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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 8 - Dec 2003
Volume 32, Issue 7 - Oct 2003
Volume 32, Issue 6 - Aug 2003
Volume 32, Issue 5 - Jul 2003
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Jun 2003
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Apr 2003
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Mar 2003
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
Isolation and Identification of Bioactive Organosulfur Phytochemicals from Solvent Extract of Broccoli
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 315~319
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.315
Bioactive organosulfur phytochemicals were isolated from fresh broccoli using methlylene chloride as an extract solvent and identified by GC/MSD analyses. Major organosulfur phytochemicals of broccoli extract were found to be isothiocyanates, which constitute 40.42% of total phytochemicals. The isothiocyanates from broccoli extract were identified to be 3-butenyl, 4-methyl thiobutyl, 4-methylthio-3-butenyl, 5-methylthiopentyl, 2-phenylethyl, 3-methyl sulfinyl propyl, and 4-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanates, of which major isothio cyanates were 3 butenyl isothiocyanate and 4-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate, constituting about 38.55% of total isothiocyanates present in the solvent extract. Also, nitrites, corresponding to products from enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates were identified as 4-methylthiobutyl, 5-methyl thiopentyl, 2-phenylethyl and 4-methylsulfinylbutyl nitrile. In addition, three sulfides were identified as dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide and dimethyl tetrasulfide.
Protein Hydrolysis with Formic Acid and Analysis of Amino Acid Using Butylthiocarbamyl - trimethylsilyl (BTC - TMS) Derivatives by Gas Chromatography
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 320~324
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.320
The protein hydrolysis with 6 M formic acid containing 0.3% tryptamine was a superior method for amino acid analysis of standard amino acid and protein than 6 M HCI containing 0.3% tryptamine. The recoveries of standard amino acid after acid hydrolysis were more accurate in the 6 M formic acid hydrolysis than 6 M HCI hydrolysis, especially recovery of tryptophan showed higher values of 1.5 times than that of 6 M HCI hydrolysis. The results of analysis on the standard protein, bovine serum albumin, showed very similar values compared to the sequence analysis reported in the literature for the 6 M formic acid hydrolysis than 6 M HCI hydrolysis, especially in the tryptophan recovery as standard amino acid recovery. Butylthiocarbamyl - trimethylsilyl (BTC - TMS) derivatives of 22 standard amino acids were successfully resolved DB-17 capillary column. Excellent reproducibility of standard amino acid recovery and composition of bovine serum albumin were obtained with BTC-TMS derivatives.
Trans Fatty Acid Isomers of Processed Foods Commonly Consumed in Korea
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 325~337
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.325
This study was designed to determine the distribution of trans fatty acids (tFAs) isomers of Processed foods commonly consumed in Korea. The tFAs positional isomers were analyzed using GC/MS spectrometer with HP-23 cis/trans FAME, capillary column (50m
0.20 mm, id., 0.2
film thickness) for 41 food samples. TFAs isomers were identified by comparing retention time with standards and GC/MS spectrum. In margarines, the content of tFAs ranged from 4.0% to 25.16% and the most abundant positional isomer of tFAs was C18:1
9t. In oils and fats, lards contained higher levels of tFAs (5.70~16.54%) than shortenings (6.77~10.55%). Shortenings contained higher levels of C18:1
9t (3.1~5.1%) than lard (1.6~4.3%), but corn oils had no tFAs. In seasonings, mayonnaise had no C16:1
9t, whereas C18:3t was detected. The content of tFAs in confectioneries was wide (16.20~52.16%). Among them, instant popcorns contained the highest amount of tFAs. Milk and dairy products showed even distribution of tFAS such as C18:1t, C18:2t, and C18:3t. Predominant tFAS isomer of condensed milk and ice cream was C16:1
9t. Frozen french fries and fried chicken contained higher levels of C18:1
9t (9.4%), whereas grilled pork (jowl) had no C18:1
9t. The amount of tFAs per serving size was the highest in popcorn, followed by frozen pizza, frozen french fries, fried chicken, and bakeries.
Changes in Phenolic Compounds Properties of Rubi Fructus Extract Depending on Extraction Conditions
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 338~345
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.338
Response surface methodology was used for monitoring changes in phenolic compounds properties of Rubi Fructus extract depening on extraction conditons. The three independent variables (extraction conditions) were ratio of solvent to sample content (5, 10, 15 mL/g), ethanol concentration (20, 40, 60%) and extraction time (2, 4, 6 hr). It was anticipated that each of the five dependent Y variables (responses) would be affected by the three independent variables. The dependent responses were total yield, total phenolics content, electron donating ability, antioxidant ability and nitrite-scavenging ability (pH 1.2, 3.0, 4.2, 6.0). Total yield, total phenolics content, electron donating ability and antioxidant ability were affected by ratio of solvent to sample content. Nitrite- scavenging ability at pH 1.2 and pH 6.0 was affected by ethanol concentration, while it was affected by extraction time at pH 3.0 and pH 4.2. The optimum extraction conditions for total yield were 14.16 mL/g ratio of solvent to sample content,39.08% ethanol concentration and 2.99 hr extraction time. The maximum total phenolics content of extracts were shown at 14.06 mL/g ratio of solvent to sample content, 35.51% ethanol concentration and 3.15 hr extraction time.
Effects of Red Pepper, Salt-Fermented Anchovy Extracts and Salt Concentration on the Tastes of Kimchi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 346~349
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.346
This study was conducted to investigate the changes in organoleptic characteristics by adding different amounts of red pepper powder, salt-fermented anchovy extracts to kimchi. The salt enhanced sourness and pungency up to 2% but suppressed sourness, pungency, sweetness and umami taste by salt of more than 2%. Red pepper powder proportionally enhanced sourness up to 3% but suppressed saltiness, sweetness and umami taste. Salt-fermented anchovy extracts enhanced saltiness and sweetness together with enhancement of umami taste, but suppressed pungency and sourness. As the result of one-way analysis of correlation with the above tastes of spices and kimchi, saltiness of NaCl had a significantly negative correlation with pungency, sourness, sweetness and umami taste, as -0.9857, -0.9878, -0.9847, -0.9076, respectively, and pungency of red pepper with sourness, sweetness, saltiness and umami taste, as -0.8353, -0.9316, -0.9020, -0.9901, respectively. This indicated that increase of pungency and saltiness of kimchi suppressed a overall taste of kimchi. In addition, umami taste had a significantly negative correlation with only pungency as -0.9823 and a significantly positive correlation with sweetness and saltiness, showing a different tendency with pungency and saltiness.
Effects of Addition of Perilla Leaf Powder and Carcass Grade on the Quality and Palatability of Pork Sausage
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 350~355
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.350
This study was carried out to clarify the effect of addition of perilla leaf powder (PLP) and carcass grade on the quality and palatability of pork sausage. The chemical composition, pH, calorie, water holding capacity, surface color, textural properties and amino acid composition of the samples were determined, and sensory characteristics were evaluated. Moisture and crude ash were not different among sausage of four type. Crude fat of grade B sausage was higher than that of grade E sausage, and grade B sausage added PLP was higher than grade B sausage without PLP. Crude Protein of grade E sausage was higher than that of grade B sausage. The pH of grade E sausage added PLP was highest, and calorie of grade B sausage without PLP was highest among sausage of four type. Water holding capacity of grade B added and free PLP was significantly higher than grade I sausage. The residual nitrite of sausage added PLP was significantly lower than sausage without PLP. In case of Hunter's
, grade B sausage and free PLP sausage were significantly higher than grade E sausage and sausage added PLP, respectively. In case of Hunter'
, grade E sausage and free PLP sausage were significantly higher than grade B sausage and sausage added PLP. Hunter's
of sausage added PLP was higher than that of free PLP sausage. Textural properties, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness were significantly different among sausage of four type, but gumminess of grade E added PLP was lowest among sausage of four type. Total amino acid was not significantly different among sausage of four type. Sensory color and texture of grade B sausage were superior to grade I sausage, palatability of free PLP sausage was superior.sage was superior.
The Physicochemical Properties of Korean Wild Teas (Green tea, Semi-fermented tea, and Black tea) According to Degree of Fermentation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 356~362
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.356
The present study was conducted to know the physicochemical properties of non fermented tea and fermented teas with the fermented time of 0 hr (non fermented tea), 10 hrs, 17 hrs (semi-fermented tea), 24 hrs (black tea), respectively The moisture content of non fermented tea, semi fermented, and black tea was 3.01% ~ 3.29%. The contents of reducing sugar, crude lipid, crude protein were increased and that of ascorbic acid was decresed with fermentation. The total contents of those increased as tea was more fermented. The contents of the citric acid and the malic acid were increased with fermentation, but the content of the succinic acid was decreased. However, the total content of organic acid was generally increased with fermentation. The total content of the amino acid was increased with fermentation. In non fermented tea, Thr+theanine, the Asp, and the Glu, were determined in order of content. In semi-fermented tea and black tea, Ter+theanine, Glu, and Asp were determined in order of content. The rate of essential amino acid in the total content of free amino acid was increased with fermentation. The content of theanine was 1.21% in non fermented tea and 1.50% in black tea. The contents of theanine were increased as tea was more fermented. The content of caffein was 3.57% in non fermented tea and 3.55 ~ 3.60% in semi-fermented tea and black tea. These results were inconsistent in the content of caffein. Five kinds of catechin, that is, cathechin, epigallocathechin, epicathechin, epigallocathechin gallate, and epicathechin gallate were extracted. The content of catechin was 14.18% in non fermented tea, but decreased sharply as tea was more fermented.
Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Korean Red Ginseng Powder on Pulverizing Methods
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 363~369
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.363
In this study, cell cracker method as a non-collision method was evaluated for the possibility of new red ginseng grinding technique. The moisture contents were 3.16% for the powder pulverized by hammer mill (group A) and 6.30% for the powder produced by cell cracker (group B), and the difference between both groups was significant, The contents of other component such as ash, crude lipid, reducing sugar, total sugar, acidic polysaccharide, crude fiber and crude protein between both groups were not significant. There were no significant differences in phenolic compound, fatty acid, amino acid, free sugar, crude saponin and ginsenosid contents between both groups. And also the contents of mineral components were evaluated to determine the incorporation of red ginseng powder during grinding, and also the differences of those between both groups were not significant.
Quality Characteristics of Korean Red Ginseng Powder with Different Milling Methods
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 370~374
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.370
Cell cracking method using a non-collision was evaluated for the possibility of new red ginseng grinding technique. Based on particle size distribution analysis by 1size shaker, the ratios of 100 mesh penetrated particles were 94.9% for hammer mill (group A) and 95.6% for cell crack (group B). The ratio of 120 mesh penetrated particle of group A was higher than that in group B. The particle size distributions for 100 mesh non-penetrated Powder between 2 groups were not significantly different, and particle size distribution analysis by laser scattering analyzer showed that the particle size ranges were 0.77~128.07
for group A and 4.24~180.07
for group B. The Particle size distribution in group A was more broad than that in group B. The mean particle size in group B was larger than that in group A, while the standard deviation of particle size distribution in group B was less than that in group A. Structural surface characteristics, in group A, particle size distribution was broad and the distribution curve was amorphous. The structure of individual particles was similar to unequal stone which was roughly grinded and had soft cotton-like surface. In the contrary, in group B, particle size distribution was relatively narrow and also individual size particles were ubiquitously distributed. The structure of individual particles was unequal cut stone shape.
Monitoring of Alcohol Fermentation Condition of Brown Rice Using Raw Starch Digesting Enzyme
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 375~380
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.375
The study was carried out to set up alcohol fermentation condition for uncooked brown rice. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize and monitor of the alcohol fermentation condition with uncooked brown rice. The primary variables were conducted the reaction surface regression analysis for the particle size of brown rice (20 40 60 mesh) the enzyme content (0.1,0.3,0.5%) and the agitating rate (0,100,200 rpm). Their optimization was 35~42 mesh for the size of particle and 0.32~0.43% for enzyme content by SAS (Statistical Analysis System). The coefficient of determination (
) in ingredients was admitted at the significant level of 5~10% in all ingredients except for a reducing sugar. Predicted values at optimum alcohol fermentation condition agreed with experimental values. During the fermentation, pH was decreased from 6.25 to 4.34, and total acidity was increased from 0.15 to 0.2. The amino acidity was decreased from 1.88 to 0.92, reducing sugar and total sugar contents were decreased 213 mg% and 1,077 mg%, respectively. Alcohol content was increased to 10% after 48 hr fermentation.
Changes in the Components of Acetic Acid Fermentation of Brown Rice Using Raw Starch Digesting Enzyme
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 381~387
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.381
This study was performed to establish the fermentation method of non-steamed brown rice vinegar using starch saccharifing enzyme. During vinegar fermentation, initial pH had increased in the higher concentration of alcohol and acetic acid. Final pH was gradually changed to pH 2.90~3.44 from 3.44~4.06. The higher total acidity of brown rice vinegar resulted from the higher alcohol concentration. The total acidity was slightly dropped after gradually increasing from the starting of fermentation. Initial pH was decreased from 3.67 to 3.16. The total acidity was gradually increased from the first day of fermentation with 1.02, it was 1.54 on the second day after fermentation and there was a tendency to decreased after the highest values with 6.53 fermentation for 12 days. In organic acid composition, oxalic, malic, acetic, citric, and succinic acid were detected. The total free amino acid was decreased to 1,121 mg%. The major amino acids were
-aminoadipic acid and alanine, and
-aminobutyric acid was the highest (539 mg%). The mineral contents such as P and K was high in sample and followed by Mg, Na, Ca.
Effect of Addition Soy Flour on Tapioca Non-steamed Fermentation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 388~392
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.388
This study was conducted to examine the effect of soy flour on tapioca non- steamed fermentation. A whole soy flour was higher than roasting soy flour in alcohol content. Alcohol content was increased up to 2% of soy flour, and decreased after adding 3% soy flour. The pH and total acidity were showed no significant differences by adding soy flour, roasted soy flour, water and enzyme. The optimum conditions for alcohol production were 2% (w/w) of soy flour,0.5% (w/w) of enzyme and 250% (v/w) of water at 96 hr. Addition of soy flour increased yield of alcohol.
A Survey on the Sensory Preference for Making Summer Kimchi by Nationwide Region
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 393~399
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.393
The purpose of this study was to investigate the preferred methods for making summer kimchi as a basic research of making commercial kimchi. Questionnaire were collected from 590 housewives nationwide in Korea, and the data were analyzed by SPSS program. The results were as follows: (1) The average salting time of Chinese cabbage was 3~5 hrs when the combined method of dry and brine salting was used, regardless of the region. (2) Seven jeotkals (salt-fermented fishes) including anchovy, anchovy juice, shrimp, northern sand lance juice, hair-tail viscera, flatfish and yellow corvenia were mainly used in kimchi. Among them, anchovy and anchovy juice jeotkals were preferred to all others in Southern area (Busan, Gwangju, Gyeongnam, Gyeongbuk, Jeonnam), while shrimp jeotkal in Seoul, Gwangju, Jeonbuk, Chungnam and Jeju, and northern sand lance juice jeotkal in Daegu, Daejeon and Gyeonggi, respectively. In most regions, however, blending type of 2 jeotkals was used in kimchi. (3) Eleven ingredients such as red pepper, garlic, ginger, green onion, radish, leek, onion, carrot, sugar, sesame and MSG were used as basic components for making kimchi. In particular, MSG was used as a basic ingredient regardless of region and age. However, a standard taste for making kimchi was depended on housewife in this study.
Surimi Processing Using Acid and Alkali Solubilization of Fish Muscle Protein
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 400~405
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.400
The surimi processing from jack mackerel and white croaker muscle using acidic and alkaline solubilization was evaluated. The optimum pH for solubilizing protein in acidic and alkaline range was around 2.5 and 10.5, respectively. The optimum pH value for recovery of protein was around 5. The protein solubility was decreased with increase of salt. The homogenized speed and time for maximum solubility were below 9,500 rpm and 30s, respectively The optimum ratio of water to minced muscle was 6 by evaluating breaking force, deformation and whiteness of cooked gel. The protein yield of alkaline processing is higher than that of conventional processing. In addition, the waste water of conventional processing had high solid, nitrogen content and chemical oxygen demand compare to those of acidic and alkaline processing.
Quality Characteristics of Bread Containing Laminaria Powder
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 406~412
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.406
This study was intended to investigate physical characteristics of the bread with Laminaria powder. Three different powder concentration levels of 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% were added to flour to make the bread. The puffing rate, density, color, and texture were analyzed. Sensory evaluation was performed among female college students and housewives in their 50s. The volume of the dough during the fermentation and the final volume of the bread containing Laminaria powder was smaller than that of the dough without the powder. While adding the powder to the bread decreased the Hunter L (lightness) and a value (redness), it increased the b value (yellowness). In the texture analyzer measurement, hardness and fracturability of the bread were significantly increased by adding the powder and chewiness tended to increase. However, adhesiveness, springiness and cohesiveness were not significantly different among groups. As the result of the sensory evaluation, differences were observed between female college students and housewives in their 50s. In all indices of the sensory test, college students evaluated the bread with the powder lower than the bread without the powder, while the housewives preferred the bread with the powder. The bread containing 2.5% Laminaria powder obtained the most excellent scores. In conclusion, it is suggested that the bread with 2.5% Laminaria powder would be a highly acceptable bio-active product with proper physical characteristics.
Antimicrobial Activity of Green Tea against Putrefactive Microorganism in Steamed Bread
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 413~417
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.413
To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of green tea against putrefactive microorganism in steamed bread, antibacterial activity of green tea extract against well-known strains of spoilage bacteria (Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacillus pulmilus KCTC 3348 and Bacillus cereus IFO 12113) and mold (Aspergillus niger KCCM l1239) in bread was determined using the paper disk method. The green tea extract (GTE) showed the inhibition effects on the growth of all the strains of bacteria and mold at 1, 2, 3% levels. The activity of GTE was stable in the wide range of pH (4~9) and temperature (50~20
). When green tea powder (GTP: 1, 3, 5%) was added to steamed bread increase of total bacterial and mold counts declined during storage at 25"C as the levels of GTP increased. By addition of 5% GTP, mold appeared 1 day late extending shelf life of steamed bread compared to control bread without GTP. Therefore, the levels of GTP added to steamed bread could be more than 5% for extended shelf life and wholesomeness of steamed bread.read.
Anticarcinogenic Responses of MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells to Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 418~427
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.418
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is the mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (LA, C18:2
6), which is found abundantly in dairy products and meats. This study was peformed to investigate the anticarcinogenic effect of CLA in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. MCF-7 cell were treated with LA and CLA at the various concentrations of 15, 30, 60, 120 UM each. After incubation for 48 and 72 hours, cell proliferation, fatty acids incorporation into cell, peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured. Postaglandin E
) and thromboxane
) were measured for the eicosanoids metabolism. There was no cell growth differences in both of LA and CLA treated MCF-7 cells at 48 hr incubation. Compared to LA, cell growth was decreased by CLA treatment according to increasing concentration at longer incubation times, respectively (p<0.05). Both of LA and CLA was incorporated into the cellular lipids 22~54% higher than in control but LA incorporation was not so linear as CLA according to concentration. Arachidonic acid (C20:4,
6) was synthesized after treatment of LA but did not in CLA, respectively. The lipid peroxide concentration in LA 120
M group increased as 1.7 times as that in CLA 120
M treated. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were increased by the supplementation with CLA 120
M at 72 hr incubation (p<0.001) compared to LA, otherwise activity of superoxide dismutase was not different in both. PGE
levels were lower in condition of CLA treatments according to lower levels of arachidonic acids than those in LA treated group, respectively. Overall, the dietary CLA might change the MCF-7 cell growth by the changes of cell composition, production of lipid peroxide, activities of antioxidant enzymes and eicosanoid synthesis compared to dietary LA.
Effect of Carotenoids on the Growth of HT-29 Human Colon Cancer Cells
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 428~436
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.428
Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between increased consumption of green and yellow vegetables and cancer incidence. These vegetables contain carotenoids, which are reported to exhibit anticarcinogenic effects. Overexpression of ErbB2 and ErbB3 genes is a frequent event in several human cancers. The present study was performed to determine whether
-carotene, lutein, or lycopene inhibits cell growth and to assess such an effect is related to changes in the levels of the ErbB receptor family and tile ErbB3 receptor signaling pathway in HT-29 cells. HT-29 cells were cultured in serum-free medium in the presence of various concentrations (0~100
M) of the individual carotenoids.
-Carotene and lycopene significantly inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, whereas lutein slightly inhibited cell growth and
-carotene increased cell growth. Lycopene is more potent than
-carotene in inhibiting HT-29 cell growth. Lycopene inhibited DNA synthesis and induced apoptosis of HT-29 cells. The ErbB3 ligand heregulin (HRG) increased cell growth but did not prevent the lycopene-induced inhibition of cell growth. Lycopene decreased ErbB2 protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. Immunoprecipitation/Western blot studies revealed that lycopene inhibited HRG-induced phosphorylation of ErbB3, recruitment of the 985 regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) to the ErbB3 receptor, and phosphorylation of Akt. These results indicate that downregulation of ErbB2/ErbB3/PI3K/Akt signaling may be one of the mechanisms by which lycopene inhibits HT-29 cell pro-liferation and induces apoptosis.
Effect of Lycopene on the Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Receptor Signaling Pathway in Human Colon Cancer HT-29 Cells
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 437~443
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.437
Epidemiological data suggest that lycopene has anticancer activities in humans. Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase that mediates the biological actions of IGFs and may play an active role in cancer progression. Because our previous in vitro studies have indicated lycopene inhibits HT-29 cell growth, the aim of this study was to determine whether lycopene induces apoptotic cell death and the inhibitory effect of lycopene on HT-29 cell growth is related to changes in IGF-IR levels and the receptor's intracellular signalling pathways. HT-29 cells were incubated for 4 days in serum-free medium in the presence of 0, 25, 50, or 100
M lycopene, and the DNA fragmentation assay was performed. Cells treated with lycopene produced a distinct oligonucleosomal ladder with different sizes of DNA fragments, a typical characteristic of cells undergoing apoptosis. HT-29 cells were cultured for 4 days in serum-free medium in the presence of 0~100
M lycopene and IGF-I (10nM) was added for 0~60 minutes immediately prior to lysate preparations. Western blot analysis of total lysates revealed that lycopene decreased the levels of IRS-1, Akt, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and IGF-IR
-subunit, and increased the levels of the IGF-IR precursor dose dependently. Lycopene also decreased IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of IGF-IR
, IRS-1 and Akt, which were, at least in part, due to decreased expression of these proteins. These results suggest that lycopene induces apoptosis of HT-29 cells by inhibiting IGF-IR signaling thereby interfering with an IGF-II-driven autocrine growth loop, which is known to exist in this cell line.
The Long Term Effect of Buchu (Chinese chives) Diet on ROS Formation in the Liver and Skin Tissue of ICR mice
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 444~449
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.444
To investigate the long term effect of buchu (Chinese chives) diet on ROS formation in the liver and stin tissue of ICR mice, one of control, 2% or 5% buchu-added diet was fed to ICR mice for 12 months. Superoxide anion (O2ㆍ), hydrogen peroxide(
) and hydroxyl radical (ㆍOH) contents were measured in cytosol, microsome, mitochondria of liver and skin of mice, respectively. Behu diet showed a significant decrease of superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical contents in liver and skin tissues compared to control diet, and this effect is especially higer at 5% than at 2% buchu diet level. ICR mice showed an age-dependent increase in ROS contents, while the group fed buchu diet decreased its ROS contents significantly and ROS contents of liver appeared to be 2 fold higher than skin. The results of the present study suggest that antioxidative components and sulfur-compounds in buchu diet appear to be responsible for the inhibition of ROS formation in ICR mice.
Effects of High Amylose Starch on Lipid Metabolism and Immune Response in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 450~457
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.450
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of high amylose corn starch consumption on plasma, liver and feces lipid profiles and immune responses in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Experimental animals were fed on diets containing the high amylose starch (HAS,0, 125, 250,500 g/kg diet) for 4 weeks. HAS intake did not affect on food intakes and food efficiency ratio. Final body weights were lowered in HA100 group than in control group. HAS intakes dose dependently increased the weights of cecum and excretion of feces per day, and decreased the pH of cecum contents. And HAS intakes significantly decreased the plasma total lipid, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. But there were not significant differences total lipid, triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations in liver. The absolute and relative weights of thymus and spleen, plasma Is G and
concentrations were unaffected by experimental diets. The splenocyte proliferations with low dose Con A (0.1
L) as lower in HA25 group and HA50 group than in control group. These results demonstrate that high amylose corn starch intakes significantly improve lipid profiles in plasma.
Effect of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) Leaf Extracts on Hepatic Antioxidative System in Rats fed High Cholesterol Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 458~463
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.458
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dandelion leaf (Taraxacum officinale) extracts on hepatic antioxidative system in high cholesterol-fed rats. Four groups of rats were given high cholesterol diets containing 10 g cholesterol/kg and 2.5 g sodium cholate/kg for 6 weeks. The control group received a diet without dandelion leaf extract and the other three groups received dandelion leaf extracts, ie, water, ethyl acetate and ether extracts, respectively. There were no significant difference in cytochrome P-450 contents among four groups. Hepatic xanthine oxidase activity was significantly lower in water extract group than the other three groups. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly lower in three dandelion leaf extract groups, but catalase activity was significantly higher in three dandelion leaf extract groups than control group. Glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activities were significantly increased in water extract group than control group. Lipid peroxide content was decreased in water extract group than control group.
Effect of Monascus koji on Blood Pressure and Serum Cholesterol Composition of SHR by Chronic Dietary Administration
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 464~468
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.464
The antihypertensive and cholesterol- lowering effects of Monascus koji (M. koji) prepared with Monascus ruber IFO32318 were examined in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Control was fed a normal diet and groups I, II or III were fed diets containing 0.03%, 0.1% or 0.3% M. koji for 8 weeks, respectively. After 8 weeks, all animals were fed normal diets in the following 2 weeks. The blood pressure of rats fed M. koji added diets were significantly attenuated as compared with control and the diet containing high concentration of M. koji had a tendency of stronger antihypertensive effect. These differences lasted throughout the experimental period when they were fed experimental diet. For 2 weeks after the 8 weeks of experimental diet all groups were fed the same normal diet and the differences of blood pressure caused by M. koji disappeared. In rats fed the M. koji added diet, the serum total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) were not differed compared with control, but VLDL cholesterol (VLDL-C) was significantly lowered. M koji also significantly decreased serum risk factors, both TC/HDL-C ratio and non HDL-C/HDL-C ratio. Consequently, it is suggested that M. koji may play an important role to attenuate hypertension and to improve serum lipid Profiles.
Effects of Psyllium Husk and Glucomannan on Serum Lipids, Fecal Fat Excretion and Body Fat in Rats Fed High-Fat Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 469~473
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.469
This study was conducted to determine the effect of a mixture of two water-soluble dietary fibers, psyllium husk and glucomannan, on serum lipids, fecal fat excretion and body fat. Twenty one female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into three groups (control, pair-fed control and test group) and fed a high saturated fat (20% lard) diet (control diet) or a test diet (psyllium husk and glucomannan added to the control diet at the level of 0.9% and 0.68%, respectively) for 8 weeks. Pair-fed control rats were allowed to eat the amount of diet consumed by test group the preceding day. The body weight gain and food efficiency ratio of test group were significantly lower compared with these of control group. The mean values of body weight gain and food efficiency ratio were lower in test group than in pair-fed control group, but the difference was not significant. There were no differences in food intake. The dry weight and water content of feces and fecal fat excretion were markedly greater in test group than in control groups. Serum total cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were significantly lower in test group than in two control groups.1'he rats of two control groups had higher body fat contents than that of test group. These results indicate that the combination of the two water-soluble dietary fibers, psyllium husk and glucomannan, can be used as a potent lipid-lowering agent in individuals consuming high saturated fat diet.
Changes of Nutritional Characteristics and Serum Cholesterol in Rats by the Intake of Dietary Fiber Isolated from Ascidian (Halocynthia roretzi) Tunic
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 474~478
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.474
The effects of dietary fiber isolated from ascidian (Halocynthia roretzi) tunic on the changes of weight, total gut transit time, serum cholesterol and glucose level were investigated in rats. Twenty four male rats were divided into 4 groups and were fed a control diet and three fiber supplemented diets with 5,10 and 20% of ascidian insoluble cellulose for 4 weeks, respectively. Food intake was not affected by the supplemented diet of ascidian cellulose but the body weight gain and food efficiency ratio were reduced in proportion to a feeding amount of ascidian cellulose. The fecal output and fecal water content were increased, gut transit time was shortened, and length of gut was elongated in all dietary fiber groups. Serum cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, neutral lipid, phospho-lipid and serum glucose concentrations were lowered and HDL-cholesterol was increased in rats fed the ascidian insoluble cellulose diet in proportion to a feeding amount of ascidian cellulose.
Weight Reduction Effect of Extract of Fermented Red Pepper on Female College Students
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 479~484
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.479
This study was attempted to evaluate the effectiveness of extract of fermented red pepper The extract of fermented red pepper was prepared from fermented red pepper puree and polydextrose. Sixteen female college students were participated in this 8 weeks weight control program. All subjects were randomly assigned to the Internet Diet (ID) group or Internet I, fermented red pepper (IR) group. Mean energy intake of ID group was 1,279.9
112.0 kcal (carbohydrate: 66.9%, protein: 17.4%, fat: 15.6%) and IR group consumed 1,223.8
57.1 kcal (carbohydrate: 66.3%, protein: 19.3%, fat: 14.4%) during program. The ID group lost 2.5
1.0 kg of body weight, 0,9
0,7 kg of fat mass and 1.6
0.7 kg of lean body mass, and the IR group lost 2.7
0.3 kg of body weight, 1.8
0.6 kg of fat mass and 0.9
0.7 kg of lean body mass. There was no significant differences in the loss of total body weight & lean body mass between two groups, however, the fat mass and the abdominal fat were significantly decreased in the IR group compared to the IC group (p<0.05) The ID group experienced a significantly reduced Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR), however, IC group slightly increased. The change of RMR between groups were significantly different (p<0.05) . There were no differences in the change of blood glucose, total-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride between groups. Therefore, the intake of fermented red pepper doting the weight control program might decreased the body fat especially abdominal fat and prevent the decline of RMR during weight reduction period.
Estimation of Trans Fatty Acids Intake and Behavior of Having Meals in Middle School Students of Busan
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 3, 2003, Pages 485~493
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.3.485
To assess trans fatty acids (tFAs) intake of middle school students in Busan, behavior of having meals and 3 day's food record were surveyed in 800 subjects. 35.3% of subjects responded to twice a day in frequency of snack intake. Preferred snack items were ice cream (68.6%) and milk (57.0%). Subjects of dining out preferred jajangmyon (54.6%), seasoned chicken (50.5%), fried chicken (35-3%) in order when dined out. Mean daily tFAs intake of subjects was 1.68
0.04 g. Mean daily intake level of girls was 1.89
0.06 g which was significantly higher than that of boys, 1.40
0.05 g (p<0.001). Naturally derived tFAs intake was 1.04
0.03 g which corresponded to 62.1% of total tFAs intake per day and industrially derived tFAs intake was 0.64
0.02 g, 37.9% of total tFAs intake per day. Calorie percentage of tFAs was 0.8% and fat percentage of tFAs was 3.16%. The level of tFAs intake showed a significant difference with monthly allowance (p<0.05) and frequency of snack intake (p<0.001) in girls, which was not the case in boys. The main sources of tFAs were milk and dairy products (34.3%), bakeries (18.3%), and fish and meat products (16.2%), in order. From above results, we can conclude that tFAs intake of middle school student is not as much as that of Western teenagers. However, exact estimation of tFAs intake requires database of tFAs in broad range of processed foods commonly consumed in Korea.