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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 39, Issue 12 - Dec 2010
Volume 39, Issue 11 - Nov 2010
Volume 39, Issue 10 - Oct 2010
Volume 39, Issue 9 - Sep 2010
Volume 39, Issue 8 - Aug 2010
Volume 39, Issue 7 - Jul 2010
Volume 39, Issue 6 - Jun 2010
Volume 39, Issue 5 - May 2010
Volume 39, Issue 4 - Apr 2010
Volume 39, Issue 3 - Mar 2010
Volume 39, Issue 2 - Feb 2010
Volume 39, Issue 1 - Jan 2010
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Antioxidant and Nitrite Scavening Activity and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Effect of Water Extract from Schizandra chinensis Baillon
Cho, Hea-Eun ; Choi, Young-Ju ; Cho, Eun-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 39, issue 4, 2010, Pages 481~486
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.4.481
The nutraceutical role of omija (Schizandra chinensis Baillon) water extract (OWE) was determined through the analysis of antioxidant activity, nitrite scavening activity, and xanthine oxdiase and
-glucosidase inhibitory effects. Antioxidant activity of OWE was measured by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and superoxide dismutase-like activity (SODA). DPPH radical scavenging activity and SODA increased in a dose-dependent manner, and was about 49.0% at 2.5 mg/mL and 69.2% at 5 mg/mL, respectively. The xanthine oxidase and
-glucosidase inhibitory activities of OWE were about 88.8% and 86.2% at 1 mg/mL, respectively. Nitrite scavenging activity of OWE was about 54.9%, 42.4%, and 34.2% on pH 1.2, 3.0, and 6.0 at 1 mg/mL, respectively. These results suggest that OWE has a strong antioxidant activity, and xanthine oxidase and
-glucosidase inhibitory effects.
Antioxidative and Antigenotoxic Effect of Omija (Schizandra chinensis B.) Extracted with Various Solvents
Kim, Min-Jung ; Park, Eun-Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 39, issue 4, 2010, Pages 487~493
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.4.487
The purpose of this study was to evaluate antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of Omija (Schizandra chinensis B.) extracted with various solvents (acetone, ethanol, and methanol). The total polyphenol content (TPC) of methanol extract (ME), ethanol extract (EE) and acetone extract (AE) from Omija were 1183.3, 1009.4, and 747.3 mg/100 g (garlic acid equivalents: GAE), respectively. Antioxidant effects of the Omija extracts was measured by DPPH radical-scavenging activity (RSA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity. The
for DPPH RSA was in the order of EE
for SOD-like activities was the highest in ME
. The antigenotoxic effect of Omija on DNA damage induced by
in human leukocytes was evaluated by comet assay.
induced DNA damage was effectively protected by all of the Omija extracts. Aectone extract of Omija showed the highest antigenotoxic effect (
value of AE is
) followed by EE, and ME (21.4 and
), respectively. As a result, we propose that Omija (Schizandra chinensis B.) can serve as a new natural source enriched with potent antioxidant and antigenotoxic agents.
Antioxidant Activity of Enzymatic Extracts from Sargassum coreanum
Ko, Seok-Chun ; Kang, Sung-Myung ; Ahn, Gin-Nae ; Yang, Hyun-Pil ; Kim, Kil-Nam ; Jeon, You-Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 39, issue 4, 2010, Pages 494~499
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.4.494
In this study, Sargassum coreanum was enzymatically hydrolyzed to prepare water-soluble extracts by using five carbohydrates (Viscozyme, Celluclast, AMG, Termamyl and Ultraflo) and five proteases (Protamex, Kojizyme, Neutrase, Flavozyme and Alcalase) and their potential antioxidant activity were evaluated. The Celluclast and Neutrase extracts of Sargassum coreanum exhibited better DPPH radical scavenging activities (92.42% and 92.78%, respectively) and hydrogen peroxide (
) scavenging activities (58.28% and 57.97%, respectively) compared to those of other enzymatic extracts. These results suggest that Sargassum coreanum would be a good raw materials for antioxidant and enzymatic hydrolysis would be a good strategy to prepare antioxidant extracts from seaweeds.
Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Methanol Extracts Prepared from Different Parts of Jangseong Daebong Persimmon (Diospyros kaki cv. Hachiya)
Jo, Young-Hong ; Park, Ji-Won ; Lee, Jeung-Min ; Ahn, Gwang-Hwan ; Park, Hae-Ryong ; Lee, Seung-Cheol ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 39, issue 4, 2010, Pages 500~505
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.4.500
The antioxidant activity of methanol extracts from five different parts (flesh, peel, core, seed, calyx) of Jangseong Daebong persimmon (Diospyros kaki cv. Hachiya) were evaluated by determining total phenol content (TPC), DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA), ABTS RSA, and reducing power (RP). The flesh extract gave the highest yield (92.93%) while the lowest yield was obtained from the seed (5.17%). The seed extract showed the highest total phenolic content (
mg GAE/g extract), DPPH RSA (
), ABTS RSA (
) and RP (
). In addition, the calyx extract also showed high antioxidant activity. On the other hand, the core extract gave the lowest TPC and all antioxidant assays. In particular, HT-29 cells showed extensive cell death when treated with
of calyx extracts. Thus, these results suggest that methanolic extracts of Jangseong Daebong persimmon seed and calyx may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant for food and nutraceutical application.
Effects of Medicinal Plant Extract on the Change of Cerebral Hemodynamic in Rats
Park, Sung-Jin ; Hahm, Tae-Shik ; Kim, Cheun-An ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 39, issue 4, 2010, Pages 506~510
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.4.506
As an attempt to develop new functional health beverage by using medicinal herb, we investigated the effect of medicinal plant extract (MPE) on mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of rats. The changes of MABP and rCBF were determined by LDF methods. LDF allows for real time, noninvasive, continuous recordings of local CBF. MABP in MPE treated rats showed significant change of MPE 1.0 and 10.0 mg/kg. MPE i.v. administration showed significant increase of rCBF in a dose-dependent manner. Propranolol pretreated MABP showed significant change in the increase of MPE. rCBF of propranolol pretreated rats showed significant change from the i.v. injection concentration of 1.0 and 10.0 mg/kg. The ischemia/reperfusion induced oxidative stress may have contributed to cerebral damage in rats, and the present study provides clear evidence for the beneficial effect of MPE on ischemia induced brain injury. Also, the action mechanism in elevation effect of MPE on rCBF might be concerned with the role of
-adrenoceptor. The exact component and mechanism remains for the future study.
Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Related Risk Factors of Elderly Residents in Andong Rural Area 1. Based on the Anthropometric Measurements and Health Behaviors
Lee, Hye-Sang ; Kwon, Chong-Suk ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 39, issue 4, 2010, Pages 511~517
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.4.511
This study was performed to estimate the prevalence and the risk factors of metabolic syndrome in Andong rural area. A total of 1,431 people (533 males, 898 females) aged over 45 years participated in this study in 2003. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 38.2% (male 23.5%, female 46.9%, p<0.001). As age increased, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increased in female, but not in male. The major underlying components of metabolic syndrome were high blood pressure (67.1%), low HDL-cholesterol (60.6%), and abdominal obesity (39.9%). The distinctive component for male was high blood pressure (70.1%), and for female, low HDL-cholesterol (73.6%), high blood pressure (65.3%), and abdominal obesity (54.5%). Subjects having more than one component were 94.7%. The risk factors for metabolic syndrome were analyzed using the multiple logistic regression method according to gender and expressed as age-adjusted odds ratio (OR). The results of comparing female to male (OR=2.953), and of comparing obese by % body fat (M: OR=5.786, F: OR=13.498) or BMI (M: OR=3.782, F: OR=13.301) to normal body weight showed significantly higher risk for metabolic syndrome (p<0.001). Health related habits, such as smoking, alcohol drinking, and exercise, didn't show any effect on metabolic syndrome. This study revealed that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in female subjects compared to both male and female, and high blood pressure was the main cause of metabolic syndrome. We suggest that the strategy for prevention or reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this area should be concentrated on reducing high blood pressure through lowering obesity and abdominal obesity.
Health-Related Behaviors and Nutrient Intake of Police Officers Based on the Level of Job Stress
Joo, Hye-Eun ; Sohn, Cheong-Min ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 39, issue 4, 2010, Pages 518~525
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.4.518
The purpose of the study was to examine health-related behaviors and nutrient intake in relation to job stress level of police officers. Total of 166 police officers working in Jeonbuk area participated in the study. The study was conducted from February to March, 2009. Subjects were given self-administered questionnaire on their general health status, dietary and health-related habits. Nutrient intake was assessed by semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Subjects were divided into four groups (very low, low, high, very high) by their job stress level scores. Main concerns of job stress were from 'job demand', 'organizational system' and 'lack of reward'. More than 95% of the subjects were confident of their health status. Health habits, such as drinking, smoking and exercising, were better than that of average Korean men. There were significant differences in dietary habits in relation to job stress level. Lower job stress group showed lower rate of skipping breakfast (p<0.01), more affordable meal time (p<0.05) and better snacking habits (p<0.001). Sweet food preference was higher in lower job stress group (p<0.05). The average calorie intake was
(88.5% of EER) and there was no significant difference in nutrient intake among job stress levels. However, mean intake of calcium and vitamin
was less than 75% of %DRI in higher job stress group. Therefore, further support in nutritional counseling programs to improve dietary behaviors and health habits and to reduce job concerned stress of the police officers will be necessary.
Survey on the Sodium Contents of Nursery School Meals in Gyeonggi-Do
Jung, Hong-Rae ; Lee, Myung-Jin ; Kim, Ki-Cheol ; Kim, Jung-Boem ; Kim, Dae-Hwan ; Kang, Suk-Ho ; Park, Jong-Suk ; Kwon, Kwang-Il ; Kim, Mee-Hye ; Park, Yong-Bae ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 39, issue 4, 2010, Pages 526~534
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.4.526
The prevalence rate for chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension etc. caused by the increment of national income and the change of food life according to the globalization in Korea have been increased. Especially excess sodium intake may contribute to the development of hypertension, increasing cardiovascular disease risk. The objective of this study was to investigate sodium intake of nursery school meals in Gyeonggi-Do, and to construct database for lesser sodium intake policy. Survey consisted of 601 sample intakes of sodium in summer and in winter. A food weighed record method was used for measuring food intakes. Average intakes of ten children per nursery school were measured. The sodium contents of meals were analyzed by ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer) after acid digestion by microwave. The sodium contents on food groups showed that sources (693 mg/100 g), grilled foods (689 mg/100 g) and kimchies (643 mg/100 g) had respectively higher sodium contents and the average sodium intake per meal was
mg. The sodium contents of soups & hot soups and kimchies had 37.5% and 15.8% of total sodium intakes per meal, respectively. Sodium intakes per meal in summer and winter showed 572.3 mg and 592.3 mg, respectively. Regional ranking of sodium intakes showed the ascending order of apartment (514.3 mg/meal), rural region (540.5 mg/meal), multiplex house (635.9 mg/meal) and industrial complex (696.4 mg/ meal). A habit of excessive sodium intakes in childhood will threaten their health when they grow up to be adults; thus lesser intake of sodium per meal is needed for children in nursery school.
Differences Between Analyzed and Estimated Sodium Contents of Food Composition Table or Food Exchange List
Kwon, Yong-Ju ; Rhee, Moo-Yong ; Kim, Jee-Young ; Kwon, Kwang-Il ; Kim, So-Jin ; Shin, Hee-Jun ; Park, Seong-Soo ; Lee, Eun-Ju ; Park, Hye-Kyung ; Park, Yong-Soon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 39, issue 4, 2010, Pages 535~541
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.4.535
Excessive intake of sodium is known as a risk factor for hypertension, and Korean adults consume sodium 3 times higher than Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference on sodium content between analyzed and estimated by food composition table and food exchange list. Seven days of low salt diet and seven days of high salt diet were prepared, and sodium contents were estimated by food composition table and food exchange list and measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Sodium contents of diet per day estimated by food exchange list significantly differed from analyzed content, but those estimated by food composition table were not. However, when absolute differences from analyzed content were compared by dishes in the low and high salt diet periods, there were significant differences among estimated sodium content by food composition table and food exchange list and analyzed sodium content. The discrepancy between those results was due to that absolute value was used to compare sodium contents of dishes but not to compare sodium contents of days. In addition, main dish, side dish, and soup were significantly different among estimated sodium content by food composition table and food exchange list and analyzed sodium content. Actual sodium contents of Jap-Chae Deop-Bap and Roasted chicken with oyster sauce differed to a great extent from estimated contents by food exchange list and food composition table. In conclusion, actual sodium contents of Korean dishes were significantly different from those estimated by food composition table and food exchange list, and thus these differences in salt content should be considered on planning of low-salt menu for hypertensive patients.
Physico-Chemical Properties of Starches from Atlantic and Bora Valley Potato Cultivar with Different Colors
Lee, Jae-Soon ; Choi, Mi-Kyeong ; Moon, Eun-Young ; Kang, Myung-Hwa ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 39, issue 4, 2010, Pages 542~547
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.4.542
Physico-chemical properties of starches from potato cultivars with different colors were investigated. White Atlantic potato had 10% higher starch yield than violet Bora Valley potato. It turned out that the shape and structure of Atlantic and Bora Valley potato starch were the same by mechanical analysis using X-ray and SEM. The ratio of
particle in starches from Atlantic and Bora Valley potato was
respectively. The particle size of Atlantic potato starch was less than that of Bora Valley; however, there was no significant difference (p<0.05). As for moisture coupling, there was no difference (p<0.05) between the two potatoes. Swelling power showed a high increase from
. The swelling power of Atlantic starch was higher by about 0.3% than that of Bora Valley at
. Since Atlantic has smaller starch particles than Bora Valley, more starch particles are contained in the same size, and hence a difference in swelling power. As a result of measuring the gelatinization of potato starches from Atlantic and Bora Valley, a higher gelatinization start, climax, and complete temperatures occurred at Bora Valley than Atlantic. As for gelatinization enthalpy, Bora Valley starch with a higher gelatinization temperature consumed more energy for gelatinization.
Physicochemical Characteristics of Korean Traditional Wines Prepared by Addition of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Using Different Nuruks
Woo, Koan-Sik ; Ko, Jee-Yeon ; Song, Seuk-Bo ; Lee, Jae-Saeng ; Oh, Byeong-Geun ; Kang, Jong-Rae ; Nam, Min-Hee ; Ryu, In-Soo ; Jeong, Heon-Sang ; Seo, Myung-Chul ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 39, issue 4, 2010, Pages 548~553
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.4.548
This study was carried out to compare the physicochemical characteristics of Korean traditional wines fermented by addition of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using different nuruks (SH and BS nuruk). The alcohol contents of the fermented wines ranged from 12.36 to 13.21%. The brix degrees of sorghum wines fermented using SH and BS nuruks were
on addition ratio, respectively. Wine no addedsorghum using SH and BS nuruks showed pH 3.74 and 3.40, total acidity of 1.40 and 1.51%, and 0.441 and 0.149 of turbidity. With increase of sorghum addition, brix degree, pH, turbidity and L-value decreased whereas total acidity and a-value increased. Total color difference (
) parameters of wines fermented in 30, 70 and 100% sorghum addition using SH and BS nuruk were 4.33, 6.63 and 26.13, and 4.08, 5.29 and 10.59. Glucose content decreased with increasing amounts of sorghum. Organic acids such as lactic acid and acetic acid were predominantly detected in the fermented wine. Finally, based on sensory evaluations, the wine fermented by BS nuruk showed the best overall quality at 30% sorghum addition.
Manufacturing Characteristics and Physicochemical Component Analysis of Bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miquel) Jelly
Jin, Tie-Yan ; Quan, Wu-Rong ; Wang, Myeong-Hyoen ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 39, issue 4, 2010, Pages 554~559
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.4.554
The manufacturing characteristics and physicochemical components analysis of Bokbunja jelly made with the addition of different amounts of materials (Bokbunja extract, sugar, gelatin, and pectin) were investigated. There were no significant changes in the pH, total acidity and sugar content of all Bokbunja jelly prepared with different amount of materials. L-value of color in the Bokbunja jelly increased in proportion to additive amount of gelatin. a-value and b-value of color in the Bokbunja jelly increased in proportion to additive amount of pectin. The value of hardness, adhesiveness, and chewiness in the Bokbunja jelly increased in proportion to the additive amount of gelatin. The value of springiness, cohesiveness, and gumminess were increased in proportion to additive amount of petin. The highest of overall acceptability values in the sensory test for color, sweetness, springiness, chewiness, and overall favorite were 5.80, 5.32, 5.27, 5.83, and 6.02, respectively, with the addition of 10% gelatin and 10% pectin.
Changes in Characteristics of Low-salted Kochujang with Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Mustard (Brassica juncea), and Chitosan during Fermentation
Lim, Seong-Il ; Song, Sun-Mi ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 39, issue 4, 2010, Pages 560~566
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.4.560
Changes in characteristics of low-salted Kochujang added with mixed additives (licorice 0.8%, mustard 0.7%, chitosan 2%) were investigated during fermentation for 40 days. There was no significant difference in viable and yeast cell counts and color among all treatments, whereas lactic acid bacteria counts of 6.8% and 5.9% salted Kochujang added with the mixed additives (p<0.05) were significantly lower than that of control. The phenomenon of abnormal fermentation was observed on surface of low-salted Kochujang but not the low-salted Kochujang added with the mixed additives. The level of amino nitrogen in low-salted Kochujang was close to that of 8.5% salted Kochujang at 20 days of fermentation; however, the amino nitrogen content in 5.9% salted Kochujang added with the additives was 1.6 times higher than in 8.5% salted Kochujang at 40 days. In sensory evaluation, 5.9% salted Kochujang with the additives had the highest score in overall palatability. These results indicate that salt contents of Kochujang could be lowered up to 5.9% by addition of the mixture of licorice, mustard and chitosan, resulting in improvement of palatability and shortening of fermentation time.
Quality Characteristics of the Germinated Brown Rice Vinegar Added with Red Pepper
Park, Chan-Soon ; Kim, Ki-Sik ; Noh, Jae-Goan ; Rho, Chang-Woo ; Yoon, Hyang-Sik ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 39, issue 4, 2010, Pages 567~572
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.4.567
This study is to develop vinegar with germinated brown rice and red pepper (Capsicum annuum) for effective use of the rice and red pepper. The vinegar was prepared using the wine fermented from the germinated brown rice supplemented with 10~50% red pepper. Acetic acid fermentation was carried out with 6% (w/v) initial ethanol concentration, at
. pH values decreased from 4.27~4.41 to 3.20~3.59 during acetic acid fermentation. The initial total acidity (0.29~0.41%) changed to 3.68~4.51% after fermentation. Hunter's a (redness) and b (yellowness) values also increased as the addition of red pepper increased to 30%. Major volatile compounds consisted of ethyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, acetaldehyde, ethanol and acetic acid. Capsaicin content (0.17~0.26 mg%) at the initial changed to 0.16~0.29 mg% at the final of the fermentation. Antioxidant activity decreased from 48.1~79.1% to 36.6~64.9% by the fermentation. The germinated brown rice vinegar added with red pepper had higher acceptance scores than that of the control without red pepper.
Starch Properties of Daehak Waxy Corn with Different Harvest Times
Lee, Sang-Hoon ; Hwang, In-Guk ; Kim, Hyun-Young ; Lee, Ha-Kyu ; Lee, Seong-Hee ; Woo, Seon-Hee ; Lee, Jun-Soo ; Jeong, Heon-Sang ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 39, issue 4, 2010, Pages 573~579
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.4.573
This study investigated starch properties of 'Daehak waxy corn (DWC)' with different harvest times. The DWCs were harvested at 4 days before suitable time (BST), suitable time (ST) and 4 days after suitable time (AST). As harvest time was delayed, starch yield and amylopectin content of DWC starch increased from 43.21 to 52.73%, and from 90.79 to 92.83% based on dry weight, respectively. As harvest time was postponed, enzymatic digestibility and water solubility of DWC starch decreased from 81.43 to 80.58%, and from 10.23 to 9.23%. However, water binding capacity and swelling power of DWC starch increased from 227.94 to 244.88%, and from 24.75 to 29.74%, respectively. Retrogradation viscosity of starch was the lowest in DWC harvested at AST. There was a high correlation coefficient among starch properties of DWC, such as starch yield, enzymatic digestibility, water binding capacity, swelling power, water solubility and retrogradation viscosity (p<0.01). As harvest time was deferred, enzymatic digestibility, water solubility and retrogradation viscosity decreased; however, amylopectin content increased, and water binding capacity and swelling power significantly increased with increasing amylopectin content.
Effects of Sclerophyllous Plant Leaves Addition on Fermentative and Sensory Characteristics of Kimchi
Park, Dong-Ill ; Choi, A-Reum ; Woo, Hye-Jin ; Rhee, Seong-Kap ; Chae, Hee-Jeong ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 39, issue 4, 2010, Pages 580~586
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.4.580
The effects of persimmon, mulberry and bamboo leaves addition on the fermentative and sensory characteristics of kimchi were investigated. Total polyphenol content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and lactic acid bacteria growth inhibition of EtOH extract from persimmon leaves were significantly higher than those from mulberry and bamboo leaves. From the sensory evaluation of kimchi added with three chopped plant leaves, kimchi added with chopped persimmon leaves gave the highest point in color, flavor, texture and overall preference significantly (p<0.05). When the chopped persimmon leaves were added at a ratio of 0.3% based on cabbage weight, the changes of pH and total acidity (TA) during the storage for 14 days were significantly lowered, compared to general kimchi (p<0.05). Total polyphenol content and DPPH radical scavenging activity of kimchi supplemented with chopped persimmon leaves at 0.3% also significantly increased after storage for 14 days (p<0.05), and this kimchi provided higher total polyphenol content and DPPH radical scavenging activity than general kimchi. These results suggest that the addition of perisimmon leaves have significant influences on the fermentation and sensory characteristics of kimchi.
Bitterness and Solubility of Soy Protein, Casein, Gluten, and Gelatin Hydrolysates Treated with Various Enzymes
Kim, Mi-Ryung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 39, issue 4, 2010, Pages 587~594
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.4.587
To develop commercially available food protein hydrolysates, the effects of different types of enzymes and substrates on bitterness and solubility of partially hydrolyzed food proteins were investigated. Four types of proteins (casein, isolated soy protein (ISP), wheat gluten, and gelatin) and five types of proteolytic enzymes (a microbial alkaline protease (alcalase), a microbial neutral protease (neutrase), papain, bromelain, trypsin) were used. To profile the pattern of hydrolysis, the degree of hydrolysis (DH) were monitored during 180 min of reaction time by pH-stat method. Casein showed the highest susceptibility to hydrolysis for all five proteases compared to those of ISP, gluten, and gelatin. In addition, the bitter intensity and solubility (nitrogen soluble index, NSI) of each protein hydrolysate were compared at DH 10%. Bitterness and solubility of protein hydrolysates were highly affected by DH and the types of enzymes and substrates. At DH=10%, casein hydrolysate by trypsin, ISP and gluten hydrolysates by either bromelain or neutrase, and gelatin hydrolysates by the five proteases tested in this study were highly soluble and less bitter.
Simultaneous Detection of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica subsp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus by Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
Jeong, Yoo-Seok ; Jung, Hee-Kyoung ; Jeon, Won-Bae ; Seo, Hwa-Jung ; Hong, Joo-Heon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 39, issue 4, 2010, Pages 595~601
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.4.595
This study was conducted to detect and identify Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Salmonella enterica subsp. using simultaneous multiplex polymerase chain reaction (multiplex PCR) assay. 23S rRNA partial gene (S. aureus), tox R gene (V. parahaemolyticus), and inv A gene (S. enterica subsp.) as diagnostic marker gene were suggested, and their amplicon sizes were 482 bp, 368 bp, and 284 bp, respectively. Non specific amplicons by STA-5F/STA-5R primer, ToxR-F/ToxR-R primer, and 139/141 primer were not observed in genomic DNA of pathogen bacteria as Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Streptococcus pyogenes, Candida albicans, and Shigella sonnei. The extracted crude DNA of targeted bacteria was detected as PCR template successfully. The detection limits were
CFU/mL and 10 pg of purified genomic DNA of S. aureus, V. parahaemolyticus, and S. enterica subsp. by using simultaneous multiplex PCR.
Evaluation for Importance and Performance of Sanitary Characteristics by Bakers in Busan
Kim, So-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 39, issue 4, 2010, Pages 602~612
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.4.602
This study was conducted to investigate the state of hygiene education aimed for by bakers, and the evaluations of the importance and the performance concerning sanitary characteristics by the bakers. The questionnaires were administered to 186 bakers in Busan and the data evaluated by 5 scales method of Likert were statistically analyzed. 20.4% of bakers have not received hygiene education. Only 32.8% of bakers have experienced hygiene education regularly. The more the bakers were educated, the more they practiced the contents of hygiene education. The major reason of education unfulfilment was due to insufficient equipments and facilities. The scores of the hygienic performance of educated bakers were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of uneducated bakers in food sanitation, especially for sanitary characteristics on inspection, pre-preparation and distribution. The mean scores of the importance and the performance evaluated by bakers were 4.05/5.00 and 3.76/5.00, respectively. The bakers assessed the highest scores on the importance and the performance of personal hygiene. The gap score was -0.30 between the importance and the performance for sanitary characteristics. The baker recognized that sanitary management was not performed as much as they recognized its importance. The importance and the performance grid of bakers revealed that the items of checking the certification for the origin of new food ingredient, inspecting deliveries as quickly as possible, separation between preparing and breading time, thawing frozen food under running tap water/in refrigerator, separating disposal gloves and utensils by the purpose, putting products in cleaned and sterilized utensils, letting consumes know the expiration date of products, preventing a rubber hose from being left on the kitchen floor, checking insect nets frequently and so on showed lower scores compared to the mean scores of the importance and the performance. The levels of the hygienic performance by bakers were positively correlated (p<0.01) with the recognitions of the importance on sanitary characteristics. These results might provide basic data for hygienic training and play a role on the improvement of the sanitary management in bakery.
Parents' Satisfaction on Foodservice Quality of Kindergartens in Chungbuk Province
Lee, Joo-Young ; Lee, Young-Eun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 39, issue 4, 2010, Pages 613~623
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.4.613
The purpose of this study was to examine parents' perceptions towards the importance and performance levels of foodservices quality at kindergartens. The questionnaire was developed to measure the thirty-one quality attributes of foodservice operations. A questionnaire survey was conducted to 500 parents and the return rates were 62.4%. The survey period was from July 15 to August 8, 2008. The parents had a high level of perception toward the need for foodservice, earning 4.46 points out of 5 point. Their perceptions of foodservice quality were examined by six dimensions of importance and performance level. While the parents gave 4 points or greater of 5 points to most quality attributes of importance level, they gave 4 points or less out of 5 points to most quality attributes of performance level. As for the importance and performance level of the quality dimensions of foodservice, parents regarded sanitation as the most important dimension. IPA showed that 'ventilation', 'sanitation of tableware' and 'sanitation of dining tables and chairs' were included as 'focus' areas. The overall satisfaction level for foodservice was 3.74 out of 5 points A higher level of satisfaction was shown at self-operated foodservice system of kindergartens. According to multiple regression analysis, 46.3% of the variance in the respondents' overall satisfaction scores was explained by factors such as food, menu and price, facilities, sanitation, atmosphere and foodservice effects.
Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activities of Ethanol Extracts from Milling By-products of Rice Cultivars
Oh, Sea-Kwan ; Kim, Dae-Jung ; Chun, A-Reum ; Yoon, Mi-Ra ; Kim, Kee-Jong ; Lee, Jun-Soo ; Hong, Ha-Cheol ; Kim, Yeon-Kyu ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 39, issue 4, 2010, Pages 624~630
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.4.624
This study was conducted to determine antioxidant compounds and antioxidative activities of by-products including rice bran and half-crashed rice by rice milling. DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activities and reducing power have been used to investigate the relative antioxidative activities of 70% EtOH extracts from by-products. The contents of total polyphenol, total flavonoid and
-oryzanol in EtOH extracts were measured by spectrophotometric methods, and vitamin E was carried out by HPLC. Ethanol extract from rice bran showed markedly antioxidative activity than that from half-crushed rice. Among EtOH extracts from milling by-products, rice bran of 'Hongjiju' tended to have the most effective antioxidative activity compared to the others. These results suggested that by-products of rice milling have the potent antioxidative activity and these activity are partly due to the antioxidative compounds present in by-products including rice bran and half-crushed rice.
Antioxidant Effect of Extracts Obtained from Three Chrysanthemum Species
Woo, Jeong-Hyang ; Shin, So-Lim ; Jeong, Heon-Sang ; Lee, Cheol-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 39, issue 4, 2010, Pages 631~636
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.4.631
To develop a natural antioxidant from three Chrysanthemum species, flower and shoot extracts of Chrysanthemum frutescens, Chrysanthemum morifolium and Chrysanthemum zawadskii ssp. naktongense were obtained and their phenolic compound contents, scavenging effects on DPPH and ABTS radicals, ferrous ion chelating effects and inhibition activity on lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid were studied. Shoots of C. morifolium showed the highest levels in all above mentioned analyses. Especially, shoot extract of C. morifolium had high scavenging activities on ABTS radicals, similar to ascorbic acid or BHT. Ferrous ion chelating effect was the lowest in a C. morifolium shoot extract, but the highest in a C. morifolium flower extract. Inhibition activity on lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid was the highest with C. frutescens and C. morifolium shoots, but activity was lower than BHT. From present study, a shoot extract of C. morifolium is demonstrated as a valuable source for the development of a natural antioxidant. However, due to its low levels of ferrous ion chelating effects and inhibition activity on lipid peroxidation, a combination of other antioxidants with C. morifolium extract is recommended for the development of a new antioxidant.
Effect of Hypochlorous Acid to Reduce Microbial Populations in Dipping Procedure of Fresh Produce as Saengshik Raw Materials
Koh, So-Mi ; Kim, Jeong-Mok ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 39, issue 4, 2010, Pages 637~642
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.4.637
Pre-treatment steps of fresh produce as Saengshik raw materials are followed by initial clean-up, dipping, primary washing, and cutting. Hypochlorous acid solution was applied in the dipping step to reduce natural microflora. Also, procedures were changed by cutting, dipping and then primary washing, and the efficacy of hypochlorus acid was evaluated. Potatoes, carrots, kales, and angelicas were submerged in water or 100 ppm of hypochlorous acid for 5 min. After initial clean-up, the aerobic plate counts of potatoes, carrots, kales and angelicas were 4.7, 5.3, 5.6, and 5.7 log CFU/g, respectively. When samples were submerged into water, it only reduced the population of natural microflora by 0.2 to 1.1 log CFU/g, whereas when treated with hypochlorous acid, it reduced the population by 0.5 to 2.8 log CFU/g. Reductions of natural microflora in green leafy vegetables were more highly achieved than bulbs such as potatoes and carrots. However, the numbers of natural microflora were increased after cutting step. To control the cross contamination at the cutting process, the process was changed as follows: initial clean-up, cutting, dipping in hypochlorous acid, and then primary washing. It showed effective reduction of the population by 2.3 to 3.2 log CFU/g. Hypochlorous acid solution could be useful as a sanitizer for surface washing of fresh vegetables.