state food was in 113.05 mL aloe juice, 0.27 g konjac and 0.21 g carrageenan. The optimum conditions, which satisfied all sensory properties of gel-state food, were 88.23 mL, 0.15 g and 0.49 g in content of aloe juice, content of konjac and content of carrageenan, respectively.
A Study on the Mineral Content of Calcium-fortified Foods in Korea
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 1, 2003, Pages 96~101
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.1.096
This study was done to analyze the contents of minerals, to compare the measured values of calcium and the labeled values in food labeling and to analyze the ratio of calcium to other minerals in 43 calcium-fortified Food products sold in markets in Seoul, Korea. Content of minerals such as Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Cu, Zn was measured by atomic absorption or colorimetric method after dry-ashing or wet-ashing. The measured values of calcium were ranged 65.5~343.9% of the labeled values in 43 calcium-fortified products. In 21 calcium-fortified food products, the measured calcium values were ranged 120～160% of the labeled values, and in three drinks those were less than 80% of the labeled, which is not acceptable to the food regulation. The ratios of Ca:P were 2.63
SD) in grain Products, 1.79
0.39 in Ramyuns, 2.80
0.53 in retort pouch food products and 8.35
12.87 in drinks. The Ca:Fe ratios were 126.33
44.36 in grain products, 130.65
34.67 in Ramyuns, 120.31
71.15 in retort pouch food products and 700.25
553.70 in drinks. The ratios of Ca:Mg were 11.86
5.40 in grain products, 9.29
1.34 in Ramyuns, 9.09
2.09 in retort pouch food products and 32.50
41.35 in drinks. The P:Mg ratios were 4.11
1.54 in grain products, 4.17
0.67 in Ramyuns, 2.58
0.45 in retort pouch food Products and 2.59
2.50 in drinks. These results suggest calcium contents and the ratio of calcium contents to other minerals in calcium-fortified food products should be strictly controlled.
Current Tendency of Middle School Students to Get the Food and Nutrition Information from the Internet Web Site
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 1, 2003, Pages 102~108
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.1.102
This study investigated the current tendency of the middle school student's use of the food and nutrition information from the internet web site. The research employed web survey for the national middle school students. Middle school students usually searched the internet information to do homework and to solve the own curiosity. Forty percent of respondents had experience to get food and nutrition information from tile internet, and 74% of them were girl. Cooking method and world cooking exploring were the most wanted information among food and nutrition information. Professional cooking site and tips of food and nutrition from study aiding sites and monthly magazine sites were tile resources of food and nutrition information. The mai or reasons for searching the food and nutrition information were to know the cooking method and out of curiosity. The most unsatisfied problems were unnecessary information, too much advertisement and too difficult contents when the users approached the site to get the food and nutrition information. Students who have been not interested in and had no homework about food and nutrition, had no visiting experience of web sites for food and nutrition information. Therefore, to provide food and nutrition information for teenagers through internet, web sites were developed to have easy contents linked to study aiding site or other sites that teenagers frequently visit. Since teenager's interest about health issues is not as high as adult's one, the contents of sites must be easy for teenagers to follow and fun, however, should be based on scientific facts on food, nutrition and disease.
Antimicrobial Activity of Grape Seed Ethanol Extract
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 1, 2003, Pages 109~114
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.1.109
Antimicrobial activities of grape seed ethanol extract and its serial solvent fractions were investigated against various food poisoning microorganisms. The grape seed ethanol extract showed dose dependant antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 9372 or Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, whereas had limited effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa IFO 3080, Salmonella enteritidis IFO 3313 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Ethylacetate and butanol fractions ameng the serial solvent fractions of grape seed ethanol extract contained the catechin at the levels of 35.7 mg/g and 20.2 mg/g, respectively. Nevertheless, the butanol fraction of grape seed ethanol extract showed intense antimicrobial activity compared with the ethylacetate fraction on all microorganisms tested. It was found that the butanol fraction was mainly composed of oligomeric or polymeric polyphenols such as condensed tannins by the fractionation on C l8 cartridge according to the difference in the degree of polymerization. Therefore, it seems that the antimicrobial activity of grape seed ethanol extract is related to the degree of polymerization of proanthocyanidin as well as the total content of flavan-3-ol composing the proanthocyanidin.
Free Radical Scavenging Effect of Seed and Skin Extracts from Campbell Early Grape (Vitis labruscana B.)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 1, 2003, Pages 115~118
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.1.115
This study was conducted to determine optimal extraction condition and free radical scavenging effect of ethanol extracts of Campell Early grape seeds and skins at different temperatures, and of organic solvent fractionated from ethanol extracts of grape seeds and skins. The free radical scavenging effect was tested using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and expressed as dose required for a 50% reduction of DPPH radical (RC
). The extraction yields were increased with increasing the extraction temperature but it was not related with ethanol concentrations. The ethanol extract of grape seeds obtained at 5
showed the more stronger RC
/mL) than those of both 3
. The ethylacetate fraction obtained from ethanol extract of grape seed showed the strongest RC
/mL). Overall, both ethanol extracts and their fractions of grape seeds showed significantly stronger free radical scavenging effect than those of skin extracts.racts.
Effect of Biologically Active Fractions from Onion on Physiological Activity and Lipid Metabolism
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 1, 2003, Pages 119~123
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.1.119
From the 80% ethanol extraction of onion flesh, fraction I,II and III were separated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Fraction II and III had a high inhibitory effect on ACE and xanthine oxidase. The ACE was about 80% at 50 ppm of fraction IIand III. The xanthine oxidase was about 82.5% at 100 ppm of fraction In. This research was studied to investigate the effects of the fraction In isolated from onion on the reduction of fat accumulation in rats fed high fat diet for 2 months. The metabolism was examined by analyzing the fat in serum and liver. It was shown that cholesterol in serum was remarkably reduced in onion fraction In as compared with those of control.
Effect of Korean Red Ginseng Powder on the Lipid Concentrations and Tissue Lipid Peroxidation in the Rats Fed High Fat Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 1, 2003, Pages 124~130
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.1.124
Effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG) on the level of serum and liver lipids and lipid peroxidation was investigated in the rats fed high fat diet. Content of serum total cholesterol was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in KRG I group and KRG II group. Content of HDL-cholesterol was significantly increased by 69.75% and 39.15% in KRG I and KRG II group compared to control group, respectively. Atherogenic index (hi) was also significantly decreased by 74.76% and 37.38% in KRG I and KRG II groups compared to control group, respectively. Serum triglyceride content was significantly decreased (p<0.05) in only KRG II group. Antioxidative activity of KRG on the lipid peroxidation of serum and tissues in rats was also studied in vivo by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Contents of TBARS in the serum of both KRG groups were significantly decreased (p<0.05) and that of nonheme iron in serum was significantly increased (p<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner, which suggested that lipid peroxidation contents are inversely correlated with serum nonheme iron content. Content of TBARS in liver was significantly decreased (p<0.05) in KRG I and KRG II groups, without any influence in other tissues. Content of TBIARS in liver microsomal fractions stimulated by Fe
/ascorbate was significantly decreased (p<0.05) in KRG I and KRG II groups, whereas this observation did not occur in liver mitochondrial fractions. When the effect of KRG on TBARS content in the liver fractions of homogenates, microsomes, and mitochodria stimulated by Fe
/ascorbate was tested in vitro experimental model, TBARS of liver three fractions was significantly decreased at 6 mg/mL KRG compared with those of control. These results suggested that KRG powder have hypocholesterolemic effect as well as antioxidative effect in the serum and liver of the rats fed high fat diet.iet.
Utilization of the Natural Antioxidants for the Anti-peroxidation of Almond Cracker
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 1, 2003, Pages 131~136
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.1.131
This research was aimed to evaluate the inhibition of oxidative changes of almond crackers by natural antioxidants (tocopherol, rosemary, and tea polyphenol). Almond crackers stored at
for 70 days were evaluated with peroxide value, sensory and kinetic parameters. Results revealed that the antioxidative activity of rosemary was highy effective in inhibiting lipid oxidation at
and tea Polyphenol highly effective at 35
. Sensory evaluation indicated that the properties of odor and taste of almond crackers tended to positive effect with the addition of rosemary and tea polyphenol. Kinetic study in lipid oxidation showed the first order reaction at
and the zero order reaction at 35
. It was found that the kinetic parameter of oxidation reaction predicted for the shelf-life of almond cracker.
Effects of Gamma-Irradiation on Biological Activities and Color Changes of Extracts of Schizandrae fructus
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 1, 2003, Pages 137~142
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.1.137
This study was carried out to examine the effects of gamma irradiation on the color removal, antioxidation, DPPH radical scavenger, and antimicrobial activity of Schizandra fructus extracts by different solvents. Schizandra fructus was extracted by hot water, ethanol, acetone and methanol, and the extracts were irradiated 10, 20 and 30 kGy with gamma rays. Hunter color L-value was increased by irradiation in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in brighter color for all solvents used. The a and b values were decreased by irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. Antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of Schizandra fructus against soybean oil was the highest. The free radical scavenging activity was the strongest in hot water extract. All solvent extracts from Schizandra fructus had the strongest antimicrobial activities to B. subtilis, B. natto, B megaterium, S. aureus, Sal. typhymurium and E. coli. These results suggested that Schizandra fructus extracts have a strong potential as natural food preservatives and cosmetic raw materials. Furthermore, irradiation may not influence adversely on biological activites of the extracts when irradiated up to 30 kGy.
Enhanced Antitumorigenicity and Antimutagenicity of Doenjang Prepared from Mushroom Mycelia-cultured Traditional Mejus
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 1, 2003, Pages 143~148
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.1.143
Antitumorigenic and antimutagenic activities of the doenjangs prepared from mushroom mycelia-cultured traditional mejus (designated to MTDJ) were investigated using the model of Sarcoma-180-induced mouse ascites cancer, and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo ［4,5-f］ quinoline (IQ) and aflatoxin B
) -mediated S. typhimurium mutagenicity, respectively. Antioxidative activity of MTDJ was also investigated using the mouse liver microsome system. Mushroom stains used for the preparation of the mushroom mycelia-cultured traditional mejus were Synryeong (Agaricus blazei), Yeonggi (Canoderma Iucidum), Sanghwang (Phellinus linteus), and Neutari (Pleurotus ostreatus). All MTDJS showed the enhanced antitumorigenicities (12% by Synryeong, 13% by Sanghwang, 16% by Yeonggi, and 19% by Neutari), antimutagenicity (6.1~20.8% for IQ and 3.1~10.2% for AFB
), and antioxidative activity (6.6~46.5%), relative to the control doenjang. The
-D-glucan content (0.75~1.71 mg/g) of MTDJs was 3~8 times higher than that (0.22 mg/g) of the control doenjang. Genistein content (769~932 Ug/g) of MTDJS was also higher than that (728 Ug/g) of control doenjang The content of
-D-glucan and genistein was not exactly correlated to the antitumorigenicity and antimutagenicity of MTDJs. These results indicate that anti-tumorigenicity and antimutagenicity of MTDJS were elevated in comparison with the control doenjang, and the observed functions were, in part, derived from
-glucan and/or genistein in the MTDJS.
Inhibition of Tumor Growth through Macrophage Activation by Polysaccharide Fraction from Peonia japonica (PJ-P)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 1, 2003, Pages 149~154
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.1.149
The immunomodulatory activity of PJ-P, a polysaccharide fraction extracted from Paeonia japonica, were reported in our previous paper. In the present study, we investigated that PJ-P inhibited cancer growth through activation of macrophages. The activities of peritoneal macrophage to induce tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-
, interleukin-1 (IL-1)
, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) as well as to ingest fluorescence-latex microbeads were enhanced by treatment of PJ-P. Direct cytocidal activity of PJ-P against cancer cells was not shown. However, in vitro, peritoneal macrophages treated with PJ-P had an activity to kill cancer cells. Furthermore, PJ-P significantly prolonged the survival of mice implanted intraperitoneally with B16F0 mel-anoma cells. These results suggest that PJ-P could be a useful immunomodulator and assistant of anti-tumor agent.