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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 40, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 40, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 40, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 40, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 40, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 40, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 40, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 40, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 40, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 40, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 40, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 40, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
Antioxidant Activities of Solvent Extracts from Pomegranate Endocarp
Jin, So-Yeon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1635~1641
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1635
This study was designed to investigate antioxidant activities of pomegranate endocarp extracts. Pomegranate endocarp extract contains the highest antioxidant function compared to pomegranate extracts from other parts. Pomegranate endocarp extract was fractionated with hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol extract, and water, followed by evaluation for antioxidant activity. During this experiment, various antioxidant tests such as nitrite scavenging activity, reducing power, superoxide anion scavenging activity,
scavenging activity, SOD like-activity, and DPPH radical scavenging activity were conducted on the
, EtOAc, BuOH,
fractions of pomegranate endocarp extract. Results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction contained the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity among the samples. For SOD like-activity, the dichloromethane fraction had the highest antioxidant activity. For superoxide anion scavenging activity, the ethyl acetate fraction had the highest antioxidant activity. In the
scavenging activity test, the ethyl acetate fraction
/mL, whereas that of the butanol fraction was 40.95
/mL. In testing reduction power at 0.1 mg/mL, the O.D. of the ethyl acetate fraction was highest at 1.404 and showed higher activity than ascorbic acid at 1.332. The results of the nitrite scavenging activity test were very similar to those of the SOD like-activity test. These results suggest that pomegranate endocarp extract may have value as a natural antioxidant.
Antioxidant Activities of Extracts from Ligustrum ovalifolium H. Leaves
Kim, Yon-Suk ; Lee, Seung-Jae ; Hwang, Jin-Woo ; Kim, Ee-Hwa ; Park, Pyo-Jam ; Jeong, Jae-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1642~1647
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1642
The free radical scavenging activities of extracts from Ligustrum ovalifolium H. leaves (LOH) as well as various antioxidant activities such as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition were evaluated by electron spin resonance (ESR). The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of the water and ethanolic extracts from LOH were
mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract, respectively, and
mg catechin equivalent/g extract. In addition,
values for the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldrazyl (DPPH), alkyl, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of the water and ethanolic extracts were
mg/mL, respectively. The ABTS radical scavenging activities of the water and ethanolic extracts from LOH and BHT were
mM Trolox equivalent/mg extract, respectively. The FRAP values of the extracts from LOH were higher than those of BHT, which was used as a positive control. The LOH extracts showed strong inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation as measured by ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay compared to that of
-tocopherol. Using MTT assay on human liver cells (Chang), extracts from LOH showed no toxicity at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. These results indicate that the LOH extracts possessed antioxidant activity.
Biological Activities of Ethanol Extracts from Hericium erinaceus Mycelium on Angelica keiskei and Angelica keiskei Pomace
Kwon, Sang-Chul ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1648~1653
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1648
The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, nitrite scavenging, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and tyrosinase inhibition activities of ethanol extracts from Hericium erinaceus (HE) cultured in Angelica keiskei (AK) and Angelica keiskei pomace (AKP). Antioxidant activities of the HE, AK, AKP, HE+AK, and HE+AKP extracts were higher than that of control, but lower than those of BHT and Vit C. Tyrosinase inhibition activity was the highest in AKP+HE extract (90%), whereas those of HE, AK, AKP, and AK+HE extracts were about 57, 61, 82, and 78%, respectively. Nitrite scavenging abilities of various samples were above 80% at pH 1.2, and there was no significant difference between the HE, AK, AK+HE, and AKP+HE extracts at pH 3.0, excepting the AKP extract. ACE inhibition activity was the highest in AKP extract (60%), whereas those of HE, AK, AK+HE and AKP+HE extracts were about 42%, 50%, 35% and 40%, respectively. These results suggest that H. erinaceus cultured in AK and AKP may be used as a raw material for functional foods, and food additives, as well as in the cosmetic industry as a natural source of bioactive compound after further investigation in vivo.
Effect of Angelica keiskei Extract on Apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells
Jeong, Yu-Jin ; Kang, Keum-Jee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1654~1661
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1654
We investigated the effect of Angelica keiskei ethanol (AKE) extract on cell death in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured in the presence 125, 150 and 175
/mL concentrations of AKE for 24 hours. MTT assays demonstrated that mitochondrial dehydrogenase activities decreased in a dose-dependent manner in MDA-MB-231 cells (p<0.05). In contrast, the proportion of dual staining with Hoechst 33342/ethidium bromide(EtBr) for cell death increased in a dose-dependent manner in MDA-MB-231 cells (p<0.05). In particular, the levels of cell death caused by apoptotic program showed marked increases in the 150 and 175
/mL AKE groups, as revealed by flow cytometry. An apoptotic suppressor gene, Bcl-2, significantly decreased at the transcript level (p<0.05). The expression levels of proapoptotic genes, both Bax and caspase 3 significantly increased (p<0.05). Furthermore, the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax mRNA which is considered to be an important indicator of apoptosis, significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). These results taken together indicate that, the AKE extract used in this study induces cell death in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.
Inhibitory Effects of Anthocyanins Isolated from Black Soybean (Glycine max L.) Seed Coat on Degranulation and Cytokine Generation in RBL-2H3 Cells
Chung, Mi-Ja ; Ha, Tae-Joung ; Choi, Ha-Na ; Lee, Ji-Sun ; Park, Yong-Il ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1662~1667
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1662
Anthocyanins belong to a group of flavonoid compounds and are well known for their various health beneficial effects, which include antioxidative activities. Among them, the major anthocyanins isolated from seed coat of black soybean (Glycine max L.) were previously characterized as glycosides containing glucopyranose. Asthma is an allergic disease that is strongly associated with various immune cells, including basophils and mast cells. Eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells play important roles in allergic asthma through the release of inflammatory mediators such as asthma-specific T-helper 2 (Th2) cytokines and subsequent amplification of asthma symptoms via degranulation. Rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells are the most common in vitro models for evaluating allergic reactions. In this study, we examined the effects of anthocyanin from seed coat of black soybean on antigen-stimulated degranulation and Th2 cytokine production in RBL-2H3 cells. Cell degranulation was evaluated by measuring the release of
-Hexosaminidase release and Th2 cytokine production in RBL-2H3 cells was much higher upon stimulation with IgE-antigen complex than those in untreated control cells. Anthocyanins significantly suppressed IgE-antigen complex-induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and inhibited IgE-antigen complex-mediated interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor
) production in RBL-2H3 cells. These findings suggest that anthocyanins from seed coat of black soybean effectively inhibit allergic reactions and may have beneficial effects against allergic asthma.
Physical Characteristics and Changes in Functional Components of Gochujang with Different Amounts of Sweet Persimmon Powder
Hwang, Su-Jung ; Kim, Jeong-Yeon ; Eun, Jong-Bang ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1668~1674
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1668
We investigated the physical characteristics and changes in the functional components of red pepper paste, or gochujang, during fermentation at
for 90 days with different amounts of sweet persimmon powder. The viscosity of the paste decreased a little with increasing fermentation time. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) in all the treatments during fermentation. The L value, a value, and b value showed a tendency to gradually decrease with increasing fermentation time. And the samples with sweet persimmon powder showed a lower values compared to the control during fermentation. The phenolic compound content of the paste with sweet persimmon powder ranged from 13.72 mg% to 16.13 mg% at an early stage of fermentation, showing a significantly higher value (p<0.05) when increasing the amount of the powder. The content was in the range of 13.72~16.09 mg% on the 90th day in the final stage of fermentation, showing no significant difference (p<0.05) compared to those content at an initial stage of fermentation. The carotenoid content showed significantly higher values (p<0.05) when increasing the amount of sweet persimmon powder. In conclusion, sweet persimmon powder in the red pepper paste would gives a more functional effect which could be from bioactive components, such as phenolic compounds and carotenoids. But, it did not positively affect the color of the red pepper paste.
Improving the Functional Quality of Kochujang Added with Red Ginseng and Fermented Wild Herbal Extract
Youn, Kum-Ju ; Kim, Ji-Young ; Yeo, Hye-Reem ; Jun, Mi-Ra ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1675~1679
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1675
To improve the quality and palatability of Kochujang, the physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacity, and sensory evaluation of Kochujang were assessed when red ginseng and wild herbal extract were added during fermentation. This study investigated the antioxidant capacities of general Kochujang (GK) and Kochujang prepared with red ginseng and fermented wild herbal extract (RGK) by employing various in vitro antioxidant assays such as DPPH and FRAP assays. Inhibition of lioxygenase (LOX) activity was also investigated. RGK exhibited significant antioxidant effects compared to control in DPPH, FRAP, and LOX assays. The LOX inhibitory activity of RGK (
) at 100
/mL was markedly higher than those of GK (
) and NDGA (positive control,
). All concentrations of RGK showed significantly higher FRAP activities than that of GK. The addition of red ginseng and fermented wild herbal extract exhibited better sensory characteristics in terms of color, flavor, taste and overall preference. We concluded that RGK improves not only functional properties but also sensory properties as well.
Effects of Pretreatment and Drying Methods on the Quality and Physiological Activities of Garlic Powders
Chang, Young-Eun ; Kim, Jin-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1680~1687
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1680
This study was performed to determine the effects of pretreatment and drying methods on the quality and physiological activities of garlic powders. Fresh garlic was boiled, baked, steamed or left untreated before hot-air drying or freeze-drying. Electron-donating abilities were higher in the untreated group for each drying method. Relative EDA of baked group was 32.8%, whereas those of the boiling and steaming groups were 12.4% and 20.1%, respectively. Nitrite-scavenging effects were slightly affected by processing methods. Polyphenol content of the processing group was higher in the hot-air drying than freeze-drying group, and it was significantly highest in the untreated freeze-dried group. The value of polyphenol in the baked group was significantly higher than those of the boiling and steaming groups. Tyrosine contents of garlic powder were higher in the hot-air drying than freeze-drying group, and it was significantly highest in the untreated group of each drying method. Antimicrobial activities of the garlic powders were higher in freeze-drying group compared to the hot-air drying group. Therefore, antimicrobial activities of garlic powder were affected by heating treatments.
Mass Production Process for Flour Noodles Containing Perilla Leaves and Their Antioxidant Effects
Hyun, Hyo-Eun ; Lee, Eun-Hwa ; Noh, Jeong-Sook ; Song, Yeong-Ok ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1688~1693
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1688
This study was evaluated mass production processes for flour noodles containing perilla leaf (FNPL) and to examine the antioxidant properties of FNPL. The processes for perilla leaf preparation before dough making were the main focus. The sensory evaluation was used as a tool to determine the optimal conditions for each step in the process. The appearance, taste, flavor, texture and overall acceptability were evaluated using a 9 point scale sensory evaluation. Eight minutes blanching of perilla leaf in boiling water (1:30, w/v) was found to be a suitable time to remove the unpleasant leaf flavor remaining in the final noodle product when fresh perilla leaf was used. The appearance, taste, texture and overall acceptability of FNPL were significantly different from FNPLs prepared with other blanching times. The appearance of FNPL containing 40% (w/v) perilla leaf homogenates was the best. In the dough making process, additional water was not required when 6 portions of 40% perilla leaf homogenate were added to 10 portions of flour, suggesting that the water adding step in the dough preparation process can be skipped. The antioxidant activity of FNPL was expressed as the radical scavenging activity. The DPPH (
; 0.56 mg/mL), super oxide radical (
; 9.53 mg/mL) and hydroxy radical scavenging activities (
/mL) of FNPL were increased 19.6 (p<0.001), 1.4 (p<0.01) and 17.8 fold, respectively, compared to those for flour noodle (p<0.001). In conclusion, perilla leaf added to noodles at a final concentration of 19% (w/w) can increase the sensory and antioxidant properties of flour noodles.
Increased Quality Characteristics and Physiological Effects of Chunggukjang Fermented with Bacillus subtilis-SKm
Zheng, Yanfei ; Jeong, Ji-Kang ; Choi, Hye-Sun ; Park, Kun-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1694~1699
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1694
The quality characteristics and physiological effects of chunggukjang fermented naturally (NF-c), with Bacillus subtilis-SKm (BS-c), with Bacillus subtilis HJ18-4 (BH-c), and with Bacillus subtilis KCCM 42923 (BK-c) were investigated. The characteristics of fermentation were determined by protease,
-GTP activities, and additionally the amounts of amino-type and ammonia-type nitrogens. BS-c showed the highest protease,
-GTP activities, and also amino-type nitrogen content among the four types of chunggukjang. The ammonia-type nitrogen content in BS-c was similar to that of BK-c and NF-c. BH-c showed the lowest enzyme activities and amino-type and ammonia-type nitrogen content. BS-c, BH-c, BK-c, and NF-c showed a similar overall acceptability during sensory evaluation. BS-c also showed the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging and anti-proliferative activities in HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells. These results suggested that B. subtilis-SKm was suitable to be used as a starter to enhance the quality and effects of chunggukjang.
Improving Effects of Multigrain Feed on Endurance
Oh, Hong-Geun ; Park, Jung-Woo ; Kang, Young-Rye ; Kim, Jung-Hoon ; Seo, Min-Young ; Kim, Min-Gul ; Doo, Jae-Kyun ; Shin, Dong-Hwa ; Jung, Eun-Soo ; Chae, Soo-Wan ; Kim, Ok-Jin ; Lee, Hak-Yong ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1700~1707
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1700
This study evaluated the effect of multigrain supplementation on exercise-related changes in running time and glycogen storage capacity of male SD rats engaged in treadmill exercise. Thirty-six 6-week-old rats were divided into six groups: normal (Nor) fed normal feed, control (Con) fed with 20% normal feed and 80% milled rice, test group one (GI) fed with multigrain feed I, test group two (GII) fed with multigrain feed II, test group three (GIII) fed with multigrain feed III, and test group four (GIV) fed with multigrain feed IV. Endurance tests by treadmill machine were administered after 24 days of multigrain feed supplementation and adaptive training. Running time was extended and glycogen storage capacity increased in the multigrain-treated group compared to the non-treated group. Also, the fatigue indicators of inorganic phosphorous, CPK, and lactate concentration were all reduced in the multigrain feed group compared to the control group after 25 min and/or exhausted exercise. But there was no difference in GOP, GTP, lactate, or LDH concentrations between the groups. Our results demonstrated that endurance improved with multigrain feed in rats. Specifically, running time, glycogen storage capacity, inorganic phosphorous, CPK, and lactate serum concentration increased. Importantly, the improvements in endurance brought about in the GII group fed with waxy barley was the greatest among the experimental groups.
Anti-obesity Effect of Hypsizigus marmoreus in High Fat-fed Mice
Ryu, Hae-Jeong ; Um, Min-Young ; Ahn, Ji-Yun ; Jung, Chang-Hwa ; Huh, Dam ; Kim, Tae-Wan ; Ha, Tae-Youl ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1708~1714
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1708
This study investigated the possible anti-obesity effects of Hypsizigus marmoreus on high fat-fed mice. Thirty male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: a normal diet group (N), a high-fat diet group (HF), and a high-fat diet with 5% Hypsizigus marmoreus group (HF-H). After 8 weeks, the body weights in the HF group significantly increased, while those of the HF-H group decreased. Also, liver and adipose tissue weights in the HF-H group significantly decreased. Total serum cholesterol, leptin, and insulin levels were significantly higher in the HF group than those of the N group, but lower than those of the HF-H group. Accumulation of hepatic lipids was apparent in the HF group, as indicated by HE staining and hepatic lipid analysis, while these effects were improved by supplements with Hypsizigus marmoreus in the HF-H group. Also, a reduction in adipocyte size of the epididymal adipose tissue was observed in the HF-H group.
, SREBP-1c, and SCD-1 protein expressions were down-regulated in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HF-F group compared to the HF group. Taken together, these results suggest that Hypsizigus marmoreus may an effective anti-obesity treatment.
Effects of Dietary Fiber Isolated from Synurus deltoides on Constipation in Loperamide-Induced Rats
Park, Min-Hee ; Kwon, Chang-Ju ; Lim, Sang-Hyun ; Kim, Kyung-Hee ; Heo, Nam-Ki ; Jang, Hyung-Kwan ; Park, In-Jae ; Lee, Kwang-Jae ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1715~1719
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1715
The effects of dietary fiber isolated from Synurus deltoides on constipation induced by loperamide (4 mg/kg/day) were investigated. Food intake and body weight both decreased in the 5% S. deltoides dietary fiber and loperamide-treated group (SD5) and 10% S. deltoides dietary fiber and loperamide-treated group (SD10), whereas fecal water contents increased by 2.4 and 3.4-fold in the SD5 and SD10 groups, respectively. The concentrations of total-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride in the sera of the SD5 and SD10 groups were lower than those in the control (C) group. However, the biochemical parameters, GOT (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase), GPT (glutamic pyruvic transaminase), and glucose levels, were not affected by the level of S. deltoides. In addition, the concentrations of total-cholesterol and triglyceride in the livers of the SD5 and SD10 groups were also significantly lower than those in the control group. These results suggest that dietary fiber isolated from S. deltoides might ameliorate constipation symptoms, and lower lipid concentrations in the blood and liver.
Bioavailability of Aspartic Acid Chelated Iron on Iron-deficient Rats
Park, Myoung-Gyu ; Ha, Tae-Yul ; Shin, Kwang-Soon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1720~1725
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1720
Aspartic acid chelated iron (Asp-Fe) was synthesized by a new method using calcium carbonate, aspartic acid, and ferrous sulfate. This study was carried out to investigate the bioavailability of Asp-Fe in iron-deficient rats. We divided the rats into four experimental groups. The first was the normal diet control group, or NC. The second was the no treated control group of iron-deficient (ID) rats, or ID+C. The third was the heme-iron (heme-Fe) treated group of ID rats, ID+heme-Fe. And the fourth was the Asp-Fe treated group of ID rats, or ID+Asp-Fe. There were no differences among any of the experimental groups in diet consumption, change of body weight, or the weight of the livers, kidneys, or spleens. After 7 days of feeding, the iron content in the sera of the ID+Asp-Fe group (175.2
/dL) and the ID+heme-Fe group (140.8
/dL) were significantly higher than that of the ID-C group (96.1
/dL). The total iron binding capacity (TIBC) of the ID+Asp-Fe group (735.4
/dL) was significantly normalized compared to the ID+C group (841.9
/dL) or ID+heme-Fe group (824.6
/dL). The hematocrit level of the ID+Asp-Fe group was increased to normal levels, but there was no statistical difference among ID groups. The absorption ratio of heme-Fe was 21.3% and that of Asp-Fe was 50.2%, which indicates a 2.3 times higher ratio in comparison with heme iron. With the above results we found that Asp-Fe seems to be an efficient form of iron to supply iron deficient rats in order to cure them of anemia. Thus, these findings suggest that aspartic acid chelated iron has the potential to serve as a functional food related to iron metabolism.
Effects of Ishige okamurae Extract Supplement on Blood Glucose and Antioxidant Systems in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
Kang, Yeon-Ju ; Kim, Hak-Ju ; Han, Ji-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1726~1733
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1726
We performed a randomized placebo-controlled trial to determine whether or not Ishige okamurae extract supplements modulate blood glucose and antioxidant systems in type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 46 patients were randomized to either an Ishige okamurae extract group or a placebo group. The patients consumed either 1,600 mg of Ishige okamurae extract or cornstarch supplement per day for 10 weeks. The lifestyle factors and dietary intake of patients were not altered during the 10 week trial period. After 10 weeks, the fasting blood glucose level was slightly decreased in the Ishige okamurae extract group, but a significant decrease was not observed. Also, glycosylated hemoglobin was significantly (p<0.01) decreased. Especially, low-glycosylated hemoglobin (
) was significantly decreased compared to high-glycosylated hemoglobin (
) in that group. The superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels were increased in the Ishige okamurae extract group compared to the placebo group. The increase of these enzymes was associated with the decrease of MDA concentration in the Ishige okamurae extract group, but a significant decrease was not observed. The Ishige okamurae extract supplement showed no adverse effects on liver and kidney functions. Findings from this study suggest that an Ishige okamurae extract supplement can help blood glucose status in type 2 diabetic patients without adverse effects.
Preparation of Conjugated Linolenic Acid from Urea Fractionated Perilla Seed Oil Hydrolysate
Lee, Kyung-Su ; Shin, Jung-Ah ; Lee, Ki-Teak ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1734~1742
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1734
Conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are positional geometric isomers with three and two double bonds, respectively. In this study, perilla seed oil containing 60%
-linolenic acid (C18:3) and 30% linoleic acid (C18:2) was used as a reaction substrate. After the perilla seed oil was hydrolyzed, conjugated fatty acids were synthesized using different reaction parameters, such as reaction time and concentration of sodium hydroxide. As a result, CLnA, CLA, and other newly synthesized conjugated isomers were present at levels of 14.5%, 14%, and 42.2%, respectively, when the reaction was performed with 20% NaOH, at
, and for 1 hr. The results of GC-MS and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) showed that CLnA isomer of cis-9, trans-11, and trans-13 octadecatrienoate, CLA isomer of cis-9, trans-11, and trans-10, cis-12 octadecadienoate, and other conjugated isomers were produced. Using urea,
-linolenic acid could be concentrated from perilla seed oil hydrolysate. After concentration by urea, the concentration of
-linolenic acid reached about 70%. After alkaline-isomerization was performed on the urea fraction containing 70%
-linolenic acid, the content of CLnA increased up to 16.6%.
Quality Characteristics of Chinese Cabbage with Different Salting Conditions Using Electrolyzed Water
Jeong, Jin-Woong ; Park, Seong-Soon ; Lim, Jeong-Ho ; Park, Kee-Jai ; Kim, Bum-Keun ; Sung, Jung-Min ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1743~1749
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1743
The microbial reduction and quality characteristics of salted Chinese cabbage using electrolyzed water were investigated. The electrolyzed water was used to control the microbes in the processes of primary washing, salting, and secondary washing. The total bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, coliform, pH, salinity, vitamin C, and total sugar were analyzed. After primary washing by electrolyzed water, the total bacteria populations were reduced to 2.78 log cfu/g, and the coliform populations were similarly reduced. After secondary washing by electrolyzed water, the total bacteria population of Chinese cabbage was reduced to a maximum of 1.5 log cfu/g. The salinity of Chinese cabbage and salting solutions increased rapidly over three hours, and then increased slowly. The sterilization effect of electrolyzed salting water could not last beyond 3 hours, because the OHCl concentration of electrolyzed water was reduced by over 90% at the third hours of the salting process. Vitamin C was reduced and total sugar did not change regardless of treatments during the salting process. Consequently, electrolyzed water was effective to remove microbes from salted Chinese cabbages.
Effect of Antioxidant and Irradiation Treatment under Freezing Temperature Conditions on Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Tarakjuk (Milk Porridge)
Han, In-Jun ; Song, Beom-Seok ; Kim, Jae-Hun ; Park, Jong-Heum ; Lee, Ju-Woon ; Chun, Soon-Sil ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1750~1756
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1750
This study evaluated the effect of antioxidants treatment; (Vit. C and E) on the physicochemical and sensory properties of Tarakjuk treated with gamma-irradiation under two different temperature conditions, e.g. room and frozen temperatures. In samples of Tarakjuk irradiated at room temperature, Vit. C gradually decreased the pH level as the concentration increased (p<0.05), whereas Vit. E did not. Addition of both Vit. C and E to Tarakjuk decreased TBA (2-thiobarbituric acid) value while also increasing viscosity. However, these antioxidants did not cause any change in Hunter's color values. Sensory properties showed that Vit. C and E significantly improved the overall acceptability of Tarakjuk, and the addition of 0.1% each Vit. C and E was best treatment. In samples of Tarakjuk subjected to combined treatment with antioxidants and irradiation under frozen temperature conditions, Vit. C and E were effective in decreasing TBA value, improving viscosity, and maintaining sensory quality. Especially, co-treatment with 0.1% Vit. C and E augmented the observed effect (p<0.05). Therefore, combined treatment with antioxidants and irradiation under frozen temperature conditions could improve the final sensory quality of gamma-irradiated Tarakjuk.
Physico-Chemical Properties of Broccoli Sprouts Cultivated in a Plant Factory System with Different Lighting Conditions
Kim, Tae-Su ; Lee, Sung-Pyo ; Park, So-I ; Lee, Jin-Young ; Lee, Soo-Yeon ; Jun, Hye-Ji ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1757~1763
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1757
The physico-chemical properties of broccoli sprouts cultivated in a plant factory system with different lighting conditions were investigated. We reported that there were significant differences among the chemical and nutritional properties of the broccoli sprouts grown under different light sources. Two kinds of sugars (glucose and fructose) were detected in the plants. The amount of glucose was 2.94~3.12% and that of fructose was 1.54~2.04%. Total chlorophyll was
mg% and chlorophyll-a
mg%. All over the test materials, 2 kinds of organic acids (citric acid and malic acid) were detected. The level of citric acid was 908~1,136 mg% and its highest level was under the (Blue LED) light source. The level of malic acid was 514~834 mg% and its highest level was under the (Red LED) light source. Seven different minerals were also analyzed. The amount of K was 518 mg% and its amount was significantly higher than that of Mg or Na. There were also negligible amounts of Zn, Fe and Cu. The amounts of vitamin A, C and E under the Red LED were,
IU. The amounts under the Blue LED were,
IU. The amounts under both Red and Blue LEDs were,
IU. And finally, the amounts under a White LED were,
IU. In this study, significant changes were shown in the chemical and nutritional properties of the broccoli sprouts. These findings indicate that LED light sources stimulated germination of the plants.
Quality Characteristics of Noodle Added with Dried Saururus chinensis Baill. Root Powder
Park, Jung-Eun ; Kim, Min-Jeong ; Park, So-Hae ; Lee, Hee-Seob ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1764~1768
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1764
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the quality characteristics of noodles added with dried Saururus chinensis Baill. root powder (SC powder), thereby determining which noodle recipe is the most preferable. When the amount of SC powder was increased, both L and b color values decreased, whereas a value was increased. The weight, and volume of cooked noodles increased, as did the turbidity of the soup. In the case of textural properties, addition of SC powder in noodle increased hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, chewiness, brittleness, and gumminess. Overall, according to the results of the sensory evaluation, the noodle added with SC powder up to 3% was the most preferable.
Effects of Mashed Red Pepper on the Quality Characteristics of Kimchi
Hwang, In-Guk ; Kim, Ha-Yun ; Hwang, Young ; Yoo, Seon-Mi ; Jeong, Heon-Sang ; Lee, Jun-Soo ; Kim, Hae-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1769~1775
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1769
This study was carried out to investigate the changes in the quality characteristics of Kimchi with mashed red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) added during 12 days of fermentation at
. The moisture content of Kimchi increased according to the addition of mashed red pepper, whereas the crude protein, crude lipid, and crude ash content decreased. The total bacterial and lactic acid bacterial counts of Kimchi with additional mashed red pepper sharply increased until the 2 day mark, then gradually increased thereafter. The initial pH and total acidity of Kimchi with additional mashed red pepper showed a range of 5.67~5.88 and 0.18~0.21, respectively. The pH and total acidity rapidly changed within a range of 4.26~4.72 and 0.50~0.70%, respectively, until the 2 day mark. The reducing sugar content sharply decreased until the 2 day mark, then gradually decreased afterwards. It decreased with increasing levels of mashed red pepper. A sensory evaluation indicated that Kimchi with 50% or 75% additional mashed red pepper was better than that of other Kimchi.
Effects of Different Kinds of Salt on the Quality of Wet Noodles
Lee, Jeong-Mi ; Kim, So-Young ; Park, Kun-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1776~1780
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1776
The effects of different kinds of salt on the qualities of weight, volume, water absorption rate, turbidity, pH, textural characteristics, and sensory evaluation of wet noodles were studied. The salts employed in this study were purified salt (PS), solar salt (SS), solar salt without bittern (SSWB), roasted salt (RS) and bamboo salt (BS,
). The weight, volume, and water absorption rate of the noodles decreased with the 2% addition of different kinds of salts compared to the noodles without any added salt. The turbidity of the noodles decreased when BS (0.484), RS (0.489), or SSWB (0.489) were added to the noodles much more than when PS (0.508) was added. The pH of both wet noodles and cooked noodles was higher when BS, RS, or SS were added than when the others were added. The springiness and cohesiveness of the noodles were both increased with the addition of the salts. BS, RS and SS especially increased the springiness and cohesiveness of the noodles. In sensory evaluations of appearance, taste, texture and overall acceptance, BS received the highest scores. From the results, adding salt to wet noodle preparations is important to increase the quality of the noodles. BS showed the best overall results among the salts employed in this study.
Effect of Physicochemical Treatment on Growth Inhibition of Hanseniaspora uvarum Y1 from Yogurt
SunWoo, Chan ; Lee, So-Young ; Yoon, So-Young ; Jung, Ji-Yeon ; Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri ; Lee, Chung-Jo ; Kwak, Ji-Hee ; Kim, Min-Ji ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Jung, Seul-A ; Kim, Hyun-Jee ; Ahn, Dong-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1781~1786
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1781
This study was conducted to investigate the cause of microbiological contamination in yogurt and evaluate the effect of physicochemical treatment on the growth inhibition of Hanseniaspora uvarum isolated from yogurt. The yeast strain Hanseniaspora uvarum Y1 was subjected to heat and pH treatments. H. uvarum Y1 was killed at
after 15 min and survived in a wide pH range from pH 2 to 9. However, it did not survive under pH 1 and over pH 10. In a disk diffusion susceptibility test on H. uvarum Y1, a clear zone (5 mm) of growth inhibition was observed upon treatment with electrolyzed water. The effect of ozone gas on the growth of H. uvarum Y1 was evaluated by viable cell count. Initial cell numbers of
CFU/mL of H. uvarum Y1 were completely killed by treatment for 10 and 30 min, respectively. H. uvarum Y1 was also sterilized by microwave treatment for 1 min. When treated with gamma-irradiation, the rate of killing of H. uvarum Y1 was proportional to the irradiation dose. and complete killing occurred at a dose of 50 kGy.
Comparison of Enrichment Media of Shigella sonnei
In, Ye-Won ; Ha, Su-Jeong ; Kim, Seok-Joong ; Oh, Se-Wook ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1787~1792
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1787
The object of this study was to compare the performance of commercial enrichment media used for Shigella spp. A total of four enrichment media, Gram negative (GN) broth, Shigella broth (SB), selenite-F (SF) broth, and selenite cystine (SC) broth, were tested. When S. sonnei was inoculated into each enrichment broth at 10 cfu/mL of concentration, the highest growth was observed in Shigella broth. Morganella spp., which was not differentiated in selective agar of Shigella spp. thus can be counted as false positive, did not grow in Shigella broth in enrichment step. When S. sonnei was artificially inoculated into pork, it was mostly recovered through an enrichment process with GN broth and SF broth. However, in the case of beef, S. sonnei was mostly recovered with GN broth but largely failed with Shigella broth. Therefore, enrichment media for Shigella spp. should be selected by considering the food matrix in order to increase the chance of isolating it from foods.
Antioxidant Activity and Nitric Oxide Production of Ethanol Extracts from Astragali membranaceus Bunge and A. membranaceus Bunge var mongholicus Hisiao
Lee, Kwang-Jae ; Park, Min-Hee ; Park, Yu-Hwa ; Lim, Sang-Hyun ; Kim, Kyung-Hee ; Kim, Young-Guk ; Ahn, Young-Sup ; Kim, Hee-Yeon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1793~1796
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1793
The effects of ethanol extracts from Astragali membranaceus Bunge (AMB) and A. membranaceus Bunge var mongholicus Hisiao (AMBMH) on antioxidant and nitric oxide (NO) production were evaluated. The total polyphenol contents of AMBMH extracts from two, four, and six-year old roots was 45.3, 71.3, and 78.0 mg/g, respectively. These values and those of total flavonoid content were higher than those of AMB extracts. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was the highest in ethanol extracts from four-year old AMBMH roots. The ABTS radical scavenging activity was also higher than those of AMB in ethanol extracts from four- and six-year old AMBMH roots, but not in two-year old roots. The NO production of ethanol extracts from six-year old AMBMH roots was higher than that of two- and four-year old AMBMH roots. However, there is no significant difference in NO production based on the cultivation period of AMB.
Physicochemical Properties of Brown Rice Flours Differing in Amylose Content Prepared by Different Milling Methods
Lee, Young-Tack ; Kim, Yeon-U ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 40, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1797~1801
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1797
Two brown rice samples differing in amylose content, 20.1 (normal) and 7.3% (low amylose) were milled by different milling methods, and their physicochemical properties were tested. Particle size of brown rice flour prepared by dry milling using a pin mill (DM) was lower than that prepared by wet milling using a roll mill (WM). Particle size was further reduced by successive dry milling of the flour after wet milling and drying (WM/DM). Damaged starch contents in the wet milled brown rice flour were 14.6 and 15.6% for the normal and low amylose samples, respectively, whereas they were only 4.2 and 4.8% for the dry milled samples. WM/DM method resulted in a lower damaged starch (%) than DM, despite a reduced flour particle size. Water absorption index (WAI) of the brown rice flour was the lowest after WM/DM, and the water solubility index (WAI) was higher in the order of DM, WM/DM, and WM. Brown rice flour with normal amylose content appeared to have significantly higher pasting viscosities, as determined using a Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA). Compared to dry milled brown rice flour, wet milled brown rice flour showed lower peak viscosity and higher final viscosity, resulting in increased setback value.