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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 41, Issue 12 - Dec 2012
Volume 41, Issue 11 - Nov 2012
Volume 41, Issue 10 - Oct 2012
Volume 41, Issue 9 - Sep 2012
Volume 41, Issue 8 - Aug 2012
Volume 41, Issue 7 - Jul 2012
Volume 41, Issue 6 - Jun 2012
Volume 41, Issue 5 - May 2012
Volume 41, Issue 4 - Apr 2012
Volume 41, Issue 3 - Mar 2012
Volume 41, Issue 2 - Feb 2012
Volume 41, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
Selecting the target year
Biological and Antimicrobial Activity of Vaccinium oldhami Fruit
Chae, Jung-Woo ; Jo, Bun-Sung ; Joo, Sung-Hyun ; Ahn, Dong-Hyun ; Chun, Sung-Sook ; Cho, Young-Je ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 41, issue 1, 2012, Pages 1~6
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.1.001
This study was carried out to investigate the biological activity and antimicrobial activity of Vaccinium oldhami fruit extracts. ABTS radical cation decolorization and the antioxidant protection factor (PF) of extracts as
PF were higher than a BHT of
PF, and the TBARS of extracts was
. The hypertension inhibitory activity of extracts from Vaccinium oldhami fruit indicated the activities of
, and anti-gout activity was
. Antimicrobial activity was found in Vaccinium oldhami fruit extracts on Helicobacter pylori, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Eschericia coli and Propionebacterium acne. This activity was illustrated as 24 mm, 28 mm, 13 mm, 26 mm and 16 mm clear zones with
respectively, and the elastase inhibitory activity which is related to the wrinkle cause was observed in extracts as
Hepatoprotective Effect of Curdrania tricuspidata Extracts against Oxidative Damage
Kim, Ok-Kyung ; Ho, Jin-Nyoung ; Nam, Da-Eun ; Jun, Woo-Jin ; Hwang, Kwon-Tack ; Kang, Jung-Eun ; Chae, Ok-Soon ; Lee, Jeong-Min ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 41, issue 1, 2012, Pages 7~13
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.1.007
We investigated the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of extracts from the leaves, stems, and fruit of Cudrania tricuspidata (CT) against
or ethanol-induced oxidative damage. The total polyphenol and flavonoid content was the highest in the 80% ethanol extracts from the leaves of the plant (CTL80). Also, the radical scavenging activity of DPPH and ABTS in the CTL80 was significantly higher than that of the non-treated control. To determine the hepatoprotective effects of CT in
and ethanol-induced oxidative damage, cell viability was measured using an XTT assay. Pre-treatment of CTL80 significantly increased cell viability compared with the non-treated control cells by 71.21% and 80.40%, respectively. The data suggests that CTL80 exhibits hepatoprotective antioxidant effects. Therefore, CTL80 may be considered a potential agent to control
or ethanol-induced liver damage.
Antioxidant Activity and Anticancer Effects of Rough Rice (Oryza sativa L.) by Germination Periods
Kim, Hyun-Young ; Lee, Sang-Hoon ; Hwang, In-Guk ; Kim, Tae-Myoung ; Park, Dong-Sik ; Kim, Jae-Hyun ; Kim, Dae-Joong ; Lee, Jun-Soo ; Jeong, Heon-Sang ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 41, issue 1, 2012, Pages 14~19
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.1.014
This study was conducted on the antioxidant activity and in vitro anticancer effects of rough rice (Oryza sativa L.) by germination periods. Rough rice was germinated at
for 8 days and then extracted with 70% ethanol. It was then analyzed for total polyphenol content, reducing power, antioxidant activities, and in vitro anticancer effects. Total polyphenol content increased from 3.12 mg/g for raw rough rice to 4.05 mg/g at 4 days of germination. Also reducing power increased from 0.96 to 1.25 (p<0.05). DPPH radical scavenging activity increased from 29.25% at 0 day to 34.82% at 2 days. ABTS radical scavenging activity increased from 3.05 mg AA eq/100 g at 0 day to 3.84 mg AA eq/100 g at 4 days, and then decreased afterward. The anticancer effect of ethanol extract at 4 days on stomach cancer cell line (AGS) and colon cancer cell line (HCT-116) showed higher values compared with raw rough rice extract. These results suggest that the best germination periods for increasing biological activities may be 3~4 days.
The Effects of Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Properties of Opuntia humifusa Stems
Jung, Bok-Mi ; Shin, Mi-Ok ; Kim, Hyung-Rak ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 41, issue 1, 2012, Pages 20~25
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.1.020
This study was performed to investigate antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer properties of Opuntia humifusa (OH) stems. OH stems were extracted with hexane, methanol, butanol and water. The methanol and hexane fraction exhibited strong antimicrobial activities on three strains of microbes, Rhodococcus equi, Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium perfringens. In the peroxynitrite scavenging effect (
) of OH stems, the antioxidative activity of methanol, butanol and water fraction but not hexane fraction showed significant increases in a concentration-dependent manner. The DPPH radical scavenging activities of OH stems were high in the butanol fraction compared with other fractions. Anti-proliferation effects on the B16-F10, HepG2, HT29, and MCF-7 cell lines were significantly higher in the methanol and hexane fractions than in the water and butanol fractions at
concentration of extracts. These results suggest that OH stems can be used for the development of functional foods with biological activity.
Effects of Different Kinds of Salt in the Comutagenicity and Growth of Cancer Cells
Zhao, Xin ; Kim, So-Hee ; Qi, Yongcai ; Kim, So-Young ; Park, Kun-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 41, issue 1, 2012, Pages 26~32
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.1.026
Purified salt and several different types of sea salts showed comutagenicity in the presence of MNNG (N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine). However, the salts exhibited anti-cancer effects in HCT-116 human colon carcinoma cells and AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Sea salt showed less comutagenicity effects than purified salt. French sea salt (Salines de Guerande) and Korean sea salt I, which contained higher levels of minerals, showed less comutagenicity. In MTT assay, when HCT-116 and AGS cancer cells were treated with the salts, French sea salt (36% and 34%) and Korean sea salt I (35% and 33%) showed higher anticancer activities than Spanish sea salt (33% and 31%), Italian sea salt (29% and 27%), Korean sea salt II (22% and 22%), or purified salt (18% and 15%) at a salt concentration of 1%. French sea salt and Korean sea salt I also showed better anticancer activities than the other salt samples at a low concentration of 0.5% (p<0.05). Apoptosis related genes of Bax and Bcl-2 were regulated by the treatment of the salt in the colon cancer cells. French sea salt and Korean sea salt I especially increased Bax mRNA expression, but decreased Bcl-2 expression, indicating that they can induce apoptosis of the cancer cells. From the experimental results, sea salt showed better health functional effects than the purified salt, and French sea salt and Korean sea salt I which contained high levels of Ca, K, and Mg showed better effects.
The Effect of Insoluble Dietary Fiber Extracted from Chinese Cabbage Waste on Plasma Lipid Profiles in Rats Fed a High Fat Diet
Liu, Wenli ; Ko, Kang-Hee ; Kim, Hag-Ryeol ; Kim, In-Cheol ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 41, issue 1, 2012, Pages 33~40
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.1.033
This study investigated the lipid profiles for the possible improving activity of insoluble dietary fiber extracted from cabbage waste discarded during kimchi manufacture and market distribution. Enzyme-treated Insoluble Dietary Fiber (EIDF) is the remnants of crude dietary fiber (CDF) treated by
-amylase, protease, and amyloglucosidase after removal of soluble materials from cabbage waste. The insoluble dietary fiber of CDF and EIDF in cabbage waste was
, respectively. To examine the effects of EIDF on plasma cholesterol concentration, two group of rats were fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or a HFD containing 0.1~1.0% EIDF for 4 weeks. The body weight of all groups was not significantly different (p<0.05) but the body weight of EIDF+HFD groups was less than that of the HFD group (p<0.1). Compared with the HFD group, EIDF also lowered serum levels of total triglycerides to 11.2~23.3% and cholesterol to 26.8~28.5%. In EIDF+HFD groups, the HDL-cholesterol level increased by 7.2~26.1%, while LDL-cholesterol especially decreased by 51.0~61.4% and VLDL-cholesterol by 16.9~26.4%. The atherogenic index of EIDF+HFD groups was also reduced twice that of the HFD group. From these results, EIDF from cabbage waste could be a potential effective food ingredient for improving lipid profiles.
Antioxidant Activity and Safety Evaluation of Juice Containing Protaetia brevitarsis
Park, Jae-Hee ; Kim, So-Yun ; Kang, Min-Gu ; Yoon, Min-Soo ; Lee, Yang-Il ; Park, Eun-Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 41, issue 1, 2012, Pages 41~48
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.1.041
The purpose of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of vegetable extracts (pumpkin, aloe, and artichoke) containing Protaetia brevitarsis (PB) and the clinical and pathological changes in ICR mice after a single oral administration. The total polyphenol (TP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, total radical trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP), oxygen radical absorbance activity (ORAC), and single cell gel electrophoresis assay were done to measure their antioxidant activities. The effect of vegetable extracts containing PB in TP and the ORAC value was significantly higher than those without PB. In addition, all extracts had effective
scavenging activities. The protective effect of vegetable extracts with/without PB on
-induced DNA damage was found. In a single-dose toxicity study, mortality, body weight, physiological signs, and biochemical analysis were analyzed. Seventy mice were randomly assigned to 7 experimental groups and were administered three vegetable extracts with and without PB (2 g/kg). A full 14 days after administration, no mice mortality was observed in any group. Body weight, physiological signs, and biochemical analysis were never significantly different from those of the control group. Taken together, these findings indicate that vegetable extracts containing PB with antioxidant activities and safety could be applied as medicinal and edible resources in an industrial area.
Effects of Baked Garlic Powder on Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed a High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet
Lee, Oun-Ju ; Lee, Jae-Joon ; Lee, Myung-Yul ; Lee, Hyun-Joo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 41, issue 1, 2012, Pages 49~56
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.1.049
This study examined the effects of baked garlic powder on the lipid metabolism in rats fed a high-fat/highcholesterol diet for 4 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four groups according to the dietary fat, cholesterol and baked garlic powder levels. The experimental groups were normal diet group (N), a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet group (C), a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet with 1.5% baked garlic powder group (GPL) and a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet with 3% baked garlic powder group (GPH). The body weight gain, food intake and food efficiency ratio were similar in the experimental groups. The epididymal adipose tissues weight of the C group was higher than that of the N group, whereas those of the groups fed baked garlic powder were decreased gradually. The ALT and ALP activities were similar in the C groups, but the serum AST and LDH activities elevated by a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet were decreased significantly by feeding a 3% baked garlic powder diet. The serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels as well as the atherogenic index and cardiac risk factor tended to decrease in the groups fed baked garlic powder than the C group, whereas the serum HDL-cholesterol level was lower in the C group and remarkably in groups fed baked garlic powder than the control group. The total cholesterol level in the liver and mesenteric adipose tissue and the triglyceride level in epididymal tissue were lower in the groups fed baked garlic powder than the C group. These results suggest that baked garlic powder reduces the serum lipid components and improves the lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemic rats induced with a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet.
Cherry Silverberry (Elaeagnus multiflora) Wine Mitigates the Development of Alcoholic Fatty Liver in Rats
Kim, Ju-Yeon ; Nam, Kyung-Sook ; Noh, Sang-K. ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 41, issue 1, 2012, Pages 57~64
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.1.057
Cherry silverberry (Elaeagnus multiflora) contains bioactive phenolics. This study was conducted to determine whether feeding cherry silverberry wine (CSW) to rats would alleviate the progress of alcoholic fatty liver. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided by weight into the following three groups. Two groups of rats were fed 6.7% ethanol or the caloric equivalent Lieber-DeCarli diet containing maltose-dextrin, and the other group an isocaloric Lieber-DeCarli diet containing CSW at the same ethanol level for 6 weeks. CSW's flavonoids, its antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities, serum transaminases, serum and hepatic lipids, and liver histology were examined. Our results showed that CSW exerted significant antioxidant and radical scavenging activities. The serum activities of alanine and aspartate transminases were markedly decreased by CSW at 6 weeks. Also, CSW feeding resulted in significant reductions in blood cholesterol and triglyceride. The development of alcoholic fatty liver was significantly delayed by lowering fat accumulation. Taken together, these results indicate that CSW may help protect the liver against alcoholic fatty liver by improving serum and hepatic lipid status. This may be associated with the protective effect of CSW on alcoholic fatty liver via bioactive phenolic compounds.
Effects of Unripened Cheese Supplements on Lipid and Antioxidant Status in Hypercholesterolemic SD Rats
Seo, Bo-Young ; Spengler, Bernhard ; Rompp, Andreas ; Schober, Yvonne ; Yoon, Yoe-Chang ; Park, Eun-Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 41, issue 1, 2012, Pages 65~72
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.1.065
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of unripened cheese supplements on lipid metabolism and antioxidant status in hypercholesterolemic SD rats. Rats were induced to have hypercholesterolemia by feeding them high cholesterol diet (0.5% cholesterol and 0.2% sodium cholate) for 4 weeks and then divided into 2 groups. One group was fed a high cholesterol diet with 5% unripened cheese (URC) daily for 6 weeks, and the other one was fed a high cholesterol diet without 5% unripened cheese (URC) daily for 6 weeks. Significantly-increased plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and AST activity because of the high-cholesterol diet were reduced 18.8%, 40.5%, and 33%, respectively, by URC supplementation. Also, URC lowered hepatic total lipids, TCs, and TGs, whereas fecal lipid profiles were not changed by URC. The supplementation of URC resulted in an increase of plasma retinol and
-tocopherol by 40.5% and 39.2% and leukoytic DNA resistance to oxidative stress by 52.3% compared to hypercholesterolemic control. These results suggest that unripened cheese supplements could exert significant health benefits to those with hypercholesterolemia through ameliorating lipid profiles and antioxidant effects.
Green Tea Extract Decreases the Lymphatic Absorption of Trans Fat in Rats
Kim, Ju-Yeon ; Noh, Sang-K. ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 41, issue 1, 2012, Pages 73~78
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.1.073
Excessive intake of trans fats is known to be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Previously, we have shown that green tea extract (GTE) lowers the intestinal absorption of lipids and lipid-soluble compounds in rats. This study was conducted to investigate a possible role of GTE on the lymphatic absorption of elaidic acid, a major trans fat in the diet. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with lymph duct cannula were infused via an intraduodenal catheter at 3.0 mL/hr for 8 hr with a lipid emulsion containing
sodium-taurocholate with or without (control) GTE in a 24 mL PBS buffer (pH, 6.4). Simultaneously, lymph was collected hourly for 8 hr via the lymph duct cannula. There was a significant difference in lymph flow by GTE. Also, the lymphatic absorption of elaidic acid for 8 hr was significantly lower in rats infused with GTE than in those not infused with GTE. Similarly, GTE infusion decreased the lymphatic outputs of cholesterol, oleic acid, and phospholipids, compared with the controls. These findings provide clear evidence that GTE has an inhibitory effect on the intestinal absorption of elaidic acid and other lipids. Our work here provides the foundation for further studies to examine and evaluate dietary strategies to ameliorate dietary trans fats from the diet.
Quality Characteristics and Anti-Diabetic Effect of Yacon Vinegar
Lee, Mi-Kyung ; Choi, Sa-Ra ; Lee, Jin ; Choi, Yun-Hong ; Lee, Ju-Hye ; Park, Kyung-Uk ; Kwon, Seung-Hyek ; Seo, Kwon-Il ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 41, issue 1, 2012, Pages 79~86
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.1.079
This study was performed to investigate the physiochemical properties and anti-diabetic effect of yacon vinegar by two-step fermentation. Yacon was matured at room temperature for 20 days. The sugar content of yacon juice prepared from mature yacon was approximately
. In the first stage, yacon wine was produced from the juice at
for 6 days. In the second stage, acetic acid fermentation was conducted at
and 200 rpm for 6 days to produce yacon vinegar with 4.75% acidity. The major free sugars of yacon vinegar were glucose and fructose at 2,072.12 mg% and 463.95 mg%, respectively. The acetic acid content was the highest of the major organic acids at 3,881.44 mg%. The total free amino acid content was 62.88 mg% with the main free amino acids being proline,
-amino-n-butyric acid and ornithine. The major minerals of yacon vinegar were Ca, K and Mg. The in vivo anti-diabetic activity of yacon vinegar was investigated in high-fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Diabetic mice were administered orally with 10% yacon juice and two yacon vinegars (5% and 10%) at a dose of 7 mL/kg body weight once per day for 4 weeks. Five% yacon vinegar improved the fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance test significantly compared to the diabetic control group (p<0.05). Yacon vinegar increased the pancreatic C-peptide concentration in a dose-dependent manner. These results show that 5% yacon vinegar has a more potent effect on ameliorating hyperglycemia than 10% yacon juice.
A Study on the Bioavailability of Organic Ca in Growing Rats
Park, Mi-Na ; Cho, Su-Jung ; Kim, Hee-Kyong ; Kim, Jae-Hong ; Kim, Min-Ho ; Kim, Wan-Sik ; Lee, Yeon-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 41, issue 1, 2012, Pages 87~94
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.1.087
We evaluated the bioavailability of a novel organic Ca supplement chelated with milk protein (CaMP) in growing rats and compared it with those of Ca carbonate and Ca citrate. Four-week-old male rats were divided into six groups (n=6/group) and fed AIN-93G-based experimental diets containing three Ca sources, Ca carbonate, Ca citrate, and CaMP at two levels, normal (0.5%, w/w) and high (1.5%, w/w), for 6 weeks. Growth, mineral contents of serum, Ca content and breaking force of femur, and Ca absorption were measured. There were no significant differences in weight gain or food intake, but food efficiency ratio (FER) of CaMP in the high Ca group was higher than those of other groups. Ca and P concentrations in serum were within normal range in all experimental rats. There was no difference in Ca content of the femur among all of the groups. Although there was no statistical significance in bone breaking force of the femur among the groups, the CaMP groups had a higher breaking force compared to other groups. Further, Ca absorption rate significantly increased in the CaMP groups (p<0.05). These results demonstrate that the CaMP supplement did not exhibit any negative effect on growth or Ca metabolism of the rats. Therefore, CaMP can be recommended as a good Ca supplement with regard to bone metabolism and Ca bioavailability.
Immune System-Stimulating Activities of Mucilage Polysaccharides Isolated from Opuntia humifusa
Seo, Yi-Seul ; Shin, Kwang-Soon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 41, issue 1, 2012, Pages 95~102
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.1.095
To examine the new practical utilization of mucilages in Opuntia humifusa, the Korean pear cactus, the polysaccharides were isolated from O. humifusa, and immuno-stimulating activities were assayed. The main polysaccharide, CNC-E, was prepared by a commercial enzyme treatment, water extraction, and ethanol precipitation. The molecular mass of CNC-E was estimated to be about 700 kDa, and it consisted mainly of arabinose, galactose and xylose in addition to two minor sugars such as rhamnose and fucose. On the other hand, CNC-E showed considerably high splenocyte proliferation activity in a dose-dependent manner. Peritoneal macrophages stimulated with CNC-E produced cytokines such as IL-6, IL-12, IL-10, and TNF-
. The intravenous administration of CNC-E significantly augmented the cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells against Yac-1 tumor cells. Especially, NK cells obtained from the mice treated with
of CNC-E showed threefold higher cytolytic activity than those of untreated mice. CNC-E also showed potent anti-complementary activity in a dose-dependent fashion. Identification of C3 activation products by the crossed immunoelectrophoresis using anti-human C3 and the anti-complementary activity of CNC-E in a
-free condition suggested complement activations by CNC-E that occur via both alternative and classical pathways. These results indicate that Korean pear cactus contains selected polysaccharides that provide immuno-stimulating activities beneficial to human health.
Quality Characteristics of Chocolate with Added Hot Water Extracts of Undaria pinnatifida Sporophylls under Gamma Irradiation
Kim, Da-Mi ; Kim, Kyoung-Hee ; Yook, Hong-Sun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 41, issue 1, 2012, Pages 103~109
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.1.103
The objectives of this study were to find the optimal mixing conditions and evaluate the antioxidant activity of chocolate with both non-irradiated and gamma-irradiated (50 kGy) hot water extracts from Undaria pinnatifida sporophylls (WEUS) at weight percentages of 0, 1, 3, and 5%. The moisture content of the WEUS chocolate was significantly higher than that of the control. On the other hand, the pH of chocolate had a tendency to decrease with the addition of WEUS, but there were no significant differences between non-irradiated and gamma-irradiated samples of the same concentrations. The lightness (L) value and yellowness (b) value decreased significantly with the addition of WEUS powder. However, the redness (a) value increased as the concentration increased. The hardness increased on the addition of WEUS powder, and gamma-irradiated chocolates were higher than non-irradiated chocolates. As the amount of WEUS powder increased, DPPH radical scavenging activity and total polyphenol content increased. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of gamma-irradiated groups was also higher than that of non-irradiated groups. The aroma, taste, sweetness, and overall acceptability of chocolate were significantly higher in the chocolate containing 1% WEUS powder. These results indicate that gamma-irradiated 1% WEUS chocolate was optimal.
A Study on the Development of Cosmetic Materials Using Unripe Peaches Seed Extracts
Kim, Da-Mi ; Kim, Kyoung-Hee ; Kim, Young-Shik ; Koh, Jong-Ho ; Lee, Kyong-Haeng ; Yook, Hong-Sun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 41, issue 1, 2012, Pages 110~115
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.1.110
Various unripe peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) seeds, which were picked on late May, were subjected to 80% methanol extracts to investigate the antioxidant activities, whitening effects, and anti-wrinkle activities. The yield of 6 cultivars (Takinosawa Gold, Kawanakawase Hakuto, Madoka, Yumefuji, Nagasawa Hakuho, and Hong Bak) from unripe peaches were the highest on Yumefuji, followed by Madoka, Kawanakawase Hakuto, Takinosawa Gold, Hong Bak, and Nagasawa Hakuho (6.16%, 6.08%, 5.65%, 5.25%, 5.23%, and 5.20%). The content of the total polyphenol of seed extracts ranged from 18.33 to 27.08 mg/g. The antioxidant in vitro assays including the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were the highest with Hong Bak and Kawanakawase Hakuto. The tyrosinase inhibition activity greatly affected the Takinosawa Gold and Kawanakawase Hakuto. Compared to the elastase inhibition activity of 6 cultivars, Madoka was higher than others, while the lowest was Hong Bak. The significant correlation coefficient values were determined (more than p=0.05) between the yield, total polyphenol content, antioxidant activities, tyrosinase inhibition, and elastase inhibition activities. The results suggested that the total polyphenol content has a high positive value on the DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activity, and tyrosinase inhibition activity. Also, the tyrosinase inhibition activity and elastase inhibition activity showed a significant correlation (r=+0.594). The ABTS inhibition activity and tyrosinase inhibition activity that is the most suitable character represented significant positive correlation (r=+0.846). This data suggested that the methanol extracts from these unripe peaches could be potential candidates for natural cosmetics.
Volatile Flavor Compounds in Commercial Black Garlic Extracts
Jeon, Seon-Young ; Baek, Jeong-Hwa ; Jeong, Eun-Jeong ; Cha, Yong-Jun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 41, issue 1, 2012, Pages 116~122
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.1.116
Volatile flavor compounds derived from four black garlic extracts purchased in a local market were analyzed for the purpose of quality assessment. A total of 68 compounds was detected in samples using solid phase microextraction (SPME)/GC/MSD, and they were mainly sulfur-containing compounds, including three unknown compounds (21), aldehydes (10), furans (7), alcohols (6), aromatic compounds (7), ketones (4), acids (4), nitrogen-containing compounds (3), esters (2), and miscellaneous compounds (4). 2,6-Dimethyl-4-heptanone having a fruity-sweet odor was the most abundant in all of the samples. Six sulfur-containing compounds including allyl sulfide, 4-methyl-1,2,4-thiazole, 1,3,5-trithiane, unknown I (RI 1564), unknown II (RI 1565), and unknown III (RI 1613) were detected in all of the samples and appeared to contribute to the garlic-like odor. Particularly, three aldehydes (3-methylbutanal, benzaldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde), four furans (furfural, 2-acetylfuran, 5-methyl-2-furfural, furfural alcohol), and others (2,6-dimethylpyrazine, acetic acid) formed through a Maillard reaction during garlic aging were detected in all of the samples, and they contributed to the characteristic burnt, sweet, and sour flavors of black garlic extracts.
Quality Characteristics of Tofu with Added Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Extracts
Kim, Sang-Eun ; Lee, Sang-Won ; Yeum, Dong-Min ; Lee, Moon-Jo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 41, issue 1, 2012, Pages 123~128
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.1.123
This study was conducted to investigate the quality characteristics of tofu (soybean curd) prepared with added alfalfa extracts (Medicago sativa L.). The moisture content, yield, and pH of tofu decreased according to the increase of an added quantity of alfalfa extract, whereas the crude protein and turbidity increased. The tofu made with additional alfalfa extracts gave a similar amount of crude ash with that of the control. The Hunter's L (lightness) color value decreased as the content of alfalfa extract increased, but the a (redness) and b (yellowness) values increased with increasing alfalfa extract concentration. Textural properties for hardness were higher but cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, and brittleness were lower in alfalfa extracts with added tofu compared to those of control. Isoflavones such as daidzein and genistein content were significantly increased with increasing concentration of alfalfa extracts. A sensory evaluation indicated that the group with a 0.5% alfalfa extract showed the best color, flavor, taste, and overall acceptability results. In conclusion, adding alfalfa extracts could improve the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of tofu.
Heavy Metal Contents and Safety Evaluation of Commercial Salts in Seoul
Kim, Ae-Kyung ; Cho, Sung-Ja ; Kwak, Jae-Eun ; Kum, Jin-Young ; Kim, Il-Young ; Kim, Jung-Hun ; Chae, Young-Zoo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 41, issue 1, 2012, Pages 129~135
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.1.129
This study was to investigate the heavy metal content of 55 commercial salts in the Seoul area. There were 22 types of solar sea salt, 17 types of processed salt and 16 types of reworked salt. Looked at another way, there were 22 types of domestic salt and 33 types of salt imported from France, the U.S., Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and Argentina. The samples were measured using both a mercury analyzer and an Inductively-Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). The average heavy metal contents for commercial salts were Pb
mg/kg. The leads were detected highly in solar sea salt rather than in processed salt or reworked salt. Also chrome, arsenic and nickel were found more in processed salt. There were large differences in aluminum content between imported solar sea salt and processed salt. Aluminum was highly detected in French products, showing that salt can be affected by regional differences. The weekly average intakes of Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Hg from commercial salt were 1.652% (0.000~6.754), 0.372% (0.000~7.214), 3.177% (0.000~26.279), 0.008% (0.001~0.049), and 0.031% (0.000~0.094) respectively compared with Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intakes established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee for the evaluation of food safety. The content of heavy metals from commercial salts was determined to be at safe levels.
Effect of Milling Degree on the Physicochemical and Sensory Quality of Sogokju
Chun, A-Reum ; Kim, Dae-Jung ; Yoon, Mi-Ra ; Oh, Sea-Kwan ; Choi, Im-Soo ; Hong, Ha-Cheol ; Kim, Yeon-Gyu ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 41, issue 1, 2012, Pages 136~142
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.1.136
Sogokju, a Korean glutinous rice wine and one of the oldest Korean traditional wines, is famous for its unique taste acquired from a 100-day incomplete fermentation process. This study investigated the effects of the degree of rice milling on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of Sogokju. It evaluated the physicochemical characteristics, pasting and color properties, and structural properties of starch using four different degrees of milled rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Dongjinchalbyeo. Samples of brown rice with milling yields of 92%, 84%, 76%, and 68% were produced using both abrasive and friction whiteners. This study showed that the protein, lipid, and ash content of milled rice decreased as the degree of milling increased. The lower hardness of the kernel below milling yield 92% suggested that milling may be related to the lower protein content of the kernel. The pasting curve showed a significant increase in viscosity properties as the degree of milling increased. This is due to the decrease in protein and lipid content, the increase in starch content, and the difference in amylopectin chain-length distribution. Further milling of white rice, based on 92% milling yield, had an effect on the amylopectin chain-length distribution due to the degree of polymerization (DPn) of 37~60. The long chain of amylopectin also contributed to the viscosity. The increase in the degree of milling decreased the glucose and total sugar content of Sogokju. However, it increased the total acidity of Sogokju. Moreover, the lightness of Sogokju decreased while its yellowness increased. These results indicate that the degree of milling can alter the taste and color of Sogokju. The sensory evaluation showed that the increase in the degree of milling decreased consumer preference for Sogokju. The sensory score for Sogokju was positively correlated with its brix degree, glucose content, pH, and protein content of raw rice.
Quality Characteristics of the White Birch Sap with Varying Collection Periods
Jeong, Su-Jeong ; Lee, Chang-Hyeon ; Kim, Hyun-Young ; Lee, Sang-Hoon ; Hwang, In-Guk ; Shin, Chang-Seob ; Lee, Jun-Soo ; Jeong, Heon-Sang ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 41, issue 1, 2012, Pages 143~148
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.1.143
This study evaluated the quality characteristics of white birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica) sap with different collection times. The changes of browning index, turbidity, pH, total acidity, organic acid, free sugar, crude protein, crude ash, and mineral content were investigated. The browning index and turbidity increased from 0.076 to 0.222 and from 0.048 to 0.138, respectively, with increasing collection time. The pH decreased from 6.09 to 4.72, while total acidity increased with increasing collection time. Citric and malic acids were detected and malic acid increased with increasing collection time. Glucose and fructose as free sugars were detected and their contents were 0.364~0.433% and 0.497~0.664%, respectively. Crude protein and crude ash contents remarkably increased from 3.40 to 32.37 mg% and from 0.01% to 0.04%, respectively, with increasing collection time. Cu, Fe, Ca, Mg, Mn, and K were detected, and increased with increasing collection time. Particularly, K increased remarkably from 5.25 to 37.27 mg/L over time. These results indicate that the optimum processing method to improve the quality of white birch sap is necessary, because the quality of sap decreased as collection time increased, but nutritional value increased.