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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue 12 - Dec 2007
Volume 36, Issue 11 - Nov 2007
Volume 36, Issue 10 - Oct 2007
Volume 36, Issue 9 - Sep 2007
Volume 36, Issue 8 - Aug 2007
Volume 36, Issue 7 - Jul 2007
Volume 36, Issue 6 - Jun 2007
Volume 36, Issue 5 - May 2007
Volume 36, Issue 4 - Apr 2007
Volume 36, Issue 3 - Mar 2007
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Feb 2007
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Jan 2007
Selecting the target year
Antioxidant and Antigenotoxic Activities of Extracts from Anglerfish
Lee, Suck-Hee ; Shin, Jin-Hwa ; Koo, Myoung-O ; Jung, Eun-Sil ; Jeon, Geong-Im ; Park, Eun-Ju ; Park, Hae-Ryong ; Lee, Seung-Cheol ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 36, issue 10, 2007, Pages 1229~1234
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2007.36.10.1229
Antioxidant activities of extracts from anglerfish (Lophiiu Zitulon) were evaluated. Each part of fresh (skin, flesh, stomach, and liver) or dried (skin and flesh) anglerfish was extracted by four different solvents (methanol, ethanol, acetone, and distilled water). Antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined by radical scavenging activity (RSA) and reducing power (RP). Relatively higher RSA and RP were found in methanol and water extract of fresh anglerfish liver. Antigenotoxic effect of the extracts, which was measured by Comet assay, was shown in most of the extracts except methanol, acetone and distilled water extracts of fresh stomach sample. These results indicated that antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of extracts from angler fish were variable depending on parts, solvent, and/or physicochemical state. The appropriate extraction process could provide some valuable bioactive materials from anglerfish.
Antioxidative and Antimicrobial Activities of Medicinal Plant Extracts for Screening Phytobiotic Material
Jung, Hee-Kyoung ; Kim, Young-Jin ; Park, Byung-Kwon ; Park, Seung-Chun ; Jeong, Yoo-Seok ; Hong, Joo-Heon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 36, issue 10, 2007, Pages 1235~1240
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2007.36.10.1235
For this study, plant material for development of phytobiotics (feed additives made with plant extract) was screened. Among hot-water extracts of 9 medicinal plants, Fallopia japonin showed the highest antioxidative activity; the electron donating ability (EDA) and nitrite scavenging ability were 86.9% and 92.7%, respectively. Also, F. japonica had the antimicrobial activity for Pseudomonas aeruginora, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphyzococcus aureus. Specially, antimicrobial activity of F. japonica against K. pneumoniae, and S. aureus was vet strong.
of F. japonica against K. pneumoniae, and S. aureus was 6.24 mg/mL and 1.8 mg/mL respectively. These results suggested that F. japonica was a candidate for a phytobiotic material.
Physiological Function and Development of Beverage from Grifola frondosa
Lee, Jae-Sung ; Lee, Jong-Suk ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 36, issue 10, 2007, Pages 1241~1247
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2007.36.10.1241
Contents of polyphenol compounds and the physiological activity of extracts from Grifola frondosa by water and methanol extraction were investigated to determine their functional effects. A functional beverage was developed using the extracts. The yield and phenolic compounds content of the water extracts were highest (49.2% and 327 mg/100 g, respectively), while for the methanol extraction method they were 28.7% and 130 mg/100 g, respectively. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity was 76.3% for the water extract and 65.4% for methanol extract, whereas the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity was low (
concentration) Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effect of water extract (75.1%) was higher compared to the methanol extracts (41.2%). Tyrosinase inhibition activity was 42.5% for the water extracts and 31.8% for the methanol extracts at
concentration. The most acceptable formulation for G. frondosa beverage developed was 0.5% G. frondosa water extract, 8.0% oligosaccharide, 2.0% green tea extract, 2.0% jujube extract, 1.0% Solomon's seal extract, 0.01% vitamin C, and 2.0% apple extract. The final product had 9.8 Brix and color values of L, 35.2+1.1; a, 3.2+0.2; b, 13.6+0.3.
Isoflavone-Rich Bean Sprouts Improves Hyperlipidemia
Kim, Youn-Hee ; Lee, Ji-Hye ; Koo, Bo-Kyung ; Lee, Hye-Sung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 36, issue 10, 2007, Pages 1248~1256
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2007.36.10.1248
The present study examined the physiological effects of isoflavone-rich bean sprout on the lipid metabolism of hyperlipidemic rats. Experimental hyperlipidemia was induced by the AIN standard diet with 0.5% cholesterol,9.3% lard and 0.2% sodium cholate in SD rats. Experimental groups consisted of normal control, hyperlipidemic control, 1% or 5% bean sprout powder-supplemented groups, and 0.2% soybean isoflauone extract-supplemented group. Four weeks feeding of isoflavone-rich bean sprout powder or isoflavone extract resulted in a significant lowering of plasma cholesterol and lowering tendency of triglyceride levels. The levels of lipid peroxidation products in the kidney and heart tissues were also lowered by the supplementation of bean sprout powder or isoflavone extract. The activities of hepatic glutathione peroxidase and catalase were increased by the supplementation of bean sprout powder or soybean isoflavone extract. Plasma concentration of vitamin A was significantly raised in the group fed 0.5% bean sprout powder. The results of the study showed that the beneficial effects of isoflavone-rich bean sprout on lipid metabolism of hyperlipidemic animals were comparable with those of soybean isoflavone extract. The positive effect of bean sprout in improving lipid metabolism might be due to the combined action of isoflavone and dietary fiber.
Hypoglycemic Effects of Basidiomycetes Mycelia and Cereals Fermented with Basidiomycetes
Choi, Hee-Don ; Seog, Ho-Moon ; Park, Yong-Kon ; Park, Young-Do ; Kim, Jung-Ae ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 36, issue 10, 2007, Pages 1257~1262
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2007.36.10.1257
To develop basidiomycetes-fermented cereals with hypoglycemic property, inhibitory effects of basidiomycetes mycelia and basidiomycetes-fermented cereals on postprandial glucose were investigated. In vitro effect of basidiomycetes mycelia on retarding the membrane transport of glucose was compared with pectin. For basidiomycetes mycelia,
of total glucose remained in inner solution of dialysis membrane after dialysis for 120 min, indicating that most of basidiomycetes mycelia might effectively retard membrane transport of glucose. Glucose tolerance of basidiomycetes mycelia and basidiomycetes-fermented cereals was tested on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats administrated with maltose. Postprandial glucose levels of basidiomycetes mycelia,
, were considerably lower than that of control,
, at 30 minutes after maltose administration. Namely, basidiomycetes mycelia showed better postprandial glucose lowering effect than pectin. Brown rice and barley fermented with Paecilomyces japonica showed much lower postprandial glucose level than raw brown rice and barley, especially hypoglycemic effect of barley fermented with Paecilomyces japonica was significant.
Anti-atherogenic Effect of Green Tea Product through Hypolipidemic and Anti-oxidative Action in Ovariectomized Rats
Cho, Mi-Kyung ; Noh, Kyung-Hee ; Kim, Jin-Ju ; Song, Young-Sun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 36, issue 10, 2007, Pages 1263~1270
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2007.36.10.1263
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of green tea product (GTP) on the risk factors of atherosclerosis in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Sprague-Dewley female rats (10 weeks) weighing approximately
were divided into 4 groups: sham operated control group treated with high cholesterol diet (Sham-C), OVX control group treated with high cholesterol diet (OVX-C), OVX-G 5% group treated with high cholesterol containing 5% GTP and OVX-G 20% group treated with high cholesterol diet containing 20% GTP. Serum TG concentrations was lower in OVX-G 20% group than in the OVX-C group, whereas ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total cholesterol (%) was significantly (p<0.05) increased in the 20% GTP supplementation group than in the Sham-C and OVX-C groups. Tumor necrosis
levels were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in the OVX-G 20% group. Hepatic TG levels were significantly (p<0.05) lowered in OVX-G 20% group than in the other groups. Glutathione levels and antioxidant enzyme activities including glutathione-reductase and Mn-superoxide dismutase in liver were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the OVX-G 20% group in the OVX-C group. Fecal total cholesterol concentrations were increased in the GTP supplementation groups than in the OVX-C group. From the above results, it is concluded that GTP may reduce the risk of atherosclerosis via hypolipidemic action. Therefore, it may be used to possibly improve the hyperlipemia in menopausal women.
Ethanol Induced Leucocytic and Hepatic DNA Strand Breaks Are Prevented by Styela clava and Styela plicata Supplementation in Male SD Rats
Kim, Jung-Mi ; Park, Hae-Ryoung ; Lee, Seung-Cheol ; Park, Eun-Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 36, issue 10, 2007, Pages 1271~1278
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2007.36.10.1271
In this study, the ability of Styela clava or Styela plicata to reduce ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and hepatic and leucocytic DNA damages was evaluated. Twenty four male SD rats were given 25% ethanol containing water (ad lib, p.o.) and divided into 3 groups; ethanol treated control group (EtOH), ethano1+3% S. clava (EtOH+SC), and ethano1+3% S. plicata (EtOH+SP). After 6 weeks, the supplementation of S. clava reduced the plasma ALT, ALP and LDH activities significantly (p<0.05), while S. plicata induced significant decrease in the plasma LDH activity only. The comet assay was employed to quantify the alcohol-induced DNA damage in rat hepatocytes and leucocytes. A significant protective effect on hepatic and leucocytic DNA damages was observed in S. clava or S. plicata supplemented groups compared to the EtOH control group. The hepatic DNA damage was correlated positively with plasma ALP and LDH activities. These results demonstrated that S. clava or S. plicata supplementation protected alcohol-induced hepatic and leucocytic DNA damage.
Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplement on the Composition of Fatty Acids, Expressions of delta-5 Desaturase (D5D) and Fatty Acid Desaturase2 (FADS2) Genes in Mice
Hwang, Yun-Hee ; Kang, Keum-Jee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 36, issue 10, 2007, Pages 1279~1286
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2007.36.10.1279
We investigated the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the fatty acid composition in the plasma and liver, and the expressions of delta-5 desaturase (D5D) and fatty acid desaturase2 (FADS2) genes in ICR male mice using two different sources of fats in the diets. The experimental groups were divided into four groups: beef tallow (BT) and fish oil (FO), BT with CLA supplementation (BTC), and FO with CLA supplementation (FOC) groups. Ten mice in each group were fed with the experimental diets for 4 weeks. All mice were fed experimental diets containing 12% of total dietary fat (w/w) either with or without 0.5% CLA (w/w). Fatty acid compositions were analyzed in the plasma and liver using gas chromatography. The levels of D5D and FADS2 expression were analyzed by RT-PCR in the liver The results showed that CLA participates competitively with C18:2 in the elongation and desaturation processes, leading to significant increase in the levels of C20:4 and C22:6 in BTC group (p<0.05). The expression levels of D5D and FADS2 were higher in BT and BTC group than those of FO and FOC group. In particular, the expression of D5D gene was greatly upregulated in BTC group. Furthermore, the conversion ratios from C18:2 to C20:4 in the liver were higher in BTC group than those in other groups. Thus our results suggest that increased expressions of DSD and FADS2 genes may be responsible for the enhanced CLA effects on the desaturation in the BT containing saturated fatty acids rather than the FO rich in n-3 PUFA.
A Comparative Study on Knowledge of Hypertension and Blood Parameters Between a Well-Controlled Hypertension Group and an Uncontrolled Hypertension Group Commuting to a Public Health Center
Cho, Kyung-Ok ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 36, issue 10, 2007, Pages 1287~1292
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2007.36.10.1287
The purpose of this study was to compare knowledge on hypertension and blood parameters through blood pressure control of hypertensive patients commuting to a public health center. Hypertensive subjects were classified according to their blood pressures into a well-controlled group (SBP<140 mmHg and DBP<90 mmHg, n=44) and an uncontrolled group (
, n=41). All subjects were interviewed for clinical characteristics, effort for health maintenance and knowledge on hypertension and nutrition. Biochemical measurement of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were obtained from subjects. The knowledge about hypertension and effort for health maintenance were not significantly different between the groups. However, the nutrition knowledge score of the well-controlled group was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the uncontrolled group. On the test of nutrition knowledge, 97.7% of the well-controlled group answered correctly to the item, 'Medication is an easy way to control blood pressure'. This result was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the uncontrolled group of whom 82.9% answered correctly. Participants in both groups had only a little understanding about the importance of a balanced diet. Blood parameters were in the normal range and there was not a significant difference between the groups. However total cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose levels of the uncontrolled group were higher than those of the well-controlled group. Therefore, education programs about the continuous control of hypertension through careful monitoring, medication, and exercise are required. The uncontrolled group was especially in need of strengthening education. Also more effective nutrition education programs about low salt, high fiber, low cholesterol, and balanced diets are required for hypertensive patients commuting to public health center.
Nutritional Status of the Elderly Living in a Private Silver Town of Busan Metropolitan City, Korea
Lee, Kyung-Hee ; Park, Jung-Rewng ; Seo, Jung-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 36, issue 10, 2007, Pages 1293~1299
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2007.36.10.1293
This study was performed to assess the nutritional status of the elderly residing in a silver town. A survey was conducted in April, 2005 for fifty two healthy persons (men 18, women 34) aged over 65 years living in a private silver town of Busan Metropolitan City, Korea. General data were collected using questionnaires at homes of the subjects and food consumption data for 3 days were obtained by investigating the individual leftovers from the meals served at the foodservice facilities by well-trained graduate students of the Department of Food & Nutrition. Nutrient intake was calculated from food consumption data using Can Pro (version 3.0, Korea). Average daily intake of energy was 1077.6 kcal in men and 974.2 kcal in women. Average protein intake of the men and women amounted to 85.5 g and 67.7 g, respectively. The consumption of cereals contributed 45.3% of energy intake for all subjects. Only 1.1% of calcium intake was from milk and milk products. Almost 100% of the elderly did not reach 75% of estimated energy requirement (EER) in energy intake and 75% of estimated average requirement (EAR) in folic acid intake. Percentages of the subjects who consumed protein above 125% of EAR were 100% and 91% in men and women, respectively. All subjects consumed above EAR in dietary intake of protein and iron. These data suggest that nutrient intake of the elderly living in the silver town would be inadequate, and thus the efficient management of foodservice is necessary to improve the nutritional status of the elderly living in the silver town.
Changes in the Physicochemical Characteristics of Green Wheat during Maturation
Kim, Min-Chul ; Lee, Ka-Soon ; Lee, Byung-Jin ; Kwon, Byung-Gu ; Ju, Jung-Il ; Gu, Ja-Hyeong ; Oh, Man-Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 36, issue 10, 2007, Pages 1307~1313
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2007.36.10.1307
In order to evaluate the utilization of immature green wheat kernels as food processing material, these experiments were carried out to analyze general composition, free sugars, free amino acids, mineral content and color of 3 wheat varieties according to their heading dates. Contents such as moisture, crude protein, crude lipid and ash were gradually decreased according to the days after heading of 3 wheat varieties, while crude fiber and starch were gradually increased. Maltose and maltotriose contents in immature green wheat kernels were high but its rapidity decreased by closing to ripeness. Contents of free amino acids showed a tendency to decrease, among which alanine content was the highest around 25 days after heading, and then glutamic acid, GABA, glycine in order. Contents of total free amino acid were decreased by closing to ripeness. Among 3 wheat varieties, its contents of Guru wheat was the highest. As wheat matured,
contents were decreased from 1.5% to 0.28% on 43 days after heading. Mineral contents of 3 wheat varieties were generally increased by closing to ripeness after coming into ears, and K, Mg were especially prominent. As wheat matured, lightness was decreased, while redness and yellowness were increased. Considering chemical composition and color, the immature green wheat were produced through blanching the spikes harvested before the yellow ripe stage. The harvested green wheat cereals is able to eat raw wheat or cook it as food processing material.
Comparative Study of Food Components and Sensory Properties of Common Porphyra yezoensis and Functional Porphyra yezoensis
Seo, Hee-Young ; Jung, Bok-Mi ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 36, issue 10, 2007, Pages 1314~1319
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2007.36.10.1314
This study is to compare food components and the sensory properties of common and functional Porphyra yezoensis, Pyroligneous liquor, Salicornia herbacea L. and Salicornia herbacea L. treated with oak charcoal. The samples used in this study were provided by a local manufacturer. We analyzed their proximate composition, mineral content, heavy metal content and amino acids. We conducted the sensory evaluation before and after grilling Porphyra yezoenis. Common components are more plentiful in functional Porphyra yezoenis than in common except for carbohydrate and crude fiber. In the case of mineral content, generally functional Porphyra yezoensis contains much more mineral than common except for magnesium and zinc. Especially Salicornia herbacea L. treated with oak charcoal contains abundant iron. Also, Salicornia herbacea L. contains a lot of calcium potassium, copper and sodium. There is a little more heavy metal except for chromium, cadmium and lead in Salicomia herbacea L. treated with oak charcoal than in common that contains a lot of chromium, cadmium and lead, although a wide difference was not discovered between them. In the case of composed amino acid, there are much glutamic acid, glycine, isoleucine and phenylalanine in both Porphyra yezoensis. Especially alanine and phenylalanine are trebled in functional Porphyra yezoensis. Also, there are far more serine and lysine in Salicornia herbacea L. and Salicornia herbacea L. treated with oak charcoal than in common Porphyra yezoensis and Pyroligneous liquor. In the case of the sensory properties, there isn't a big difference before grilling Porphyra yezoensis; however, after grilling, most functional Porphyra yezoenis had good sensory properties results, especially Salicornia herbacea L. were better than Pyroligneous liquor.
Effects of Carbohydrate Materials on Retarding Retrogradation of a Korean Rice Cake (Karedduk)
Kim, Sang-Sook ; Chung, Hae-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 36, issue 10, 2007, Pages 1320~1325
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2007.36.10.1320
Retarding retrogradation of a Korean rice cake (Karedduk) added with carbohydrate materials after
of storage at
were investigated by Avrami equation using textural characteristics. Carbohydrate materials such as powdered sugar, trehalose, fructooligosaccharide (95%), isomalto, healtholigo, and galactooligo-saccharide (50%) were added in 0, 1, 5 or 10% levels on dry rice flour. In the amylogram, the breakdown (P-H) and consistency (C-H) for Karedduk added with carbohydrate materials were lower than those of the control. Decrease in the Avrami exponent (n) and increase in the time constant (1/k) of Karedduuk added with carbohydrate materials during storage determined by Avrami equation were important comparison factors to the control in terms of retrogradation rate analysis. The Aurami exponent (n) for control, fructooligosaccharide (95%) 10% and healtholigo 1% addition were 2.415, 1.977 and 3.297, respectively. The time constant (1/k) for fructooligosaccharide (95%) 5% and healtholigo 1% addition were lower than thecontrol. Lastly, Karedduk added with carbohydrate materials, except for fructooligosaccharide (95%) 5% and healtholigo 1% addition, was effective in retarding retrogradation.
Characteristics of Hot-Water Extracts from Salmon Frame as Basic Ingredients for Gomtang-like Products
Han, Byung-Wook ; Kim, Hye-Suk ; Jee, Seung-Joon ; Lee, Jae-Hyoung ; Kim, Hyung-Jun ; Park, Shin-Ho ; Ji, Seong-Gil ; Heu, Min-Soo ; Kim, Jin-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 36, issue 10, 2007, Pages 1326~1333
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2007.36.10.1326
For preparing the basic ingredients of Gomtang-like products from the extracts of salmon frame, the extraction conditions of salmon frame were examined, and the characteristics of the extracts were compared with commercial Gomtang. Based on the crude protein, Ex-N and sensory attributes, the extractions were optimized by extracting pretreated-salmon frame in 12 times (v/w) of water for 12 hrs, before filtering with cheese cloth to yield 3 times the volume of the raw material. The concentrations of heavy metals in extracts from salmon frame were below the safety limits suggested by KFDA. The mai or amino acids were glutamic acid and aspartic acid as the free amino acids, and glycine, proline, and glutamic acid as the total amino acids. The calcium and phosphorus contents were 18.0 mg/100 mL and 33.1 mg/100 mL, respectively, and they accounted for 20% and 18% of the recommended daily allowance for mineral intake. The angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity was improved by incubation with Flavourzyme for 4 hrs and its
was 2 mg/mL. The results above suggested that the enzymatic hydrolysates from extracts of salmon frame could be used as a basic ingredient for preparing Gomtang-like products.
Monitoring on Functional Properties of Solid Cheonggukjang Extracts by Using Response Surface Methodology
Lee, Bo-Mi ; Do, Jeong-Ryong ; Kim, Hyun-Ku ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 36, issue 10, 2007, Pages 1334~1340
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2007.36.10.1334
Extraction characteristics of solid Cheonggukjang and the functional properties of corresponding extracts were monitored by the response surface methodology (RSM). The maximum extraction yield of 12.08% was obtained under the specific extraction conditions, such as microwave power of 132.40 W, ratio of solvent to sample content of 7.57 g/mL and extraction time of 14.11 min. The maximum electron donating ability (EDA) was found as 33.53% at the conditions of 113.26 W microwave power, 16.39 g/mL of ratio of solvent to sample content and 12.67 min extraction time. The maximum superoxide dismutase (SOD) -like activity was 89.62% under the extraction conditions of 61.82 W, 17.06 g/mL and 9.03 min. Based on superimposition of three dimensional RSM with respect to extraction yield, electron donating ability and SOD-like activity obtained under the various extraction conditions, the optimum ranges of extraction conditions were found to be microwave power of
, ratio of solvent to sample content of
and extraction time of
Pilot Production of Bacterial Cellulose by Gluconacetobacter hansenii TL-2C
Jeong, Ji-Suk ; Kim, Jong-Sun ; Choi, Kyoung-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 36, issue 10, 2007, Pages 1341~1350
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2007.36.10.1341
This study was designed to ultimately develop a highly efficient mass production technology of bacterial cellulose isolated from the citrus gel fermented by G. hansenii TL-2C. Pilot equipment made with FRP vessel length (665 mm)
width (375 mm)
height (210 mm) was developed for mass production of the citrus gel. To develop the optimal conditions for mass production of citrus gel, comprised of citrus juice (6,000 mL) diluted 100 times, containing 5% seed bacteria, 10% sucrose, and 1% ethanol, citrus juice was fermented at
for 14 days, and gel productivity in pilot system was examined. BC was isolated and purified from the citrus gel, and their chemical composition and physicochemical properties were investigated.