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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 8 - Dec 2003
Volume 32, Issue 7 - Oct 2003
Volume 32, Issue 6 - Aug 2003
Volume 32, Issue 5 - Jul 2003
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Jun 2003
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Apr 2003
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Mar 2003
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
Analysis of Nitrate Contents of Korean Common Foods
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 779~784
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.779
Nitrate a common component of man's chemical environment, is present in foods either naturally or in an additive introduced during processing of foods. Nitrate level of foods have been found depending on nitrosation of soils and other various environmental factors. Therefore data on nitrate contents of foods reported in other countries can not be adapted to Korean foods. Also data on nitrate levels of Korean foods available were reported 10 years ago, which would be assumed to differ from those of foods currently consuming by Koreans. The present study was attempted to determine nitrate contEnts of common foods. Based on National Nutrition Survey Report 143 food items out of 14 food groups were selected for this study Nitrate levels of common foods used in the study were from N.D (not detected) to 6733.33 mg/kg foods. Mean nitrate levels of food groups 27.2 mg/kg of cereal and grain products, 78.1 mg/kg in potatoes and potato products, 8.3 mg/kg in legumes and their products N.D of seeds and nuts, 1012.1 mg/kg of vegetables and their products,76.3 mg/kg fungi and mushrooms 42.2 mg/kg fruits,34.5 mg/kg of meat, poultry and their products,0 mg/kg in eggs, 23.9 mg/kg in fish, shellfishes and their products,23.0 mg/kg in seaweeds, 7.7 mg/kg milk and dairy products, 26.3 mg/kg in seasonings, 68.0 mg/kg in others.
Analysis of Nutritional Components of Cornus officianalis
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 785~789
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.785
To accept basic data of utilizing of Comus of officianalis as a raw material of new food and industrial products, major chemical components were investigatied. Comparing proximate composition of flesh and seed of Cornus officianalis, seed contained higher crude ash, crude protein, crude fat and crude fiber, with less moisture and reducing sugar. The main components of free sugars in flesh and seed were fructose. The main components of organic acid in fresh and seed were malic and citric acid. Analysing total amino acids, 18 kinds of components were isolated from Cornus officianalis. The total amino acid contents of flesh and seed were 230.41 mg% and 883.81 mg%, respectively. Although the amino acid compositions of flesh and seed were different, glycine, leucine, histidine and lysine were the major components in both portion. The total amount of free amino acid were less than those of total amino acids. As a results of mineral analysis, the content of K was much higher than those of Fe, Zn and Cu. The contents of linolenic and linoleic acid were higher than those of oleic, palmitic and stearic acid.
Studies of Morphological Properties and Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids Analysis of Comfrey Cultivating in Korea
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 790~794
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.790
This study was carried out to investigate the morphological properties and pyrrolizidine alkaloids of comfrey cultivating in Korea. 12 comfrey samples cultivation in Korea was selected and their appearance (whole plant, leaves, root etc.) were observed by expert and microscopy for morphological analysis. It is confirmed that their species are Symphytum officinale Linnaeus. Samples were extracted by hot MeOH and ultra-sonification. Their extracts contained pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which was identified by TLC analysis. By spraying thin-layer chromatograms of pyrrolizidine alkaloids stable purple spots were developed. But the extracts of chicory, pumpkin and sesame leaves did not show any purple spots. Same HPLC pattern were displayed at about 30 min of retention show peaks an one and the same time.
Analyses of Lipid and Volatile Components in Juniper Seed(Juniperus rigida Sieb. et Zucc.)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 795~800
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.795
Juniper seed oil extracted by steam distillation has been a useful material as a medicine, insect repellant, and flavorant for alcoholic beverages. As the result of juniper seed oil analysis, the acid value, saponification value, unsaponification value phosphorus contents, and refractive index were 91.04, 85.15, 15.52, 11.04 ppm, 1.47, respectively The content of neutral lipids, glycolipids and phospholipids were 85.4%, 12.2% and 2.4%, respectively. From the fatty acids analysis, the major fatty acids from the juniperseed harvested in August were lauric acid (31.9% ), palmitic acid (28.0% ), stearic acid (9.9%), and oleic acid (8.5%) . However, maturated seed oil harvested in October mainly consists of linoleic acid (47.6%), linolenic acid (17.6%), oleic acid (16.1%), and palmitic acid (11.9%). Upon these analyses, fatty acids composition of juniper seed oil depends on the seed maturation. According to volatile compounds analyses of essential oil extracted using steam distillation method and SPME, the major compounds were
-cubebene, limonene, trans-caryo-phyllene,
-terpinolene, camphene, sabinene, and
Volatile Components of Chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc.) Flower
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 801~805
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.801
Volatile flavor components in chestnut (Castanea crenate Sieb. et Zucc.) flower were collected by SDE method using the mixture of n-pentane and diethylether as an extract solvent and were identified by GC-FID and GC/MS. A total of 122 components including 35 alcohols,5 hydrocarbons,20 terpene and derivatives,7 ketones, 24 aldehydes, 12 esters, 4 acids, 3 furans, and 2 miscellaneous were identified from total volatile extract of chestnut. Alcohols were comprise 36.58% of volatile extract and dominant constituents and the main components of flower volatiles were 1-phenylethanol (18.6%), (E)-geraniol, tricosane, heneicosane, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone and 2-phenylethanol as aromatic alcohols and odd carbon hydrocarbons. Especially 1-phenylethanol and acetophenone would be applicable to the markers to ascertain floral origin of chestnut honey. The powerful animal and floral notes of chestnut flower were characterized by compounds including nonanal.
Characteristics and Stability of the Color of the Cranberry Solution
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 806~811
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.806
Effects of pH, temperature, light, sugars, organic acids, metal ions, ascorbic acid, thiamine nicotinic acid and pyridoxine on the stability of the color of the cranberry solution were investigated. The pH had marked influences on the color of the cranberry solution: i.e., the color of the cranberry solution was more intense at low pH. It showed characteristic bathochromic shift as the pH of the solution increased. The half-lives of olor value were 34 days at 37
, 91 mins at 9
and 29 mins at 12
. Light gave an adverse effect to the stability of the color. The color degradation can be minimized by shielding the light from the cranberry solution. Among the sugars tested, fructose was the most deleterious followed by sucrose, galactose, maltose and glucose. Fumaric acid was found to be the most effective in stabilizing the color followed by citric acid, malic acid, acetic acid, while tartaric acid was found to be deleterious. Among the metal ions tested N
were found to be effective in stabilizing the color, while M
was found to be the most deleterious followed by F
. Ascorbic acid was found to be deleterious considerably followed by thiamine, while nicotinic acid and pyridoxine were found to be effective in stabilizing the color feebly.or feebly.
Optimization of the Acetic Acid Fermentation Condition for Preparation of Strawberry Vinegar
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 812~817
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.812
In the first stage, strawberry wine was manufactured in 14
Brix initial sugar content, for 50 hr at 28
using Saccharomyces kluyeri DJ97. In the second stage, the acetic acid fermentation conditions for maximun acidity (4.60%) were 1.48% initial acidity and 195.76 rpm in agitation rate for 7.34 day. The fermentation conditions for maximun Hunter color a value were 1.78% initial acidity and 117.63 rpm in agitation rate for 7.35 day. Therefore, optimum acetic acid fermentation conditions were 1.5% initial acidity and 196 rpm in agitation rate for 176 hr using Acetobacter sp. PA97.
Isolation, Identification and Growth Characteristics of Main Strain Related to Meju Fermentation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 818~824
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.818
This study was carried out to select Meju of a good quality through general composition analysis, organoleptic evaluation, and to conduct isolation, identification, and growth characteristics of main strain related to fermentation from selected Meju. Moisture and crude protein of Meju were 7.2∼28.8% and 32.7∼42.3%, respectively. The amino nitrogen contents of Kyongbuk and Chonbuk Mejus were 770.8 mg% and 239.9 mg%, respectively. And also, free amino acid and glutamic acid contents of Doenjangs made from Chonbuk and Kyongbuk Mejus were 4,169.6 mg% and 499.4 mg%, respectively. The result of sensory evaluation of Mejus collected from several regions showed Kyongbuk was the most suitable Meju in items of color, flavor, appearance and overall (p<0.05). The typical properties of B. lichenifomis NH20 strain isolated from Kyongbuk Meju showed gram positive, aerobic rod cell and motility. As major component among its cellular fatty acid composition,
anteiso fatty acid,
iso fatty acid,
anteiso fatty acid, and
iso fatty acid were 30.7, 28.9, 13.3 and 11.2%, respectively. It showed the same identification coefficient (0.653) compared to the standard strain. Therefore, it was identified to be B. licheniformis NH20 according to Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology and its fatty acid profiles. The optimum pH, temperature, salt content, and culture time of B. licheniformis NH20 were 7.0, 32
, 2%, and 9 hours, respectively.ctively.
The Antimicrobial Activities of Waste Food Fractions
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 825~828
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.825
This study was performed to determine the antimicrobial activity of waste food fractions, the Solanum tuberosum Peel (SP) and Allium cepa L. Peel (AP) on several microorganisms. The methanol extracts (SPM, APM) of SP and AP were fractionated to five different types, which were hexane, ethylether, ethylacetate, butanol and water Among the various fractions, ethylether and butanol fractions of AP (APMEE, APMB) showed stronger antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus than the other fractions. The ethylether fraction of SP (SPMEE) also showed the higher antimicrobial activity against Escherchia coli than the other 4 fractions . These results suggest that the waste food fractions, SP and AP may be developed into bioactive antimicrobial health products.
Antimicrobial Activity of Solvent Fraction from Cornus officianalis
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 829~832
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.829
To develop natural food preservatives, ethanol and water extracts were prepared from the cornus (Cornus of officianalis) and antimicrobial activities were examined against 10 microoganisms which were food borne pathogens and/or food poisoning microoganisms, food-related bacteria and yeasts. Ethanol extract exhibited antimicrobial activity for the microoganisms tested, except lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Especially, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the ethanol extracts were determined as 0.25 mg/mL against bacteria and 2 mg/mL against target lactic bacteria and yeasts. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extracts were not destroyed by the heating at 121
for 15 min and not affected by pH. The ethanol extract of cornus exhibiting high antimicrobial activities were fractionated in the other of diethylether and butanol fractions to test antimicrobial activity The antimicrobial activity adjust bacteria test was highest in the ethanol fraction.
Flavonoids and Antimicrobial Activity of the Ethanol Extract of Korean Cherry (Prunus tomentosa Thunberg)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 833~839
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.833
Quantitaties of flavonoids were determined by HPLC in three different ethanol extract (50, 70 and 95%, v/v) from Korean cherry. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract and its solvent fraction (ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions) against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228) was evaluated using MIC and disk test. Additionally, UV protective effect was also determined. The highest flavonoid quantity was found in 70% ethanol extract of Korean cherry. The quantities of quercitrin were 12.7 mg% and 2.1 mg% in ethyl acetate fraction and in buthanol fraction, respectively. In addition, the flavonoid in 70% (v/v) ethanol extract of Korean cherry included 14.9 mg% of quercitrin, 6.0 mg% of tannic acid and 5.2 mg% of catechin. Therefore, it was confirmed that main flavonoid of Korean cherry was quercitrin. For antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of Korean cherry against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) and Staphylococcus epidemidis (ATCC 12228), MIC and disk test using ethyl acetate fraction and butanol fraction were carried out. As a result, ethyl acetate fraction with higher quantity of flavonoid showed higher antimicrobial activity. Therefore, it was confirmed that the higher antimicrobial activity was brought about by flavonoid in Korean cherry. For UV protective effect of Korean cherry, ethanol extract showed the absorption zone of ultraviolet rays in 210∼380 nm including 290∼320 nm that is the wave length of UV-B harmful to the skin of human body. The pattern is the same as the absorption zone of 220∼300 nm in catechin and 210∼400 nm in quercitrin. Then, the functionalities of catechin and quercitrin were anticipated. It is expected that quercitrin in Korean cherry has the antimicrobial effect and UV protective effect related to the skin.
Comparison of Quality Characteristics of Salted Muskmelon with Deep Seawater Salt, Sun-dried and Purified Salts
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 840~846
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.840
Physiochemical and sensory properties of muskmelon pickles were investigated under salting condition using deep seawater salt, sun-dried salt and purified salt. The changes of weight, shrinkage rate salinity and pH of muskmelon during salting time were almost nothing shown. Turbidity of pickle juice was the highest in salt solution using sun-dried salt and was almost nothing shown in deep seawater salt and purified salt. Solid content of pickle juice was higher in pickle juice using sun-dried salt than deep seawater salt and purified salt. The calcium content of muskmelon salted by deep seawater salt and sun-dried salt were increased to 4.3 times and 3.7 times, respectively. Hardness became a little higher on muskmelon using deed seawater salt ann sun dried salt than purified salt. In organoleptic result, color, flavor, taste, texture and overall palatability of muskmelon salted by deep seawater salt became higher in other salt solution (sun-friend salt and purified salt).
Takju Brewing Using the Uncooked Germed Brown Rice at Second Stage Mash
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 847~854
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.847
In general cooked rice would be used as a major raw material for making Takju. In this case quality, taste and storage time of Takju were not fully satisfied. Fermentation conditions for Takiu mash were examined by using the germed brown rice in this study. In case of the germed brown rice on 2nd stage mash, alcohol was slowly generated in comparison with the cooked rice. Reducing sugar was slowly produced and the amount of reducing sugar was low. The sugar content was created at a uniform rate. The pH was shown to be higher in mash of the germed brown rice than that of the cooked rice. Acidity change showed a similar inclination to pH change. The degree of yeast growth on the mash of the germed brown rice was revealed to be slightly lower than that of the cooked rice. Temperature of mash was kept to be constant after 3 days from fermentation. Fusel oil produced from the mash of the germed brown rice was less gernerated in comparison with the cooked rice. Amount of amino acid in case of the germed brown rice was indicated to be higher. Takju made with the germed brown rice was shown to be 1.3 times in overall taste, 1.5 times in refreshing as compared with Takju made with the cooked rice. However there are no differences between them in flavor and color of Takju. In overall acceptance Takju made with the germed brown rice was shown to be 1.3 times as compared with Takju made with the cooked rice. In conclusion the germed brown rice was expected to be able to be better in Takju quality.
Preparation and Characterization of Friend Surimi Gel Containing King Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 855~858
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.855
The friend fish meat paste was prepared to enhance physiological functions by adding 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii). The properties of fried gel were evaluated the color, quality properties and sensory characteristics. L-value was decreased, and a-value and b-value were increased by addition of king oyster mushroom. The folding test showed good level (AA). The quality properties showed that 10% addition of mushroom was the highest values in strength, hardness, gumminess and brittleness. The fish meat paste added 10% mushroom gave the highest favorite score in color, flavor, and overall acceptance. The results suggest that king oyster mushroom can be applied to fish paste for the purpose of high quality and functionality.
Texture Properties of Surimi Gel Containing Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinus edodes)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 859~863
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.859
The effects of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) on texture properties of surimi gel were investigated. Surimi gels containing 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% (w/w) of shiitake mushroom were prepared, and then color, rheological properties, and sensory evaluation were analyzed. Increasing the amount of mushroom in the fish paste tended to decrease the lightness in Hunter color value, but to increase the redness and yellowness. All test samples with 3 mm thickness had good flexibility and did not break even after 4 times folds. The sample containing 20% mushroom showed the highest values in strength, hardness, gumminess and brittleness. In sensory evaluation, the higher amounts of mushroom obtained favorite score in color and flavor, and 10% mushroom sample had the best score in overall acceptance. These results suggest that shiitake mushroom can be applied to fish paste for the purpose of high quality.
Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Cooking Methods on the Content of Thiamin in Chicken Breast and Vitamin C in Strawberry and Mandarine Orange
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 864~869
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.864
In order to expand the acceptability of irradiated foods by public, substantial basic data about the change of nutrient contents during irradiation are needed. The nutrient contents and digestibility of macronutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in foods are known to be not significantly influenced by irradiation treatment. However, some of the vitamins among micronutrients are susceptible to irradiation to a large extent depending upon the food composition, food process and storage condition. This study was conducted to investigate change of thiamin in chicken breast, and vitamin C in strawberry and mandarine orange after irradiation. The effects of irradiation at frozen or refrigerated state and the effects of cooking such as heating or micron ave on thiamin contents in chicken breast were observed. Irradiation reduced the thiamin content, however, temperature condition during irradiation was much more important factor to the loss of thiamin contents. In strawberry, vitamin C content was significantly affected by original content or the variety rattler than treatments such as irradiation, heating or microwave. These results indicated that the losses of water-soluble vitamins, especially thiamin or vitamin C, are affected by food temperature during irradiation process and variety or composition of foods rallier than irradiation itself, within an acceptable range of irradiation.
Effects of the Red Pepper Powders Dried in Hot-Air by Various Processing Methods on Quality of Kochujang during Fermentation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 870~875
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.870
Physicochemical characteristics of Kochujang based on hot-air dried the red pepper powders with different treatments, were investigated during 90 days fermentation to obtain information for the industrial production of Kochujang. The pH was decreased gradually during fermentation, and pH of the control Kochujang was consistently higher than those of others. The total acidity was increased linearly during fermentation, and Kochujang with 0.1% vitamin C was consistently higher than others. Reducing sugar contents of Kochujang was increased until 75 days but was decreased slightly thereafter, showing highest value for the control sample. Amino nitrogen contents was increased gradually until 75 days, showing highest value for Kochujang with mash-dried red pepper powder, but it was decreased remarkably thereafter The L and a values of Kochujang were increased, whereas b value was decreased during fermentation. L, and b values of Kochujang with mash-dried red pepper powder were higher than those of others, showing the more light and deep color than others. Appearance, taste and overall acceptability of Kochujang based on mash-dried red pepper powder were higher than others.
The Physicochemical Changes during Storage of Red Pepper Powder Dried in Hot-Air by Various Processing Methods
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 876~881
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.876
Physicochemical characteristics of the red peppers dried in hot-air by various processing to shorten drying time were investigated during storage at -2
for 120 days. The pH of red pepper powders gradually decreased in proportion to storage day, but there were no significant differences between samples during storage. The pH of red pepper powder treated with 0.1% vitamin C was the lowest as 4.64 at 120 storage days. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin contents gradually decreased during storage, but the red pepper powder treated with 0.1% vitamin C was higher than others after 120 storage days. As a result of color evaluation, L values of red pepper powder dried after only mashing and dried after aging next to mashing were higher than the control, whereas a and b values of red pepper powder dried after mashing were higher at 120 storage days, compared with the control. Results of color and taste acceptability showed color value of red pepper powder dried after mashing was 93.0% higher than 43.0% of the control, and in taste acceptability the control was 48.0%, whereas its dried after treatment of 0.1% vitamin C was the highest value as 92.0%.
Decreasing Effect of Kochujang on Body Weight and Lipid Levels of Adipose Tissues and Serum in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 882~886
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.882
Effect of kochujang (Korean red pepper soybean paste) on the reduction of body weight and lipid levels of adipose tissues and serum were investigated in the rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for four weeks with diets containing either a normal diet (ND, based on the AIN-76TM diet), high fat diet (HFD, supplemented with 20% corn oil in ND), CK diet (10% commercial kochujang in HFD), TK I diet (10% 0 day (non-) fermented traditional kochujang in HFD), TKII diet (10% 6-month fermented traditional kochujang in HFD), or RPP diet (3% red pepper powder in HFD). CK, TK I and TKII in the diet significantly reduced the body weight gain compared to the control (HFD), whereas red pepper powder had no such effect. TKII supplementation in the high-fat diet reduced epididymal and perirenal fat pad weight significantly (p<0.05). Liver total lipid was lower in TKII diet group than other kochujang and RPP diet groups. TKII and CK decreased the content of triglyceride in epididymal and perirenal fat pad that increased by high-fat diet. The cholesterol content of the perirenal fat pad was the lowest in the TKII diet group. TKII was also effective in lowering serum cholesterol level. These results indicated that properly ripened (fermented for 6-month) traditional kochujang exhibited more suppressive effects on body fat gain and lipid levels of adipose tissue and serum than RPP, commercial kochujang and the kochujang without fermentation.
Effects of Liquid Culture of Agaricus blazei Murill on Growth, Lipid and Protein Levels, and Enzyme Activities in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 887~892
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.887
The effects of liquid culture of Agaricus blazei Murill on the body weight gain, lipid metabolism, protein levels, and enzyme activities were studied in growing male rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups ; control group (A. blazei free water), 20 or 30% A. blazei groups (20 or 30% A. blazei in water) according to the levels of A. blazei supplementation. The rats were fed ad libitum each of the experimental beverage for 5 weeks. The body weight gain, food intake, food efficiency ratio, and organ weight of the 20 or 30% A. blazei groups were similar to those of the control group. There were no differences in the concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total protein and albumin, and the activities of GOT, GPT, LDH and alkaline phosphatase of the serum among the experimental groups. The calcium and phosphorus concentrations of serum in the 20 or 30% A. blazei group were significantly decreased compared with those of the control group. The concentrations of LDL-cholesterol and the atherogenic index of the 20 or 30% A. blazei groups were significantly lower than those of the control group, but the serum HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio was higher. These results showed that the 20 or 30% A. blazei feeding decreased the LDL-cholesterol and the atherogenic index, and increased HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio in serum of rats.
The Effect of Dietary Nuddle with Glucomannan on the Weight Loss in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 893~898
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.893
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of body weight reduction of noddle contained glucomannan in high fat diets-induced obese rats. Male Spraque-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to control and high fat diets groups for 4 weeks. Four weeks later, the control and high fat diet grpups were rearranged into 4 groups by different levels of nuddle containing glucomannan. After 5 weeks of feeding, serum and whole blood was analyzed. Obesity index was significantly lower in the group fed nuddle contained glucomannan than that of high fat diet groups. The status of white blood cells in hematological examination was significantly higher in rats fed high fat diet and was not significantly different by fed nuddle. Serum albumin levels were not significantly different although glucose levels in serum was significantly different among groups. Serum triglyceride and Total cholesterol levels were the highest levels in rats fed high fat diets and showed the lowest levels in rats fed nuddle.
Improving Effect of Powders of Cooked Soybean and Chongkukjang on Blood Pressure and Lipid Metabolism in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 899~905
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.899
The effects of cooked soybean and a traditional fermented soy product, chongkukjang, on blood pressure and lipid metabolism were studied in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). SHRs were divided into 3 groups (n=10, male), and fed casein, powders of cooked soybean, and chongkukjang as dietary protein sources for 6 weeks. Body weight gain was not different among experimental groups, but food efficiency was increased in groups fed cooked soybean and chongkukjang diets compared to control group. Consumption of cooked soybean and chongkukjang for 6 weeks in SHR significantly suppressed blood pressure rise with aging (p<0.05). Feeding of cooked soybean and chongkukjang to SHR decreased plasma triacylglycerols (p<0.05) by 21.6% and 30.2% and LDL-cholesterol by 30.0% and 27.5%, respectively. Addition of cooked soybean and chongkukjang to the diet resulted in reduction of total lipids and triacylglycerols of liver, while consumption of cooked soybean and chongkukjang resulted in the increase of fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions, respectively (p<0.05). Cooked soybean and chongkukjang diets down-regulated the activity of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase by 56.4% and 94.5%, compared to control, respectively. From the above-mentioned results, it can be concluded that consumption of cooked soybean and chongkukjang might be helpful in preventing cardiovascular disease by suppressing blood pressure rise and hyperlipidemia.
Effects of Saengshik Supplementation on Health Improvement in Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 906~912
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.906
The study was conducted to investigate the effect of Saengshik supplementation on lipid metabolism in rats fed high cholesterol diets. Male Spraque-Dawley rats were administrated 1% cholesterol to induce hypercholesterolemia and were fed on diet containing Saengshik (30%, w/w). Serum and liver lipid profiles and fecal bile acids excretion were examined after 7 weeks of experimental diet. The feeding of diet containing 30% Saengshik significantly decreased total cholesterol (TC) contents in liver and plasma. Since cholesterol was balanced by entero-hepatic circulation through bile acid synthesis and reabsorption, inhibition of bile acid re-uptake in intestine decreases total cholesterol in liver and blood. In this point, significant increament of fecal bile acid excretion in Shaengshik group decreased TC and improved hypercholesterolemia. Also plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) decreasing risk for coronary heart disease in Saengshik supplemented group was significantly higher than control group, whereas low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) accumulation in arterial vessel wall was significantly lower than control group. In this result, we supposed that supplementation of Saengshik, uncooked natural food, may improve hypercholesterolemia through increment of cholesterol excretion.
Protective Effect of Soybean Sauce and Melanoidin on Lipid Oxidation in Rats Fed High PUFA Oils
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 913~920
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.913
Soybean sauce fermented with soybean and wheat, has been a major condiment of Korean diets from centuries ago. Melanoidin, a brown pigment generally found in various food systems, is a final product produced in amino-carbonyl reaction during soybean sauce processing. Antioxidative activities of soybean sauce and melanoidin were investigated in vitro system using linoleic acid emulsion. Soybean sauce and glucose-lysine model melanoidin showed the stronger antioxidative effect than control by ferric thiocyanate and conjugated diene assays. In addition, DPPH radical scavenging effect of soybean sauce was higher than melanoidin, which was ascribed to soluble peptide and low molecular protein existing in soybean sauce. To ascertain antioxidative effect of dietary soybean sauce and melanoidin in vivo, the male Wister rats were fed 10% soybean sauce or 10% glucose-lysine model melanoidin with corn oil or fish oil for 5 weeks. Fatty acid compositions in liver and plasma were influenced by oil source. Therefore, EPA and DHA contents of fish oil group were higher than those of corn oil group. When the inhibitory effect of soybean sauce and melanoidin on lipid peroxidation using TBARS methods was measured, fish oil group (FC) showed higher malondialdehyde (MDA) content than corn oil group (CC). However, supplementation of soybean sauce and melanoidin to fish oil group attenuated MDA formation. In the levels of phosphatidyl choline hydroperoxide (PCOOH) in liver and plasma by CL (chemiluminescence)-HPLC method, PCOOH in FC group was significantly higher than that of CC group both in liver and plasma. Supplementation of soybean sauce to fish oil groups significantly inhibited the formation of PCOOH in plasma and liver, while melanoidin suppressed hepatic PCOOH formation. Based on these results, it can be suggested that soybean sauce possesses stronger antioxidative potential than melanoidin.
Hypoglycemic Effect of the Methanol Extract of Soybean Sprout in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 921~925
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.921
To control blood glucose level as close to normal is the major goal of treatment of diabetes mellitus.
-glucosidase is the enzyme to digest dietary carbohydrate and inhibition of
-glucosidase could suppress postprandial hyperglycemia. The methanol extract of soybean sprout was tested for the inhibitory activities against
-glucosidase in vitro. Soybean sprout extract inhibited yeast
-glucosidase activity by 24.5% at the concentration of 5 mg/mL. The methanol extract of soybean sprout was subsequently subjected to sequential fractionation with hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Among the fractions tested ethyl acetate-soluble fraction showed relatively strong inhibition against
-glucosidase by 36.3% at the concentration of 5 mg/mL. Acarbose, standard
-glucosidase inhibitor, inhibited
-glucosidase activity by 40.1%. The ability of soybean sprout extract to lower postprandial glucose was studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Starch solution (1 g/kg) with and without the methanol extract of soybean sprout (500 mg/kg) was administered to diabetic rats after an overnight-fast by gastric intubation. A single oral dose of soybean sprout extract inhibited the increase in blood glucose levels significantly at 60, 90, 120, 180 min (p<0.05) and decreased incremental response areas under the glycemic response curve significantly (p<0.05). These results suggest that soybean sprout might exert hypoglycemic effect by inhibiting
Effects of Powdered Pine Needle (Pinus densiflora seib et Zucc.) on Serum and Liver Lipid Composition and Antioxidative Capacity in Rats Fed High Oxidized Fat
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 926~930
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.926
Effects of powdered pine needle (Pinus densiflora seib et Zucc) on serum and liver lipid composition and antioxidative capacity were investigated in rat fed high oxidized fat. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 161.25
2.51 g were blocked into four groups according to body weight and raised seven weeks with basal diet (normal group, I), basal diet and 10% oxidized fat (control group, II), basal diet, 10% oxidized fat and 2% powdered pine needle (2% powdered pine needle group, III) and basal diet, 10% oxidized fat and 3% powdered pine needle (3% powdered pine needle group, IV). Food intake, body weight gain and feed efficiency were not significantly different among oxidized fat diet groups. The level of plasma total cholesterol showed a tendency to decrease, whereas the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration revealed a tendency to increase in pine needle groups. However plasma triglyceride level showed no significant differences in the treatment groups. Intake of the oxidized fat has increased the levels of liver cholesterol and triglyceride. The powdered pine needle showed a tendency to decrease thiobarbituric acid values in plasma and liver. The pine needle samples have also decreased the plasma GOT and GPT activities, whereas they have increased the liver glutathione peroxidase activity.
Effect of Hericium erinaceus Extract on Cancer Cell Growth and Expression of Cell Cycle Associated Proteins
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 931~936
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.931
We investigated inhibitory effects of Hericium erinaceus on the growth of cancer cells and the expression of cell cycle regulators, cyclins. Anticancer effects of Hericium erinaceus extract and fractions against cancer cell lines including HepG2 and HT29 were investigated. The methanol extract, the hexane fraction, the chloroform fraction and the ethylacetate fraction of Hericiu erinacew inhibited growth of cancer cells but they had no effect on the cytotoxicity of normal human liver cells under the same conditions. As shown by western blot analysis, the expression of cyclin B1 known as cell cycle regulator was markedly decreased after treatment with Hericium erinaceus extract in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that antiproliferative effect of Hericaum erinaceus extract is associated with markedly decreased expression of cyclin B1.
Antioxidative Activities of Anthocyanins in Red Mustard Leaf Kimchi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 937~941
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.937
Red mustard leaf (RML) kimchi was prepared with native Brassica juncea czerniak et coss as a major raw material and antioxidative characteristics of crude anthocyanin (CA)/refined anthocyanin (RA) isolated from RML kimchi were studied. Among crude pigment fractions, CA fraction showed a higher inhibition rate of peroxide formation in linoleic acid autoxidation system. These effects seemed to be increased with the increase of CA concentration. CA also was considered to have a role of electron donor by the experiments using DPPH (
-picrylhydrazyl) reaction. Furthermore, various RA fractions had a higher antioxidative activity and especially RA-fraction 3 demonstrated the highest score of the antioxidative characteristics in terms of the prevention of lipid peroxidation and scavenging of free radicals.
Effects of Rosa multiflora Yoghurt on Sociopsychological Stress
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 942~947
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.942
The effects of anti-stress rose (Rosa mutiflora) fruit extract yoghurts (RFEY-1.0, RFEY-3.0, RFEY-5.0 containing with 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0% of rose fruit extract) were tested for the anti-stress effects. ICR male mice (20
2 g) were fed with basic experimental diets and given free access to water containing these ingredients for 18 days. Psychological stress and sociopsychological stress exposed by foot-shock for 1 hour (10 sec duration at intervals of 120 sec) every day for 3 days. RFEY-1.0, RFEY-3.0, RFEY-5.0 groups in the sociopsychological stress resulted in a significant decrease of 11.7%, 16.0% and 24.7% in plasma corticosterone (CS) secretion compared with psychological stress (control group). Noradrenaline (NA) secretions in the brain were significantly increased 15.6%, 25.0% and 40.8%, respectively, in RFEY-1.0, RFEY-3.0, RFEY-5.0 groups compared with control group. MHPG -SO
(3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylethyleneglycol sulfate) levels in the brain resulted in a marked decreases of 17.0%, 25.3% and 28.4%, respectively, in RFEY-1.0, RFEY-3.0, RFEY-5.0 groups compared with control group. NA/MHPG-SO
ratios in the brain of RFEY-1.0, RFEY-3.0, RFEY-5.0 groups resulted in a significantly increase of 39.5%, 67.3% and 96.3%, respectively, compared with control group. These results suggest that rose fruit extract yoghurt may be tried to apply for human consumption such as sociopsychological stress.
Antioxidative Properties of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Black Rice
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 6, 2003, Pages 948~951
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.948
The composition and antioxidative effects of phenolic compounds in black rice were studied. The contents of free and bound phenolic compounds extracted from black rice were 845.4 and 401.6 mg respectively per 100g sample weight. Free phenolic compounds had higher antioxidation ability than those of bound phenolic compounds. Solvent fractionation of free phenolic compounds revealed that butanol fraction had the highest phenolic compounds contents and antioxidative activity among other solvent fractions. Although butanol fraction showed lower lipid peroxidation inhibition (LPI) ability than that of
-tocopherol and BHT, free radical scavenging ability was much higher than that of
-tocopherol and BHT, as evidenced by electron donating ability (EDA) and benzoic acid hydroxylation inhibition (BAHI) assays.