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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 8 - Dec 2003
Volume 32, Issue 7 - Oct 2003
Volume 32, Issue 6 - Aug 2003
Volume 32, Issue 5 - Jul 2003
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Jun 2003
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Apr 2003
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Mar 2003
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
Distribution of Organic Acids in Traditional and Modified Fermented Foods
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1177~1185
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1177
The contents of organic acids in traditional and modified fermented foods were compared, and propionic acid produced during fermentation was investigated. Organic acids in traditional and modified soy sauces were lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, formic acid, succinic acid and oxalic acid while propionic acid was found in traditional soy sauces only. Similarly, lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, formic acid, succinic acid and propionic acid were found in traditional and modified soy paste. The organic acids in traditional and modified kochujang were citric acid, acetic acid, formic acid, lactic acid, malic acid, oxalic acid and succinic acid while propionic acid was not found in modified kochujang. The major organic acid in persimmon and commercial (fermented) vinegars was acetic acid. Propionic acid was uniquely found in persimmon vinegars. Also, content of tannic acid in persimmon vinegars was 366.9 ∼ 909.8 mg%.
Food Components and Quality Characteristics of Boiled-Dried Anchovies Caught by Pound Net
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1186~1192
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1186
The food components and quality characteristics of two kinds of boiled-dried anchovies (Engraulis japonica) in the Korean market such as the Jukbang-Myoel (JM) and Kwonhyunmang-Myeol (KM) were investigated. KM was higher in moisture content, and lower in crude protein and lipid contents than JM. Volatile basic nitrogen was higher in KM than in JM, whereas TBA value showed higher levels in JM. Total combined amino acid contents of KM and JM were 41.9∼46.6 g/100 g and 42.0∼49.2 g/100 g, respectively, and large sized boiled-dried anchovies revealed higher contents than small sized ones in both samples. Their major amino acids were Glu, Asp, His, Leu, Ala and Arg. Total lipids of KM and JM were consisted of 55.4 ∼ 68.4%, 53.0 ∼ 68.0% neutral lipid and 31.6∼44.6%,32.0∼47.0% polar lipid, respectively, and their major fatty acids were 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7, 18:1n-9, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. In taste compounds of boiled-dried anchovies, free amino acid contents of Km and JM were 953.7 ∼ 1,044.8 mg/100 g and 968.8 ∼ 1,306.4 mg/100 g, respectively, and main free amino acids were Tau, His, Ala, 1-methyl his, Lys, Glu and Gly. The contents of other taste-active components such as IMP, total creatinine, TMAO and inorganic ions were not significantly different between KM and JM. The results of sensory evaluations for organoleptic characteristics, small sized JM showed no difference in sensory qualities, whereas large sized JM showed good qualities for appearance, taste and odor compared with KM.
Studies for Processing Condition Optimization and Physicochemical Property of Resistant Starch
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1193~1199
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1193
As a result of resistant starch yield depending on heating temperature, moisture content, storage temperature and heating-cooling cycle with RSM (response surface methodology), high amylose corn starch (46%) was appeared higher than normal corn starch in the yield (22%). At the high amylose corn starch, optimum conditions for resistant starch formation were 6 times of heating-cooling cycle, 108
heating temperature and 67% moisture content at the 2
storage temperature, which resulted in 25% yield with these experiment conditions. Affecting factor for the resistant starch formation was arranged according to heating -cooling cycle, moisture content, heating temperature and storage temperature. Raw corn starch granule was destructive and appeared a porous reticular structure by the resistant starch formation. Color became dark and increased yellowness by caramelization during heating processing. Heating-cooling processing was the result of decreased hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and gumminess.
Synthesis of Structured Lipids from Corn Oil and Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Continuous Type Reactor
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1200~1205
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1200
Structured lipids (SL) were synthesized by transesterification of corn oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the continuous type reactor using sn-1,3 specific Rhizomucor miehei lipase. The parameters of reaction were observed in terms of flow rate, temperature, and substrate molar ratios. The highest incorporation of CLA was obtained with 1 mL/min flow rate, 55
and 1 : 3 (corn oil/CLA) molar ratio, showing 10.26 ㏖%. When different reaction temperatures and substrate ratios were studied, the highest incorporation was obtained at
(17.33 ㏖%) and 1 : 5 (corn oil/CLA) ratio (17.50 ㏖%), respectively. After pancreatic lipase analysis, most of all CLA were found at sn-1,3 position. The iodine values of obtained SLs ranged from 110 to 120. From the neutral lipid analysis by normal-phase HPLC, produced SLs composed of 99.35 ∼ 99.89% triacylglycerols, 0.11 ∼ 0.51% 1,2- and 1,3-diacylglycerols, and 0.06 ∼ 0.22% monoacylglycerols.
Analysis of Volatile Components in Korean Rice Wine by the Addition of Yulmoo
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1206~1213
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1206
In order to use nutraceutical components in Yulmoo (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf), the acceptability of Yulmoo for Takju (Korean rice wine) was examined in terms of the production of volatile components. When Yulmoo was added to the Takju made by commercial koji as a substitute of starch at 0 (rice 100%), 15, 30, 60, and 100%, the ethanol content slightly increased to 13.6, 15.2, 15.2, 14.1, and 13.8%, the Production of isobutanol and iso-imyl alcohol increased as the amount of Yulmoo increased. While the use of Yulmoo to the Takju as the nuruk (Korean traditional koji), inoculated with Aspergillus kawachii (AK) and Rhizopu japonicus (RJ), decreased the contents of n-propanol, iso-butanol, and iso-amyl alcohol as well as the contents of ethanol from 14.3% to 11.2 [AK], 7.5 [RJ], and 10.4% [AK + RJ]. The Yulmoo nuruk in Takju increased the production of acetaldehyde and ethyl acetate indicating the negative effect in the organoleptic evaluation. It was determined that the addition of Yulmoo as a starch source or as nuruk has a critical effect on the production of fusel oils and other volatile compounds in Takju fermentation.
Antimicrobial Activity of Rhus javanica Extracts Against Animal Husbandry Disease-Related Bacteria
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1214~1220
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1214
Antimicrobial activity of Rhus javanica (RJ) extract against animal husbandry disease-related bacteria was determined by a paper disc method. The RJ extracts showed a significant antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (+) bacteria and especially the activity was most potent against L. monocytogenes and S. epidermidis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the MeOH and EtOH extracts of RJ were in the range of 0.8 ∼ 16 mg/mL and 0.8 ∼ 10 mg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, among five solvent fractions (n-hexane, CHC1
, EtOAc, n-BuOH and
frs.) from MeOH extract of RJ, the EtOAc fr. exhibited the most significant antimicrobial activity The antimicrobial activities of RJ extracts against most microbial strains were unstable by either heat treatment or acid treatment. The inhibitory effect of RJ extracts on microbial cell growth was further examined by the addition of 0, 100, 300, and 500 ppm of RJ extracts into growth medium. The growth of gram positive (+) bacteria, S. aureus, S. epidermidis and L. monocytogenes was inhibited for 72 hours when at least 300 ppm of RJ extracts added, but the growth of gram negative (-) bacteria was only inhibited when at least 500 ppm of RJ extracts were added. Taken together, tile antimicrobial activities of RJ extracts were more effective against gram positive (+) bacteria compared to those against gram negative (-) bacteria.
Inactivation of Microorganisms and Enzymes in Foxtail Millet Yakju by High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1221~1226
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1221
High hydrostatic Pressure was applied to Foxtail Millet Yakju to investigate the effects of high pressure on inactivation of microorganisms and enzymes. Total bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeast in untreated Yakju were
CFU/mL, respectively. Total bacterial count was reduced to 4.1
CFU/mL, while lactic acid bacteria and yeast were sterilized completely in Yakju heated at
for 15 min. Lactic acid bacteria and yeast decreased greatly with the increase of treatment pressure, and were sterilized completely in Yakju treated at more than 300 ㎫ for 10 min/
. Total bacteria were not completely sterilized with pressurization of even 600 ㎫ at room temperature and reduced to 2 log cycle even at
. Total bacteria decreased by 2∼3 log cycle with the increase of treatment time from 10 to 60 min at
/300 ㎫. Pressurization of Yakju caused a partial inactivation of
-amylase and glucosamylase, and the activities of
-amylase and glucoamylase decreased by 18.1% and 21.1%, respectively at
/600 ㎫/10 min. Activities of
-amylase and glucoamylase decreased with the increase of temperature, and 22.2% and 32.1% of the original activity were remained with the treatment at
/300 ㎫/10 min, respectively. Enzyme activities decreased slightly with the increase of treatment time at
Antimicrobial Activity of the Aerial Part of Artemisia capillaris Extracts on the Food-Borne Pathogens
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1227~1232
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1227
The solvent extracts of the aerial part of Artemisia capillaris extracted by using several solvents with different polarities were prepared and their antimicrobial activities were examined. The antimicrobial activities and cell growth inhibitions were investigated to each strain with the different concentrations of the aerial part of Artemisia capillaris Acetone extract showed the highest antimicrobial activity. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for each strain were appeared to 20 mg/mL at Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, 40 mg/mL at Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and 80 mg/mL at Salmonella tyhimurium. The cell growth inhibitions were shown on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Salmonella typhimurium for 48 hours. The acetone extract was further fractionated sequentially with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol for purifying crude acetone extract. The solvent fraction of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol showed the different antimicrobial activity, respectively.
Growth Inhibitory Effects of Chloride Salts and Organic Acid Salts Against Food-Borne Microorganisms
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1233~1238
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1233
The growth inhibitory effects of chloride salts and organic acid salts against six food-borne microorganisms (Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43894, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802) were determined using Bioscreen C in broth medium. The growth inhibitory concentrations of sodium chloride and potassium chloride on B. cereus were 7 and 9%, respectively. E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus were inhibited by treatment of 3% calcium chloride. Magnesium chloride showed growth inhibitory effect on B. cereus, S. Typhimurium, and S. aureus at 5%. The order of growth inhibition effects by organic acid salts was calcium propionate>calcium acetate>calcium lactate. Calcium chloride (3%) with 0.01% lactic acid showed strong inhibition on the growth of S. Typhimurium and exhibited stronger growth inhibition than calcium chloride alone (5%). We concluded that calcium chloride and calcium propionate had strong growth inhibitory activities and that calcium chloride and sodium chloride in combination with lactic acid had stronger inhibitory activities than that of chloride salts alone.
Preparation and Effect of Eudragit E100 Microcapsules Containing Grapefruit Seed Extract on Kimchi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1239~1244
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1239
Microcapsules were prepared by coacervation method using acetone/liquid paraffin system to control the ripening of kimchi. Eudragit E100, which was soluble at below pH 5.0 in aqueous solution, was used to make microcapsules to be sensitive to acidity of kimchi. The microcapsules with Eudragit E100 containing grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) showed the highest yield of 92.13%, the size of microcapsules was decreasing as increasing the amount of aluminium stearate, a dispersing agent. Morphology of the microcapsules determined by scanning electron microscopy showed spherical forms. GFSE, encapsulated antimicrobial agents, was quickly released at acidic buffer (pH 4,5,6) within 1 storage day. However, 70% of encapsulated GFSE in Eudragit E100 microcapsules was continuously released at pH 7 till 3 days, and it was sustained till 9 days. Characteristics of kimchi containing microcapsules of GFSE were analysed with ripening period. Decease of pH in kimchi was retarded with the added GFSE microcapsules till 2 days of fermentation, but GFSE did not affect pH in kimchi after 3 days. Total numbers of microorganisms and lactic acid microorganisms in kimchi were decreased with increasing the amount of the added GFSE microcapsules, however, the effect of controlled released GFSE from pH sensitive Eudragit E100 microcapsules was hard to detect. These results suggest the possibility of pH sensitive microcapsules for high qualify of kimchi.
Development of the Formula for Natural Bread-making Starter
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1245~1252
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1245
A starter formulation was developed to substitute a baker's yeast with natural starter when manufacturing bread products. To develop an active starlet, starter was formulated varying with types of wheat flours, level of water contents and various nutrients. Activities of starter were investigated in terms of viable counts of microbes and change of pH and total titratible acidity Domestic wheat flours contain 100 times more number of lactic acid bacteria than yeast regardless of types of wheat flours. The more protein contents in wheat flours, the more stable microbes in starter. This was considered to be the result of buffering effect of wheat proteins. The optimum level of protein content to ensure the activity of starter was more than 12.0%. Optimum level of water content in active starter was 110% based on strong flour. The more water or the less water had the tendency of decreasing viable counts of microbes. Addition of salt and sucrose had increased the activity of starters. However oligosaccharides did not affect the activity of starter. The optimum concentrations of salt and sucrose were 1.0% and 5.0% respectively. Bread with the starter was higher scored than breads with yeast in terms of all the quality and sensory characteristics except their volumes. In conclusion, a starter formulated with strong flour 100%, water 110%, salt 1% and sucrose 5% was considered to have high potential as a substitute of yeast in making natural bread.
Functions of Various Hydrocolloids as Anticaking Agents in Korean Rice Cakes
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1253~1261
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1253
This study was carried out to investigate the influences of hydrocolloids on suppression of retrogradation in the Korean rice cake. Hydrocolloids were influenced to the textural characteristics of the Korean rice cake. In particular arabic gum and carrageenan had the effect of suppressing the retrogradation. Cohesiveness of the Korean rice cake added with hydrocolloids was shown to be high compared to control in organoleptic characteristics. Hydrocolloids exhibited slightly effective in retarding surface color change of the Korean rice cake. Onset temperature of gelatinization in thermal characteristics showed somewhat low in case of addition of arabic gum into the Korean rice cake and was followed by carrageenan, guar gum, gelatin and locust bean gum in onset temperature of gelatinization order. All samples added with hydrocolloids had low values in change of melting enthalphy and their range was 12.8 ∼ 17.7 J/g. The Korean rice cake added with arabic gum was lowest in melting enthalphy. The recrystallinity of the Korean rice cake added with arabic gum was greatly low compared to rice cake without hydrocolloids. Melting spreadability of the Korean rice cake added with arabic gum or carrageenan was superior in thermal characteristics. The value of exponent of Avrami was 0.97 ∼ 1.12 in study of Avrami equation. In conclusion carrageenan and arabic gum would have a suppressive effect of retrogradation in the Korean rice cake.
Effect of Starch Degradation Enzymes on the Retrogradation of a Korean Rice Cakes
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1262~1269
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1262
In this study, enzymes were investigated as an antistaling agent for a Korean rice cake. Thermograms by a DSC demonstrated that the gelatinization-onset temperature of the Korean rice cake was at its lowest temperature of 71.1
with the GP (glucoamylase+pullulanase) treatment, followed by
-amylase. The gelatinization peak temperature of the Korean rice cake with enzyme treatment was relatively lower compared to the control. Furthermore, the Korean rice cake with GP treatment showed the lowest peak temperature. Melting enthalpy of the Korean rice cake increased with the enzyme treatment, with
-amylase, followed by
-amylase and GP. Melting enthalpy of the Korean rice cake with GP treatment was significantly lower compared to the
-amylase treatment. Recrystallinity in the case of GP treatment was also significantly lower than control. The range of Avrami exponent (n) was 0.90 ∼ 1.20 and the time constant of retrogradation (1/k) of the Korean rice cake crystalline decreased in the following order: GP,
-amylase and control. Textural characteristics of the Korean rice cake with enzyme treatment differed greatly from that of control. The L＊ values of all the Korean rice cakes made without
-amylase decreased and the a＊ values were significantly different at p<0.05. The GP treatment altered the b＊ value toward blue color, whereas
-amylase changed to the direction to yellow color. In sensory evaluation, the Korean rice cake with enzyme treatment showed higher evaluation compared to control.
Optimization of the Extrusion Processing Conditions of Soymilk Residue and Corn Grits Mixture
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1270~1277
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1270
The extrusion conditions of the soymilk residue and corn grits mixtures were optimized. The experiment was designed according to the D-optimal design of response surface methodology (RSM), which shows 18 experimental points including 4 replicates for three independent variables (screw speed, water content and die temperature). The responses variables such as bending force, expansion ratio, bulk density, water solubility index (WSI), water absorption index (WAI), and color values (L＊, a＊, b＊) were evaluated using response surface analysis. Expansion ratio and WSI decreased with increasing water content, whereas bulk density tended to increase with increasing water content. While greater screw speeds enhanced WSI and yellowness, higher moisture contents decreased the expansion ratio and WSI value. However, die temperature did not influence upon the response variables. The optimum extrusion conditions by numerical and graphical methods were similar: the screw speed, water content, and die temperature were 250 rpm, 22.43% and l28.16
by the numerical method; 250 rpm, 22.43%, and 128.02
by graphical method.
Quality Characteristics of Sponge Cake with Addition of Laver Powder
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1278~1284
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1278
This study was carried out to investigate the optimum conditions for making “sponge cake” with addition of ingredient, laver powder, and the quality characteristics of a new sponge cake. The moisture contents of sponge cake with 2, 4, 6% laver powder did not change but with 8 and 10%, the moisture contents increased to 28.89% and 30.69%, respectively. While specific gravity increased to 0.674 (control 0.493) when 10% laver powder was added, but volume was decreased. Most abundant mineral was Ca, followed by Na, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn. The crust color degree of sponge cake with laver powder showed low marks on L, a, b. The crumb color degree showed low marks on L, b while “a” degree redness indicated highest marks with 4% laver powder. When it was seen under the microscope, the air cell numbers were decreased but the cell size became bigger. More free amino acid was contained when the laver powder was added. L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-aspartic acid and L-leucine were the major free amino acids. Hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and resilience degree of sponge cake with addition of laver power were higher than those of control. The sensory evaluation indicated that addition of 2% laver powder enhanced most mouth feeling, appearance, hardness, moistness, flavor and overall acceptability.
A Study of Garlic-Yackwa Development 1. Quality Characteristics of Garlic-Yackwa Substituted with Different Amounts of Garlic Juice
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1285~1291
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1285
This study was carried out to find optimum substitution amounts of garlic juice for the purpose of garlic-Yackwa development. Five experimental groups containing 0 t.s, 1/2 t.s, 1 t.s, 1 and 1/2 t.s, and 2 t.s of garlic juice per 1 cup of flour were compared with basic group containing 2 t.s of ginger juice per 1 cup of flour (ginger-Yackwa), by Hunter's colorimetry, texture profile analysis and sensory evaluation. In Hunter's color value, Yackwa, substituted garlic juice from 1/2 t.s to 2 t.s per 1 cup of flour for ginger juice, were lower than ginger-Yackwa. The higher amounts of garlic juice in garlic-Yackwa showed the lower tendancy of L and a values. The b value of garlic-Yackwa containing from 0 t.s to 2 t.s of garlic juice was higher than that of ginger-Yackwa. The higher amounts of garlic juice in garlic-Yackwa showed the higher tendancy of b value. In the texture characteristics, hardness, adhesiveness, springiness and chewiness of all garlic-Yackwa were significantly lower than those of ginger-Yackwa. Cohesiveness of garlic-Yackwa containing from 1 t.s to 2 t.s of garlic juice was significantly higher than that of ginger-Yackwa. Gumminess of Yackwa with garlic juice was higher (
t.s, 2 t.s) than that of ginger-Yackwa, or lower (0 t.s∼l t.s) than that of ginger-Yackwa. The higher amounts of garlic juice in garlic-Yackwa showed the higher tendancies of hardness, cohesiveness and gumminess, while springiness and chewiness showed vice versa. In sensory evaluation, the higher amounts of garlic juice in garlic-Yackwa showed the better color, appearance, flavor, taste and overall acceptability. Especially garlic-Yackwa with 2 t.s of garlic juice showed the best color, appearance, taste, overall acceptability among them. Garlic-Yackwa with 2 t.s of garlic juice evaluated the best, while ginger-Yackwa evaluated the worst. In conclusion, these results indicated that 2 t.s of garic juice per 1 cup of flour could be very useful as a substitute for ginger juice in developing garlic-Yackwa.
Effects of Packaging Method on Quality of Chilled Plaice Muscle
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1292~1296
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1292
The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes of physico-chemical properties of chilled plaice muscle, stored at 4
for 0 ∼ 21 days, with different packaging methods (vacuum packaged with PVDC and aerobic packaged with HDPE). pH value in aerobic packaged plaice muscle (APPM) decreased from 6.3 to 6.09 at first 2 day storage, and then increased gradually during storage time. Although pH pattern of vacuum packaged plaice muscle (VPPM) was similar to that of APPM, change of pH value during storage time was slower and lower than APPM. VBN value in aerobic packaged one increased during storage time. Especially it increased significantly after 7 days of storage. While VBN value in VPPM increased only a little to 14 days. TBA value showed significant difference between APPM and VPPM. WHC of APPM was higher than that of VPPM after 7 days of storage. In electrophoretic pattern of myofibril of APPM stored for 14 days hydrolysis of heavy chain and tropomyosin was observed. However, in VPPM, some hydrolysis occurred only in heavy chain. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that hydrolysis of VPPM occurs later than that of APPM.
Optimization on Preparation Conditions of Dried Citrus
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1297~1301
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1297
The response surface methodology was peformed by central composite design based on drying temperature and time of Citrus, to monitor quality property change caused by drying and make dried products with a good overall palatability. In result, water activity, hardness and softness were affected by drying temperature; water activity decreased and hardness increased with increase of drying temperature. Softness was also high at low temperature and short time of drying. In the range of overall palatability having high score, hardness was shown in 2.01 ∼ 3.20
and softness was 62.54 ∼ 146.37 cm/kg. Drying conditions satisfying this range were predicted as 66 ∼ 75
of drying temperature and 8 ∼ 14 hr of drying time.
Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Turnip Pickle Added with Chitosan during Storage
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1302~1309
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1302
Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of turnip pickles added with chitosan and/or beet water extract were investigated. Turnip root slices (4
0.5 cm) were salted with NaCl and CaCl
, soaked into pickling solution, and then stored at 2
. Throughout the whole storage periods, pH, acidity, saltiness and soluble solid content of three pickles (C, turnip pickle; CC, turnip pickle+chitosan; CBC, turnip pickle+chitosan+beet water extract) ranged to 3.1 ∼ 3.5, 1.5 ∼ 1.7%, 0.5 ∼ 0.7% and 24.5 ∼ 28.5
Brix, respectively. There were no significant differences between three pickles in saltiness, anthocyanin and reducing sugar content. However, acidity and hardness of CC and CBC were higher than those of control C throughout the storage time. While Hunter's a value of CBC was higher than those of CC or C. Sensory results showed that the best edible time was the 14th day of storage, and at that time, scores of CC and CBC were higher in over-all preference (7.8 and 8.4) than those of C (6.1), and CC and CBC maintained good sensory qualities until 28th day of storage, compared to C (p<0.05).
Changes in Lipid Peroxidation Level and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Rats Supplemented with Dietary Cholesterol and/or Taurine
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1310~1317
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1310
Effects of dietary cholesterol and/or taurine supplementation on plasma and hepatic lipid peroxidation status and antioxidant enzyme activities were evaluated in rats fed one of the following semisynthetic diets for 5 weeks: control diet (CD, cholesterol-free and taurine-free diet); high cholesterol diet (HCD, CD+1.5% cholesterol): high taurine diet (HTD, CD+1.5% taurine): high cholesterol and high taurine diet (HCHTD, HCD + 1.5% taurine). Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) level was not influenced by dietary cholesterol or taurine supplementation, while hepatic MDA level was 70% higher in rats fed HCD compared to the value for CD rats (p<0.05). Our observation that taurine supplementation significantly decreased the hepatic MDA level of rats fed HCD, but failed to decrease lipid peroxidation of rats fed CD indicates that the protective effect of taurine in the liver against lipid peroxidation is manifested only under the hypercholesterolemic environment. Plasma and hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were not affected by dietary supplementation of cholesterol or taurine. However, hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly reduced by dietary taurine supplementation (p <0.05), and thus significantly lower in rats fed HTD compared to the value for CD (p<0.05). Plasma total cholesterol concentration was positively correlated with hepatic cholesterol concentration as expected (r=0.712, p<0.001). Plasma (r=0.399, p<0.05) and hepatic cholesterol levels (r=0.429, p<0.05) showed a significantly positive correlation with hepatic MDA concentration, respectively. Plasma taurine concentration was negatively correlated with hepatic SOD activity (r=-0.481, p<0.01), and tended to be negatively correlated with hepatic GSH-Px activity without showing statistical significance (r=-0.188, p<0.05). These results indicate an antioxidative effect of taurine in rats with elevated level of lipid Peroxidation due to high intake of dietary cholesterol. Future application of taurine as a safe candidate for a hypolipidemic agent without adversely affecting body's antioxidant defense system is speculated.
Studies on the Radical Scavenging Effects and the Inhibitory Effects on ACE Activity of Several Flavonoids
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1318~1322
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1318
This study was carried out to identify the biophysical utility of bioflavonoids by the determination of their antioxidative activities, radical scavenging activity and inhibitory effect on the ACE activity. The results obtained were as follows; All flavonoids experimented greatly inhibited the linoleic acid oxidation from the early period of oxidation, and the radical scavenging ability was also greater in genistein and daidzein than other flavonoids, generally showing donating ability. Rutin has the metal-chelating ability with C
, which means to have the inhibitory effect on the promotive oxidation of lipid by metal ion. All flavonoids experimented inhibited the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, which was greater in genistein and daidzein than other flavonoids.s.
Purification and Characterization of Anti-Coagulant Activity Fraction from Persimmon Stem
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1323~1327
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1323
Persimmon has been considered to have therapeutic values for various diseases in Korea. Dried persimmon has been applied to wounded parts for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Anti-coagulant fraction from Persimmon stem was purified through gel filtration, phenyl Sepharose, DEAE-Sephadex and additional gel filtration column chromatographies. Its molecular weight was estimated to be 130,000 ∼ 180,000. By element analysis, its main components were C, H, and O. The anti -coagulant was heat- stable and completely inhibited after periodate oxidation, indicating that it was a complex carbohydrate.
Effect of N-3, N-6 Fatty Acid and d-Limonene Treatment on Membrane Lipid Composition and Protein Kinase C Activity in Experimental Rat Hepatocarcinogenesis
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1328~1336
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1328
This study was done to investigate the effects of n-3, n-6 fatty acid and d-limonene on the hepatic membrane lipid composition, protein kinase C (PKC) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities in experimental rat hepatocarcinogenesis. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed with two different types of dietary oil for 20 weeks. Corn oil (CO) and sardine oil (SO) were used at 15% by weight as a source of n-6 and n-3 fatty acid, respectively. One week after feeding, rats were intraperitoneally injected twice with a dose of diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 50 mg/kg body weight) and after 1 week 0.05% phenobarbital (PB) was provided with drinking water. Membrane fractional lipid composition showed that the content of cholesterol was higher in 50 group than CO group and also significantly decreased by d-limonene. The content of phospholipid was increased by carcinogen treatment but not affected by dietary oils or d-limonene. Membrane C/PL molar ratio was significantly decreased by d-limonene or carcinogen treatment in 50 groups but not in CO groups. Fatty acid composition was changed by dietary oils but not by carcinogen treatment or d-limonene. Cytosolic PKC activity was not significantly different by dietary oils, d-limonene or carcinogen treatment. However, membrane PKC activity was significantly increased by carcinogen treatment and decreased by d-limonene. Cytosolic GST activity was affected by d-limonene or carcinogen treatment in all dietary groups. These data indicate that dietary oils, d-limonene and carcinogen treatment can not change much membrane phospholipid composition. But membrane C/PL molar ratio was changed by carcinogen treatment and d -limonene although the effect was different between dietary oils. Therefore, it is suggested that different dietary oils and d-limonene can somewhat modulate the changes of membrane fluidity and activities of membrane bound enzymes like membrane associated PKC during carcinogenesis.
Protective Effect of Dietary Buchu (Allium tuberosum Rottler) on Oxidative Stress and Lipofuscin Formation in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1337~1343
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1337
Diabetes mellitus has been known to be a state of increased oxidative stress. Free radical formation and lipid peroxidation are accelerated in this metabolic disorder. Buchu (Allium tuberosum Rottler) contains lots of antioxidative nutrients such as chlorophyll, vitamin C,
-carotene, phenolic compounds and sulfur compounds. To investigate the protective effects of buchu, 10% lyophilized buchu diet was fed to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats for 14 weeks and lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, contents of reactive oxygen species, activities of antioxidative enzymes and contents of accumulated lipofuscin were measured as indicators of oxidative stress. Hepatic MDA and carbonyl contents tended to decrease in 10% buchu diet group compared with control group. Dietary buchu significantly suppressed lipid and protein oxidation in the skin of rats (p<0.05). Contents of hepatic hydroxyl radicals, which exert the highest toxicity among the reactive oxygen species, were significantly decreased in rats fed 10% buchu diet (P<0.05). Activities of antioxidative enzyme, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, tended to increase in liver and skin of rats fed 10% buchu diet, while hepatic catalase activity was significantly increased in buchu group compared with control group. Buchu supplementation significantly inhibited the accumulation of lipofuscin, an end-product of lipid peroxidation reactions induced by reactive oxygen radicals, in eye tissues compared with control diet (p<0.001). In conclusion, buchu supplementation diminished the oxidative stress, so dietary buchu could help to attenuate diabetes complications.
Screening for Antioxidative and Antimutagenic Capacities in 7 Common Vegetables Taken by Korean
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1344~1350
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1344
This study was performed to investigate the antioxidative effect as the inhibition of malondialdehyde (MDA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugation reaction, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, and antimutagenic capacities as the Ames test in 7 common vegetables taken by Korean for suggestion of prevention and dietetic treatment of chronic diseases and development of antioxidative and antimutagenic functional food. The water fractions of perilla leaves and sedum were most effective in the inhibition of MDA and BSA conjugation reaction showing 62.5% of inhibition rate among 7 vegetables. The inhibition rates of ethanol fractions of sedum and wild water dropwort on the lipid peroxidation were 67.1% and 61.5%, respectively. The ethanol fractions of crown daisy and wild water dropwort showed the most effective results among 7 vegetables in the DPPH radical scavenging capacities showing inhibition rate of 78.8% and 73.6%, respectively. The indirect and direct antimutagenic effects of ethanol extract of 7 vegetables were examined by Ames test using Salmonella typimurium TA98 and TA100. Inhibitory effects of wild water dropwort was superior to the other vegetables on the Ames test. These results suggest that common 7 vegetables taken by Korean are believed to be a possible antioxidative and antimutagenic capacities, although the results were different, more or less, according to the assay method and vegetables used.
The Antibacterial Action of Chinese Cabbage Kimchi Juice on Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteritidis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Enterobacter cloacae
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1351~1356
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1351
Antibacterial activities of Chinese cabbage kimchi juice were determined against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538p, Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802 and Enterobater cloacae ATCC 13047. It was found out that 2% content of Chinese cabbage kimchi juice reduced the colony numbers of Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Enterobater cloacae ATCC 13047, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538p and Vibrio parahemolyticus ATCC 17802 by 63%, 72%, 76% and 90%, respectively. 6% content of Chinese cabbage kimchi Juice completly inactivated Vibrio parahaemolyticus. But at the same content (6%) of Chinese cabbage kimchi juice, colony number of Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076 Enterobater cloacae ATCC 13047 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538p were reduced to 11%, 10% & 9%, respectively.10% Chinese cabbage kimchi juice had 100% inhibitory effect on all test bacteria. Therefore, Chinese cabbage kimchi has effective antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538p, Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076 Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802 and Enterobacter cloacae ATCC 13047.
Study on the Effect of Chicken Egg Containing IgY against Helicobacter pylori
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1357~1363
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1357
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken egg containing IgY against H. pylori in patients with gastritis. Sixty three H. pylori-infected volunteers (20∼43 year, Male Female=49 : 14) were randomized into four groups which were treated with one chicken egg containing IgY b.i.d. (IgY group; n=17) or omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1.0 g b.i.d. and clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d. (OAC group; n=17) or omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1.0 g b.i.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d. and one chicken egg containing IgY b.i.d. (OAC with IgY group; n=16) for 2 weeks or lyophilized IgY 1 g b.i.d (lyophilized IgY group) for 1 month.
before and after treatment, the eradication rate of H. pylori and histologic change including H. pylori density, acute and chronic inflammation activity, intestinal metaplasia and glandular atrophy by updated sydney system were evaluated. Eradication rate of OAC with IgY group (94%) was higher than IgY group (0%), lyophilized IgY group (0%) and OAC group (88%).
at 2 weeks after treatment in one patient of IgY group was decreased. But that was not changed in the other patients.
at 1 week after treatment in 15 patients of OAC with IgY group was significantly lower than pretreatment level (p<0.05), and
at 1 week and 2 week after treatment was decreased in the other patient. Acute inflammation activity at antrum was significantly decreased after treatment in IgY and lyophilized IgY group (p<0.01), H. pylori density at antrum was significantly decreased after treatment in IgY and lyophilized IgY group (p<0.05). Chronic inflammation activity at body was decreased after treatment in lyophilized IgY group. Intestinal metaplasia and glandular atrophy at antrum and body were not changed after treatment in IgY group. Mild intestinal metaplasia in one patient of lyophilized IgY group changed to normal after 1 month treatment. Gandular atrophy at antrum and body were not changed after treatment in lyophilized IgY group.
Effect of Seatangle Oligosaccharide Drink on Serum and Hepatic Lipids in Rats Fed a Hyperlipidemic Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1364~1369
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1364
In this study, we investigated the effect of seatangle drink and seatangle extract product on weight gain and serum and hepatic lipid composition in rats fed a hyperlipidemic diet. In the dietary hyperlipidemia induced rats, it was observed that serum triglyceride, phospholipid, total lipid, LDL-cholesterol level and atherosclerotic index were higher, while the HDL-cholesterol level was lower when compared to the normal group. Total hepatic lipid and cholesterol content of the dietary hyperlipidemia induced rats was conspicuously decreased by seatangle drink and seatangle extract product treatment. Especially, triglyceride content was decreased to 30% by seatangle drink treatment, and 45% by seatangle extract product treatment.
Effect of Seatangle Oligosaccharide Drink on Oxidation of Serum Lipid and Bleeding and Plasma Clotting Time in Rats Fed a Hyperlipidemic Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1370~1376
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1370
We investigated the effect of seatangle drink and seatangle extract on lipid oxidation, blood coagulation and intestinal movement in rats fed a hyperlipidemic diet. In the dietary hyperlipidemic induced group, the serum superoxide dismutase activity decreased and formation of hydroxy radical increased when compared to normal group, but these were controlled by seatangle drink treatment. The decreased of bleeding time and increased of tissue factor in the dietary hyperlipidemic rats were regulated by seatangle drink and seatangle extract, and especially the activity of tissue factor was remarkably decreased. Seatangle drink and seatangle extract were increased contraction on intestinal movement. Therefore, it can be concluded that seatangle drink or seatangle extract treatment depresses changing in absorption of gastrointestinal track in rats fed a hyperlipidemic diet.
Effects of Different Dietary Fats and Fibers on the Lipid Concentrations of Liver and Serum and Biochemical Index in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1377~1384
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1377
This study investigated the effects of different types of dietary fats and fibers on the concentrations of serum and liver lipids and biochemical index in male Sprague-Dawley rats for 6 weeks. The experimental groups were divided into three groups; 5% corn oil +5% cellulose (CO group),10% corn oil +10% psyllium husk (CO +PH group) and 10% lard +10% psyllium husk (LA+ PH group). Body weight gain and FER (food efficiency ratio%) decreased significantly in the LA+PH group and decreased slightly in the CO+PH group compared with the CO group. Food intake and tissue weights were not significantly different among the dietary groups. Concentrations of serum total cholesterol decreased significantly in the CO + PH group compared with the CO group, but no significant different in the LA + PH group. Concentrations of serum triglyceride and phospholipid decreased significantly in the CO+PH and the LA+PH groups compared with the CO group. Liver cholesterol concentration was significantly decreased in the LA+PH group compared with the CO and the CO+PH groups. Glutamic pyruvic transaminase activity was significantly increased in the LA + PH group compared with the CO and the CO + PH groups. However, lactate dehydrogenase and blood urea nitrogen was significantly decreased in the LA+ PH group compared with the CO and the CO +PH groups. The others biochemical parameters, total protein, albumin, glucose, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase were not significantly different among the dietary groups. These results showed that the lowering effect of dietary psyllium husk on serum lipid concentrations was more pronounced in the corn oil -feeding group than in the lard-feeding group as dietary fat source.
Amino Acid Composition of Milled and Brown Rices
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1385~1389
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1385
The objectives of this study were to analyze amino acid composition of brown and milled rice of five varieties (Kwngan, Daean, Daejin, Sura, Hwaseong) and to evaluate their protein quality by several chemical scores. The protein contents of brown rice ranged from 6.7 to 8.0% and those of milled rice ranged from 6.1 to 7.5%. Daejin showed the highest protein contents in brown and milled rice among five rice varieties. Glx (glutamate + glutamine), Asx (asparagine + aspartic acid), arginine, leucine and valine were dominant amino acids in brown and milled rices and the most limiting amino acid was lysine. Ratios of essential amino acids to total amino acids were 36.8∼38.3% in brown rice and 35.8∼37.7% in milled rice. Protein scores were 76.4 to 79.6 in brown rices and 66.9 to 77.9 in milled rices, respectively. Chemical scores ranged from 60.7 to 63.2 in brown rices and from 55.5 to 62.4 in milled rices, respectively. The first limiting amino acid was lysine, the second threonine, and the third isoleucine in chemical scores.
Measuring in vivo Rate of Bone Collagen Synthesis in Growing Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1390~1393
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1390
Measuring in vivo rate of bone collagen synthesis has so far been technically difficult and often subject to quite large errors. In the present study, bone collagen synthesis rate was measured using a precursor-product method, based on the exchange of
into amino acids. Mass isotopomer abundance in hydroxyproline from bone collagen was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The
labeling protocol consisted of an initial intraperitoneal injection of 99.9%
, to achieve approximately 2.5% body water enrichment followed by administration of 4%
in drinking water for 9 weeks. Body
enrichments were stable at 2.7 ∼ 3.0% over labeling Period. In growing rats, the fractional synthesis rate (
) of bone collagen was 0.066
. The unique features of stable
pools and label incorporation allowed the precursor-product approach to be used for measuring bone collagen synthesis rate..
Human and Animal Study on the Natural Food for Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1394~1400
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1394
In this study a natural composition containing oriental herbs, KSH28, for reducing obesity and metabolic syndrome was constructed and its efficacy was evaluated in animal and human. To investigate the anti-obesity effect of KSH28, animal study was conducted using high fat diet-induced obese mice. KSH28 significantly decreased body weight and adipose tissue in high fat diet-fed obese mice. The mean size of fat cells in adipose tissue was significantly reduced. Glucose and triglyceride levels were also significantly decreased. To elucidate its efficacy in human, a natural food containing KSH28 with grains, vegetables, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibers was constructed and 40 subjects (8 male and 32 female) were tested for the change of body composition, blood pressure and blood lipid profile. All subjects had 2 pack (309 each) of natural food per day for 4 weeks. Compared to the baseline value, body fat was significantly reduced, however, water, protein and mineral contents in the body were not changed, suggesting selective reduction of fat tissue. Blood pressure and serum lipid profile were significantly decreased to reduce risk for metabolic syndrome. Serum GPT, a liver function indicator, was not changed and no significant side effects were detected. Therefore, it was shown that the KSH28 is a safe and effective composition for reducing obesity and metabolic syndrome.
Survey of Consumer Awareness and Attitudes Regarding Genetically Modified Food in Korea
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1401~1407
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1401
A survey of consumers' awareness and attitudes about genetically modified food and korean labelling regulation entered into force in July, 2001 was conducted from October, 2001 to January 2002. The questionnaires were distributed to 519 consumers who are members of panel survey system of Korea Consumer Protection Board and lived in 7 largest cities of Korea. The consumers were asked about knowledge, concerns of potential hazards, intention of purchasing, and present labelling regulation. More than 85.7% of the respondents had some knowledge on genetically modified (GM) foods. More than 44.9% of consumers relied on the information from the civil activity group but only 9.6% of consumers from the government. The greatest benefit of GM food was thought to be a solution for the food shortage in the future. While, regarding a potential hazard, more than 71.6% of respondents worried about the safety of GM foods. First of all, 52.2% of korean consumer concerned about food toxicity or side effect. 53.2% of consumers responded that they would not purchase GM labelled foods and about 28.0% of respondents suspended judgement on willingness to purchase until they would get more information. Regarding complement field of present GMO labelling regulation, over 45.2% of consumers responded that labelling was needed to be more easily found. Also more than 95.1% of consumers hope to expand a list of mandatory labelling articles.
Analysis of Manganese Contents in 30 Korean Common Foods
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 32, issue 8, 2003, Pages 1408~1413
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1408
This study was conducted to analyze manganese contents of Korean common foods. Contents of manganese in 30 foods were analyzed by ICP spectrometer. And daily manganese intake through 30 common foods was calculated using analysis data of this study and daily food intakes cited from report on 1998 national health and nutrition survey. The average manganese contents of foods analyzed were 949.6
for rice, 236.1
for Korean chinese cabbage kimchi, 27.2
for citrus fruit, 2.6
for milk, 214.6
for radish root, 40.0
for apple, 60.4
for persimmon, 13.9
for pork, 9.5
for beef, 638.3
for soybean curd, 184.0
for radish kimchi, 56.0
for pear, 18.4
for beer, 11.3
for egg, 9.5
for carbonated beverage, 345.0
for bread, 50.7
for soju, 270.3
for potato, 236.1
for sweet potato, 91.2
for ramyeon, 32.5
for onion, 68.0
for nabak kimchi, 538.2
for soybean sprout, 112.5
for welsh onion, 336.7
for rice cake, 589.9
for Korean chinese cabbage, 430.4
for somyeon, 144.3
for pumpkin, 3.0
for yoghurt, and 614.4
for spinach per 100 g of each food. The daily manganese intake through 30 common foods of Koreans in 1998 was 3420.7
. Major sources of dietary manganese were rice, kimchi, and soybean curd. Especially, rice supplied 68.1% of total dietary manganese intake through 30 common foods. Further studies are required to establish database and RDA of manganese.