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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 8 - Dec 2003
Volume 32, Issue 7 - Oct 2003
Volume 32, Issue 6 - Aug 2003
Volume 32, Issue 5 - Jul 2003
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Jun 2003
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Apr 2003
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Mar 2003
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
The Optimal Condition for Production of Red Pigment by Monascus anka on Solid Culture
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 2, 2003, Pages 155~160
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.155
The optimum cultural conditions for production of red pigment from Monascus anka KCTC 6121 on solid culture were studied. The optimal conditions were found that the strain was cultivated on polished rice with 25% initial moisture content, at 3
, 90% humidity for 12 days. It was also found that the maximum red pigment was extracted when the final culture was left in 80% ethanol for 2 days. The light stability of the extracted red pigment was relative stable since the discoloration rate was less than 8% in 30 days under the indirect light.
Effect of Water Extracts of Shellfish Shell on Fermentation and Calcium Content of Kimchi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 2, 2003, Pages 161~166
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.161
This study attempted to fortify Kimchi with water extracts of shells of shellfishes (corb shell, short neck clam, taste clam, ark shell, top shell, oyster) as natural resource of calcium. Kimchi added with the shell extracts in 5% were fermented at 1
with measurements in chemical, microbiological and sensory qualities. Calcium content of shellfish shells before water extraction was in the range of 25.57~38.78%. Kimchi added with the extracts showed higher pH, lower acidity, lower total aerobic bacterial count and higher lactic acid bacteria count compared to control Kimchi without any addition. After 7 day fermentation the Kimchi added with the extracts also showed higher ash and calcium contents compared to control products (3.3~5.0 vs. 2.8~3.0% and 300~376 vs. 70~95 mg%). Kimchi with oyster shell extract gave the most pronounced effect in ash and calcium contents. The addition of extract made Kimchi crisper and less sourer oganoleptically. In the overall acceptability, the Kimchi fortified with the shell extracts were better than control after 14 day fermentation.
Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Turnip Dongchimi during Fermentation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 2, 2003, Pages 167~174
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.167
Physicochemical and sensory properties of turnip dongchimi were examined during fermentation at
. Salt concentrations of dongchimi liquid were around 1.3% during fermentation. Greater decrease in pH and reducing sugar content in solid, and higher increase of acidity, turbidity and reducing sugar content in liquid were observed during fermentation. The acidity and pH at the optimal fermentation time, at the day 40 was observed 0.36% and pH 3.9, respectively Lactobacilli number, turbidity, anthocyanin content, the Hunter color L and a values were the greatest at the day 40 and then gradually decreased. The hardness and fracturability of turnip, determined by texture analyser, decreased during fermentation, while springiness increased. Sensory evaluation showed that the scores of color of purple, sweet taste, savory taste, and over-all preference of dongchimi were highest at the day 40. Score of overall preference of turnip dongchimi was the highest with 6.5 at the 40th day of fermentation, the optimum fermentation time, but the score until the day 60 was not significantly decreased.
Suppression Effect of Maltitol on Retrogradation of Korean Rice Cake (Karedduk)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 2, 2003, Pages 175~180
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.175
Effect of the addition of maltitol to Korean rice cake (Karedduk) on its retrogradation was examined. Degree of retrogradation was also examined in terms of recrystallinity of starch and color change with a differential scanning calorimeter. As a result, retrogradation was suppressed by the increasing addition of maltitol. In particular, enthalpy showed a tendency to decrease at
rather than at 4
during 4 days. In the gelatinization properties using DSC, onset temperature (To) was shown to increase slightly according to storage time. Maximum peak temperature (Tp) was shown to decrease by the addition of maltitol during 4 days. Melting enthalpy was decreased at
by the addition of maltitol. The analysis X-ray diffraction also revealed that retrogradation of the Korean rice cake was suppressed by the addition of maltitol because crystalline region did not appear. The addition of maltitol into the Korean rice cake was found to result in an increase of its qualify or color stability
Effect of Ethanol on the Production of Cellulose and Acetic Acid by Gluconacetobacter persimmonensis KJ145
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 2, 2003, Pages 181~184
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.181
We investigated the effect of ethanol on the production of cellulose and acetic acid fermentation by Gluconacetobacter persimmonensis KJ145. Results showed that bacterial cellulose productivity was highest when 2% ethyl alcohol was added to apple-juice medium. For acetic acid production, 7% ethyl alcohol was needed. Optimal concentration of ethyl alcohol was 5% for simultaneous production of bacterial cellulose and acetic acid. For simultaneous production of bacterial cellulose and acetic acid, optimal nitrogen source and optimal concentration were corn steep liquor and 15% (w/v), respectively Optimal culture time for simultaneous production of bacterial cellulose and acetic acid was 14 days. At the optimal condition, Cluconacetobacter persimmonenis KJ145 produced 7.55 g/L of bacterial cellulose (dry weight).
Antimicrobial Activity of Pine Needle Extract and Horseradish on the Growth of Vibrio
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 2, 2003, Pages 185~190
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.185
The effects of pine needle extract and horseradish on the growth of Vibrio isolated from crab and flat fish were investigated. The isolated Vibrios were identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus HY I and V. vulnificus FST I by Api 20E kit. The growth of V. parahaemolyticus HY 1, V. vulnificus FST I and V. perahaernolytich ATCC17802 were inhibited in tryptic soy broth (TSB) containing 1% pine needle ethanol extract. The growth of the Vibrios was more 2 log inhibited in TSB containing 1% pine needle extract and 1% horseradish than in TSB containing 1% horseradish alone. Viable cells of tile Vibrios were decreased more rapidly about 2~3 log in soysauce containing 1% pine needle extract and 1% of horseradish than in soysauce and in soysauce containing 1% horeseradish. Sensory quality of horseradish sauce containing 1% of pine needle extract was similar to that of horseradish sauce (p<0.05).
Effect of Water Extract of Green tea, Persimmon Leaf and Safflower Seed on Heme Synthesis and Erythrocyte Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Lead-Administered Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 2, 2003, Pages 191~196
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.191
This study was performed to investigate the effect of water extract of green tea (GT), persimmon leaf (PL) and safflower seed (SS) on heme synthesis and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities in lead (Pb)-administered rats. Male rats were divided into five groups. a normal, Pb-control (Pb-Con), Pb-GT, Pb-PL and Pb-55 groups with ten rats per group. Pb (25 mg/kg. BW) was orally administerd once a day for 4 weeks. The extract of GT, PL and 55 were administered based on 1.26 g of raw traditional tea/kg BW/day. Blood hematocrit, homoglobin level and red blood cell counts were significantly lower in rb-Con group than in normal group. However, the supplementation of GT, PL and 55 were effective to improve the hematological parameters. Plasma AST and ALT activities were significantly lower in Pb-GT, Pb-PL, Pb-SS groups than in Pb-Con group. The
-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity of blood and liver were significantly lowered in Pb-Con group com-pared to those of the normal group. The ALAD activity in Pb administered rats was recovered to tile normal level by the water extract of GT, PL and 55 supplementation. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and catalse activities were significantly higher in Pb-Con group than in normal group, whereas glutathione peroxidase activity was lowered in Pb administered rats. The extract of GT, PL and SS supplement attenuated changes of these erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities by Pb intoxication.
Effect of Raw Broun Rice and Job식s Tear Supplemented Diet on Serum and Hepatic Lipid Concentrations, Antioxidative System, and Immune Function of Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 2, 2003, Pages 197~206
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.197
Physiological functions of raw grain diet composed of brown rice and Job`s Tear (1 : 1) were evaluated in rats raised with nutritionally unbalanced diet including 1% cholesterol, high proportion of animal lipids (lard: soybean oil : 8 : 2), sub-optimal levels of vitamin and mineral mixture along with 0.5% ethanol in drinking water for 4 weeks. Control rats were fed the AIN-93G diet for 9 weeks, and nutritionally unbalanced rats were divided into 3 groups, and fed one of the following diets with 0.5% ethanol in drinking water for another 5 weeks: unbalanced control diet (UCD), raw grain diet (RGD) (UCD +20% brown rice and Job`s Tear mixture, and cooked grain diet (CGD)(autoclaved RGD at 121
for 3 hours). Feeding UCD for 5 weeks significantly lowered the food efficiency ratio (FER) of rats than the value for control animals, and dietary supplementation of brown rice and Job`s Tear mixture to UCD significantly restored the FER. Serum total cholesterol concentration was significantly lowered in rats fed RGD (24% decrease) or CGD (16% decrease) compared to the value for rats fed UCD. Feeding RGD for 5 weeks significaly lowered the serum LDL+VLDL-cholesterol concentration (26% decrease), as well as the hepatic cholesterol level (16% decrease) than the values for UCD rats. Animals fed CGD (38% decrease) or RGU (59% decrease) showed significantly lower level of hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) compared to the value for rats fed UCD (p<0.05), although hepatic activities of antioxidative enzymes were not influenced by dietary supplementation. Feeding RGD for 5 weeks significantly increased CD4
T-cell population along with CD4
ratio of mesenteric lymph nodes compared to those for UCD rats (p<0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation of brown rice and Job`s Tear mixture as raw grains exhibited superior activity lowering blood and hepatic levels of cholesterol, and improving mesenteric lymph nodes immune function of rats to the cooked grain mixture of identical ingredients.
Antioxidative Effect of Salicornia herbacea L. Grown in Closed Sea Beach
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 2, 2003, Pages 207~210
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.207
This study was designed to investigate the antioxidative effect of glasswort (Salicornia herbacea L.) grown in closed sea beach. To compare antioxidant effects of glasswort plant parts, dried ground leaves, stems, and roots of glasswort were exploited for investigation of antioxidant activity Antioxidant activity for the samples was investigated by Rancimat and TBA method. The oxidative stability determined by the Rancimat technique showed a variation in antioxidative index (AL) between the different plant parts, ranging from 1.0 to 3.6. Oxidative stability from ground stem sample of glasswort harvested in the closed sea beach was the highest, and followed by leaf and root. Stem had higher oxidative stability than ascorbic acid. Antioxidatiue effects of glasswort were increased in dose-dependent manners, and antioxidant activity by addition of glasswort with same amount to 4% oil was similar to the activity of ascorbic acid. Specially, 8~10% glasswort addition to oil showed similar antioxidative effect to 1%
Antioxidative, Antimutagenic and Cytotoxic Effects of Rhodiola sachalinensis Extract
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 2, 2003, Pages 211~216
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.211
This study was carried out to determine the antioxidative, antimutagenic, and anticancer effects of Rhodiola sachalinensis root using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical donating method, Ames test and cytotoxicity, respectively. Rhodiola sachalinenis root were extracted with ethanol and then further fractionated to n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), butanol and water, stepwise. Among five fractions, the Etohc fractions showed the highest electron donating activities (14.3
g/mL). The inhibition rate of ethanol extract (200
g/plate) of Rhodiola sachalinensis root in the S. typhimurium TA100 strain showed 89.1% inhibition against the mutagenesis induced by MNNG. In addition, the suppression of EtOAc fractions with same concentration of Rhodiola sachalinensis root in the S. typhimurium TA98 and TAI00 strains showed 89.7% and 91.5% inhibition against 4NQO, respectively. The suppressions under the same condition against B(
)P and Trp-P-1 in the TA98 and TA100 strains were 94.2% and 95.7%, and 92.3% and 93.8%, respectively. The cytotoxic effects of Rhodiola sachalinensis root against the cell lines with human lung carcinoma (A549), human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), human gastric carcinoma (AGS) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) were inhibited with the increase of the extract concentration. The treatment of 1.0 mg/mL Rhodiola sachalinensis root of EtOAc fraction showed strong cytotoxicities of 90.5%, 81.5%, 92.2% and 82.6% against A549, HepG2, AGS and MCF-7, respectively.
Effect of Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus eryngii Extracts on Proliferation and Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Cell Lines
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 2, 2003, Pages 217~222
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.217
We studied effects of hot water extract of Lentinus edodes (Berk.)sing. and Pleurotus eryngii (De Candolle ex Fries) Quel mushroom on proliferation and apoptosis of the human colon adenocarcinoma, HT-29 and Caco-2.. Cells were maintained with Dulbecco`s modified Eagle medium/Ham`s F-12 nutrient mixture supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at 37
in a humidified
. For cell proliferation experiments, cells were seeded in 35 mm dishes, treated with the various concentrations of the extract for the different time course. Apoptosis was measured by caspase-3 activity The more contents of the extract added in HT-29 and Caco-2 were, the more cell proliferation was suppressed. When we incubated HT-29 cells for 24, B\ulcorner72, and 96 hours after treatments, cell proliferation was markedly suppressed after 96 hours. Also, caspase-3 activity in HT-29 was increased by the treatment of Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus eryngii extracts. However, the treatment of the extract to SNU484, Korean stomach adenocarcinoma, did not show any influence on cell proliferation and caspase-3 activity Therefore, Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus eryngii are strongly recommended for the prevention and treatment of colon cancer.
Screening of Effective Components from Kale to Inhibit N - Nitrosodimethylamine Formation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 2, 2003, Pages 223~229
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.223
An amine rich diet with nitrate was incubated in simulated saliva, gastric juice, kale juice, and its ascorbate and methanol soluble portions (5, 10, 15 and 30 mL) for 1 hr at 37
and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was detected in the digestion sample, Kale juice and its ascorbate and methanol soluble portions at 30mL inhibited NDMA formation by 60.1
1.2% and 50.1
2.0%, respectively. The methanol soluble portion was further fractionated by preparative-LC (prep-LC). Nitrite-scavenging effects of 7 methanol soluble portion (Kl, K2, K3, K4, K5, K6 and K7) in kale juice were 2.0 ~56.2%. Among seven fractions, K3, K4, K5 and K7 exhibited weakly on nitrite scavenging effect. Fraction Kl and K2 inhibited NDMA formation by 71.0 and 65.5%, respectively. Fraction Kl and K2 was further separated by prep-LC into 6 subfractions (Kla, Klb, Klc, K2a, K2b and 2nc). Those subfractions inhibited NDMA formation by 40.9 ~80.4%. The K2a subfraction was screened by MS,
C-NMR and DEPT spectrum.
Effect of Pre-preparation with Vinegar against Microorganisms on Vegetables in Foodservice Operations
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 2, 2003, Pages 230~237
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.230
For hygenic evaluation, microbiological tests of seasoned raw vegetal)les from five high school foodservice operations were conducted. The antimicrobiological effect of pre-preparation with vinegar against microorganisms on vegetables in foodservice operations was also investigated. Total plate counts of leek gukgalli, broad bellflower saengchae and vegetable salad ranged from 10
CFU/g to 10
CFU/g. Coliform levels of those ranged from 10
CFU/g to 10
CFU/g. Leek washed three times was pre-prepared at different concentration (0.05%,0.1%,0.5%,1% and 2%) and temperature ( 1
) for 5, 10 and 30 minutes. The higher the concentration and temperature of vinegar were, the more the antimicrobiological activity increased. The sanitizing activity of vinegar increased with treatment time. Considering the quality of vegetable and the expense, when the levels of total plate counts and coliform of vegetable were 10
CFU/g, pre-preparation with 0.5% of vinegar at 2
for 10 minutes was best. The population of total plate count and coliform on row and leek washed three times increased during storage for 72 hours. However, The levels of microorganism on leek samples pre-prepared with 0.5% and 1% vinegar decreased during storage. After the treatment of vinegar at 1
for 10 minutes, Staphylocucus aureus, Escherichia coli O157, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella entritidis, Listeria monolytogenes were not detected.
Effect of Paecilomyes japonica on Lipid Metabolism In Rats Fed High Fat Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 2, 2003, Pages 238~243
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.238
The effects of Paecilomyes japonica on weight gains, food intakes, food efficiency ratios, serum and hepatic lipid concentrations, serum protein levels and serum enzyme activities, were studied in adult male rats. Sprague-Dawley rats,35 weeks old, were given four different types of diets for a succeeding period of five weeks: either a normal diet (5% corn oil), a control diet (high fat; 5% corn oil + 15% lard), a PF diet (control diet + 3% fruiting body of Paecilomyes japonica), or a PM diet (control diet+.3% mycelium of Paecilomyes japonica). The body weight gains, hepatic weights and food efficiency ratios of rats fed the PF or PM diets were significantly lower than those fed the control diet, but were similar to those fed the normal diet. The concentrations of hepatic total lipids, cholesterol and triglyceric, and serum triglyceride, of rats given the PF or PM diets were significantly lower than those given the control diet. Hut the concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and phospholipid in the serum of rats fed the control, PF or PM diets were significantly higher than those fed the normal diet. In the serum of rats fed the PF diet, the HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio was significantly higher and the atherogenic index was significantly lower than those fed the control diet, while such effect was not observed in rats fed the PM diet. The alkaline phosphatase activity in the serum of rats fed the control and PM diets was more significantly decreased compared to rats fed the PF and normal diet. No differences were noted in the weights of the pancreas, kidney and heart, the serum concentrations of glucose, hemoglobin and albumin, and the activities of GOT, GPT and
-GTP, among the rats on all the experimental diets. In conclusion, the rats fed the PF or PM diets maintained normal body and hepatic weights. Despite of the high intake of fats in the PF and PM diets, the concentrations of hepatic total lipids, cholesterol and triglyceride, and serum triglyceride were decreased.
Hepatic Oxygen Free Radical Metabolizing Enzyme Activities and Serum Lipid Profile in Rats Fed Diet Supplemented with Monascus Pigment
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 2, 2003, Pages 244~249
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.244
To investigate the hepatic oxygen free radical metabolizing system and changes of serum cholesterol levels in rats fed a diet supplemented with Monascus pigment (MP), Sprague-Dawley rats weighing about 300 g have been fed a diet supplemented with 2% or 4% MP for a month. The rats fed 2% MP supplemented diet gained less body weight than the control rats and those fed 4% W supplemented diet. Those fed 2% or 4% MP supplemented diet had no remarkable changes in liver function on basis of liver weight/body weight, serum levels of xanthine oxidase, alanine amino transferase activity In rats fed 2% and 4% MP supplemented diet, hepatic cytochrome P45O dependent aniline hydroxylase activity significantly (p<0.05) declined about 32%, 37% respectively and showed no significant differences between rats fed 2% and 4% MP supplemented diet whereas those fed 2% MP supplemented diet showed about 29% increased hepatic xanthine oxidase activity. And hepatic glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase activites in rats fed 2% MP supplemented were more increased by about 17%, 28% respectively than the control rats. There were no significant differences both in between those fed 2% and 4% MP supplemented diet. Especially rats fed 2% or 4% MP supplemented diet showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in hepatic catalase activity by 41%, 25% compared with control rats and those fed 4% MP supplemented diet showed more decrease in tendency of catalase activity than those 2% MP supplemented diet. But hepatic superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione content were appeared to be similar value among three groups. On the other hand, rats fed 2% MP supplement diet showed 17% increased levels of serum HDL-choresterol and 26% decreased value of LDL-cholesterol and serum level of triglyceride. But no different value were appeared between those fed 2% and 4% MP supplemented diet. Especially in those fed 2% and 4% MP supplemented diet, artherogenic index were significantly (p<0.05) declined by 37%, 29% respectively compared with control. In conclusion, it is likely that rats fed a diet supplemented with a proper quantity of MP may have the potential of oxygen free radical detoxication and lowering of artherogenic index.
Effects of Kimchi Solvent Fractions on Anti-oxidative Enzyme Activities of Heart, Kidney and Lung of Rabbit Fed a High Cholesterol Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 2, 2003, Pages 250~255
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.250
The effects of dichlorornethane (CH
), ethylacetate (EtOAc) or water (
) fraction of Korean cabbage kimchi on anti-oxidative enzyme activities of the heart, kidney and lung of rabbit fed 1% cholesterol diet for 16 weeks were studied. The amount of kimchi fraction added to the 100 g of diet was 8.3 mg of CH
,5.6mg of EtOAc, and 221.9 mg of
, which are equivalent to 5% of freeze-dried kimchi in the diet. Each group had 6 rabbits and rabbit was housed individually. Lipid peroxide values for the heart was the highest followed by lung and kidney. But the activities of catalase and GSH-px were the lowest in the heart and the highest in the kidney. Activities of anti -oxidative enzymes (catalase, GSH-px, Mn-SOD, Cu, Zn-SOD) of rabbits fed kimhi solvent fractions added diets were lower than those of the control which fed 1% cholesterol diet. Among kimchi groups, CH
group showed the lowest (p<0.05) enzymes activities. Lipid accumulation in these organs fed diets with kimchi solvent fractions, especially with CH
fraction, were lower than that of the control. Therefore, production of the lipid free radicals might be suppressed and the activities of anti -oxidative enzymes responsible for removing the free radicals seemed to be lowered in kimch frachoin-fed rabbits.
Effects of Natural Complex Food on Specific Enzymes of Serum and Liver and Liver Microstructure of Rats Fed a High Fat Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 2, 2003, Pages 256~262
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.256
In order to design and develop a product that can treat the fatty liver, natural complex food with all natural ingredients was developed and supplemented to rats with high fat diet to induce fatty liver. As a result, when the amount of natural complex food was increased in diet of subjects, the activities of the blood serum AST, ALT, ALP, 3-GT and LDH were decreased. The total protein concentration levels of the 30% and the 50% natural complex food groups did not show changes in respect to the control group, but the 100% natural complex food groups showed significant decrease (p<0.05). Likewise, the amount of blood serum albumin in the 30% and the 50% natural complex food groups did not show improvement, but the 100% natural complex food did showed significant changes (p<0.05). The amount of blood serum triglyceride decreased as the amount of natural complex food was increased. In order to investigate the appearances of the accumulated fat in the liver, the animals were dissected. Livers of the control group (no natural complex food) were appeared as a white color, which means serious fat accumulation. However, all the natural complex food groups (30,50 and 100% natural complex food) showed noticeable decrease of fat content. Even the histology showed that livers of the control group had expansion of the fat, but a11 the natural complex food groups had e decreased as the contents and continued to show destroyed fatty cells. By observing the biological numeric data, the physical appearance and the history of the fatty liver, it is highly expected that natural complex food is very effective in treating the liver damaged -by the to fat and the cholesterol.
Effect of Korean Traditional Teas on Plasma and Hepatic Lipid Levels in Lead-Administered Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 2, 2003, Pages 263~268
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.263
This study was designed to test the effect of Korean traditional teas on lipid levels in lead (Pb)-administered rats. Male rats were divided into normal, Pb-control (rb-Con) and Pb-water extract of traditional teas (green tea: GWE, persimmon leaf: PWE, safflower seed: SWE, Solomon`s seal: SSWE) groups. Pb intoxication was induced by administration lead acetate (25 mg/kg. BW, oral) weekly. The extract was administered based on 1.26 g of raw traditional tea/g BWday for 4 weeks. Net weight gain and feed intake were significantly lower in the Pb-Con group than in the normal group, whereas they were tended to increase by traditional teas supplements. Both Plasma and hepatic total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration were lower in the traditional teas supplemented groups compared to the Pb-Con group. Plasma VLDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly increased by Pb ad-ministration, whereas HDL-cholesterol concentration was significantly lower in the Pb-Con group than in the normal group. However, water extracts of green tea, persimmon leaf, safflower seed and solomon`s seal supplementation improved changes of the plasma lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in Pb administered rats.
Effects of Soy Protein Concentrate and Age on Plasma Lipids and Phospholipid Fatty Acid Patterns in Female Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 2, 2003, Pages 269~277
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.269
Effects of soy protein concentrate (SPC) containing isoflavone and casein diets on plasma phospholipid (PLs)-fatty acid patterns were investigated in 7-& 40- wk old female rats. Diets containing 16% SPC (soy/young:SY, soy/old: SO) and casein (casein/young : CY, casein/ old: CO) supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol were fed for 4 wks. Fatty acid compositions of plasma PLs were determined by TLC and GLC. Compared to the dietary protein effects, age effects on serum lipids were more profound. The levels of total cholesterol (Chol.), triglyceride, HDL-Chol., (LDL+VLDL)-Chol. and atherogenic index (AI) were higher in older groups (OC & OS) than younger groups (YC &. YS). Soy groups had higher Ell)L-Chol. level and lower (LDL+ VLDL)-Chol. and AI, compared with casein groups. The compositions of C22:0, Cl8:1
9 and sum of MUFA in plasma PLs were significantly higher in casein group (CY & CO) than soy group (SY & SO), but those of sum of SFA were higher in soy group. The compositions of C22:0, Cl8:1
9, C22:1, Cl8:3
3 and C22:4
6 were higher and those of C22:6
3, sum of
3, Cl8: 2
6, sum of
6 and sum of PUFA were lower in plasma PLs of younger rats. The average P/S and
6 ratio in older group was higher. The
-7 desaturation index (16:0⇒16:1
-9 desaturation index (18:0⇒18:1
9) were lower in soy group than casein group, while
-5 desaturation index were not affected by dietary protein. The
-4 desaturation index (22:4
6) were higher and elongation index (20:4
6) were lower in older group. The ratio of the products of
3 fatty acid series (Cl8:3) was significantly higher in older group, which indicated that age affected the plasma PUFA metabolism. On the other hand, older rats had higher serum cholesterol level compared with younger rats. Taken together, these changes in fatty acid composition might cause minimal changes in tile membrane fluidity induced by the increase serum cholesterol level.
Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Vitamin A and Chronic Consumption of Ethanol on Oxidative Damage and Antioxidant System in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 2, 2003, Pages 278~286
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.278
Alcohol is well known agent which can damage the human tissues such as liver via stimulating lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, carotenoids in addition to vitamins A, C and I play important roles in protecting these oxidative damages as well as preventing the production of free radicals. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin A on lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in ethanol-treated rats. In the experiment, male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 160~180 g were given a liquid diet containing 36% of total calories as ethanol for 7 weeks. The pair-fed control rats received an isocaloric amount of diet containing sucrose instead of ethanol on the following day Additionally, the liquid diet contained adequate amount of
-carotene, retinyl acetate or 13-sis-reinoic acid except vitamin A-deficient diet. The results obtained are as follows. The levels of plasma and hepatic lipid peroxide were increased after chronic ethanol feeding in rats. Retinyl acetate supplementation significantly reduced lipid peroxidation induced by ethanol feeding Glucose 6-phosphatase activity was significantly reduced in rats fed vitamin A-deficient diet with ethanol and alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly induced in rats fed 13-cis-reinoic acid diet with ethanol. Catalase and alcohol dehydrogenase activities did not show a consistent tendency in experiment groups. The hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities did not significantly changed by chronic ethanol feeding groups. The striking decrease in conversion of
-carotene to retinol was observed in rats fed a
-carotene diet with ethanol feeding The level of retinol and retinoic acid in plasma and liver was decreased after chronic ethanol administration Based on this result, these data suggest that ethanol feeding enhances oxidative stress especially in those fed a vitamin A-deficient diet, and vitamin A supplementation, especially, retinyl acetate intake can prevent enhanced lipid peroxidation and related damage to some extent.
A Web-based Internet Program for Nutritional Assessment and Diet Management of Patient Having Hyperlipidemia
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 2, 2003, Pages 287~294
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.287
The purpose of this study was to develop a web-based internet program for nutritional assessment and diet management of patient having hyperlipidemia. Hyperlipidermia were classified by hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The program consisted of four parts according to their functions and contents. The first part explained the metabolism of lipids and defined the hyperchotesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The second part is to assess the general health status such as body weight, obesity index, basal metabolic rate and total energy requirement by the input of age, sex, height, weight and degree of activity. This part also provides the Patient with menus lists and 1 day menu suitable to his weight, activity and the status of hyperlipidemia and offers the information for food selection, snacks, convenience foods, dine-out, behavioral modification, cooking methods, food exchange lists, and information on energy and nutrients of foods and drinks, and top 20 foods classified by nutrients. The third part is designed to investigate diet history of patient, that is, to find out his inappropriate dietary habit and give him some suggestions for appropriate dietary behavior. This part also offers on-line counseling and frequently asked Questions. The fourth part is evaluating their energy and nutrients intake by comparing with recommended dietary allowance for Koreans or standardized data for patient with hyperlipidemia. In this part, it is also analyzing energy and nutrients of food consumed by food group and meals, and evaluating the status of nutrient intake. These results are finally displayed as tabular forms and graphical forms on the computer screen.
A Study on Perception about Body Image, Dietary Attitude, Dietary Self-Efficacy and Nutrient Intake of High School Students in Busan
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 2, 2003, Pages 295~301
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.295
This study was carried out to investigate perception about body image, dietary attitude, nutrient intake and dietary self-efficacy of high school students in Pusan. A questionaire survey was distributed among 491 high school students. The survey was conducted from April 8 to April 22 in 2002. The results are summarized as follows. Forty percents of the underweight group, 53.9% of the normal weight group, 61.8% of the overweight group and 48.2% of obesity group have correct perception about their body image. Most of the students were concerned with their body image and weight control. Obesity of parents was significantly correlated with obesity of the subjects (p<0.01). The higher obesity rate, the lower dietary self-efficacy. The higher dietary self-efficacy, the higher dietary attitude. There was a significant positive correlation between the education level of their parents and dietary attitude of the subjects (p<0.01) and a significant negative correlation between obesity rate of their mothers and dietary attitude of the subjects (p<0.01). Dietary attitude scores showed no significant difference among the groups. Intakes of most nutrients, except protein, niacin and vitamin C, were lower than those of the recommended dietary allowances for Koreans. Therefore, proper nutrition education is required to improve their nutritional status and dietary self-efficacy.
A Study on Eating Habits by Body Constitution Types of the Sasang Constitutional Medicine Among Female College Students
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 2, 2003, Pages 302~306
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.302
The purposes of this study were to investigate eating attitudes and food Preferences among female college students by their body constitution types, such as Tae-yang, Tae-eum, So-yang, and So-eum by using the more accurate and objective classification method of the Sasang Constitutional Medicine. People with Tae-eum (51.6%)body constitution type showed the highest percentage level, followed by So-yang (33.0%) and So-eum (15.4%)body constitution types. In respect to the taste preference, people with Tae-eum and So-yang body constitution types tended to preferred spicy taste and So-eum body constitution type preferred sweet taste. In the satisfaction and interests toward the body shape, people with Tae-eum body constitution types showed the lowest satisfaction levels for their body shapes and showed the highest interests levels for their body shapes. In regard to eating attitudes, So-eum body constitution type state that they eat food relatively slowly. Tae-eum and So-yang body constitution type state that they eat food until they feel full. Tae-eum body constitution type state they normally overeat when they got stressed. The food preferences for the food group, there is no significant difference body constitution types with regard to food preferences.
Nutritional Components of Cow Feet Jokpyun and Jokpyun Added Chicken and Codfish
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 2, 2003, Pages 307~310
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.307
This study investigated the nutritional components of jokpyun. Jokpyuns made with cow feet and two kinds of jokpyun were added 30% of chicken and dry codfish to 70% of cow feet, respectively. There was no difference in moisture contents among three jokpyuns. Crude protein content was higher in jokpyun made with cow feet than in those added chicken and dry codfish. Contents of lipid and ash in jokpyuns added chicken and dry codfish were higher than those of jokpyun made with cow feet. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acid in jokpyun added dry codfish was the highest, but, that of linoleic acid was the highest in jokpyun added chicken than the others. Amino acid contents were higher in the order of glycine, proline, alanine, glutamic acid and composition of essential amino acid was similar to soupstock made with beef shank and leg bone. The contents of glycine and alanine in jokpyun added codfish and that of glutamic acid in jokpyun made with cow feet were the highest. Especially, among essential amino acids lysine was the highest in all jokpyuns. Methionine and valine were higher jokpyun added chicken and jokpyun made with cow feet than the others. Calcium and phosphorous were higher in jokpyun added chicken than in others. From these results, jokpyun, especially added chicken, was seemed to be more nutritious than other jokpyuns.
Quality Properties of Cakes Containing Gamma-Irradiated Egg White
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 2, 2003, Pages 311~314
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.311
As a research on the practical approaches of gamma irradiation for the reduction of egg allergy, cakes including gamma-irradiated egg white were manufactured, and rheological characteristics and sensory qualities of the cakes were evaluated. Egg white was separated from whole egg and then gamma-irradiated with the absorbed dose of 10 or 20 kGy White layer cake, pound cake and sponge cake were made with irradiated egg white and used to the subsequent experiments. Firmness of all samples containing irradiated egg white was higher than that of control. Retrogradation of pound and sponge cakes containing irradiated egg white was delayed, and the result showed that the usage of irradiated egg white was better at the point of rheological storage ability. Effects of irradiated egg white on the sensory quality were different depending onto the properties of each product. Radiation off-odor was observed in the a11 samples containing irradiated egg white. To maintain the sensory Qualify, adequate methods such as masking effects should be developed during manufacture.