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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 42, Issue 12 - Dec 2013
Volume 42, Issue 11 - Nov 2013
Volume 42, Issue 10 - Oct 2013
Volume 42, Issue 9 - Sep 2013
Volume 42, Issue 8 - Aug 2013
Volume 42, Issue 7 - Jul 2013
Volume 42, Issue 6 - Jun 2013
Volume 42, Issue 5 - May 2013
Volume 42, Issue 4 - Apr 2013
Volume 42, Issue 3 - Mar 2013
Volume 42, Issue 2 - Feb 2013
Volume 42, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Antioxidant Activities of Hot Water Extract from Cornus walteri Wanger against Oxidative Stress Induced by tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide in HepG2 Cells
Yeon, Seong Ho ; Ham, Hyeonmi ; Sung, Jeehye ; Kim, Younghwa ; Namkoong, Seulgi ; Jeong, Heon-Sang ; Lee, Junsoo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 10, 2013, Pages 1525~1532
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.10.1525
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of hot water extract from Cornus walteri Wanger (CWE) on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), concentrations of cellular lipid peroxidation products and reduced glutathione, and antioxidant enzyme activity were used as biomakers of cellular oxidative status. Cells pretreated with CWE (25~200
) showed an increased resistance to oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner, as revealed by a higher percentage of surviving cells compared to control cells. ROS generation induced by TBHP was significantly reduced when cells were pretreated with 200
CWE for 4 h. Pretreatment with CWE (5~50
) prevented the decrease in reduced glutathione and the increase in malondialdehyde and ROS evoked by TBHP in HepG2 cells. Finally, CWE pretreatments prevented the significant increase of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase activities induced by TBHP. These results show that CWE has significant protective ability against a TBHP-induced oxidative insult and that the modulation of antioxidant enzymes by CWE may have an important antioxidant effect on TBHP-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells.
Ginsenosides Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Fermented Ginseng Soymilk
Lee, Lan-Sook ; Jung, Kyung Hee ; Choi, Ung-Kyu ; Hong, Hee-Do ; Kim, Young-Chan ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 10, 2013, Pages 1533~1538
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.10.1533
The objective of this study is to select an effective microbial strain to enhance the sensory qualities and functionalities of fermented ginseng soymilk. For this purpose, soybean were ground with water extracts of ginseng and fermented with five Lactobacillus strains. All strains grew well in ginseng soymilk, and viable cell counts reached greater than 8 log CFU/mL after 18 h of fermentation. The contents of total ginsenosides were higher in soymilk fermented with L. casei ATCC 393 than those in the other strains. The sensory qualities of the fermented soymilk were observed to increase with the intensity of sourness and showed the best sensory acceptability of soymilk fermented with L. kefir ATCC 35411. Moreover, the antioxidant activities, superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities were significantly enhanced by 2~4 and 4~5 times, respectively, compared to the non-fermented soymilk. In particular, the antioxidant activities of the fermented soymilk by L. kefir ATCC 35411 were the highest among the samples. This result suggests that soymilk fermented by L. kefir ATCC 35411 allowed obtaining a soymilk with enhanced sensory quality and antioxidant activity was able to contribute to the health benefit.
The Inhibitory Effect on Androgen Receptor-Dependent Prostate Cancer Cell Growth by Anti-Histone Acetyltransferase Activity from Terminalia chebula Retz. Fruit Methanol Extract
Lee, Yoo-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 10, 2013, Pages 1539~1543
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.10.1539
The inhibitory effect of histone acetyltransferase from methanol extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. fruit (TCME) was investigated in prostate cancer cell. TCME significantly inhibited histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity by over 50% at 100
concentration. TCME treatment repressed androgen receptor (AR) mediated transcription, mRNA level of AR target genes, prostate specific antigen (PSA) and NKX-3.1, as well as AR acetylation. Finally, the prostate cancer cell viability was dramatically reduced by TCME treatment at 0~100
concentration. These results indicated that TCME, as a potent HAT inhibitor, could suppress prostate cancer cell growth by AR mediated transcription regulation.
Anti-oxidant and Anti-obesity Effects of Red Pepper and Zanthoxylum schinifolium Ethanol Extract, Main Ingredient of Mara Source
Kong, Yeon-Hee ; Choi, Kum-Boo ; Kim, Tae-Seok ; Yeo, Ik-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 10, 2013, Pages 1544~1551
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.10.1544
This study was performed to investigate anti-oxidant of red pepper and Zanthoxylum schinifolium ethanol extract, main ingredient of mara source. Anti-obesity effects of red pepper and Zanthoxylum schinifolium ethanol extract were investigated with mice fed high fat diet for 8 weeks. Sixty mice were classified to 6 groups of ND (normal diet), HFD (high fat diet), RP (high fat diet+red pepper (0.1 g/60 kg)), CP (high fat diet+Chinese pepper (0.1 g/60 kg)), RCP (high fat diet+red pepper : Chinese pepper=1:1 (0.1 g/60 kg)), HCA (high fat diet+HCA (0.1 g/60 kg)) experiments. This research showed that final weight, weight gain, food efficiency ratio, and river weight were decreased by the addition of red pepper and Zanthoxylum schinifolium ethanol extract comparing to those of HFD group. The plasma triglyceride and LDL cholesterol concentration of red pepper ethanol extract and Zanthoxylum schinifolium ethanol extract group was lower than that of high fat diet group. HDL-cholesterol concentration of red pepper ethanol extract and Zanthoxylum schinifolium ethanol extract group was higher than those of high fat diet group. These results suggested that red pepper and Zanthoxylum schinifolium ethanol extract might be useful for obesity control and good source of functional materials.
Effects Unripe and Ripe Rubus coreanus Miquel on Peritoneal Macrophage Gene Expression Using cDNA Microarray Analysis
Lee, Jung Eun ; Cho, Soo-Muk ; Kim, Jin ; Kim, Jung-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 10, 2013, Pages 1552~1559
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.10.1552
Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCM) has been used as one of the Korean traditional medicines for prostate health. In addition, recent studies have reported that RCM reduced chronic inflammatory diseases such as cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of unripe and ripe RCM on inflammationrelated gene expressions in LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. Mice were fed with 2% unripe RCM (U2), 10% unripe RCM (U10), 2% ripe RCM (R2), and 10% ripe RCM (R10) for 8 weeks. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated and stimulated with LPS then proinflammatory mediators (TNF-
, and IL-6), and prostaglandin E2 (
) productions were assessed. Moreover, gene expression profiles were analyzed by cDNA microarray method. Unripe and ripe RCM significantly reduced TNF-
production but only unripe RCM decreased IL-
and IL-6 production. RCM intake significantly reduced inflammatory-related gene expressions such as arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, interleukin 11, and nitric oxide synthase 2. Furthermore, unripe and ripe RCM significantly decreased ceruloplasmin, tissue plasminogen activator, thrombospondin 1, and vascular endothelial growth factor A expression which modulates symptoms of chronic inflammatory diseases. RCM intake also significantly increased hypoxia inducible factor 3, alpha which is the negative regulators of hypoxia-inducible gene expression. Furthermore, only unripe RCM reduced chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 14, and phospholipase A2 expression. In this study, we showed that RCM had anti-inflammatory effects by suppression of pro-inflammatory mediator expressions and may reduce chronic inflammatory disease progress through regulation of gene expressions. These findings suggest that RCM might be used as a potential functional material to reduce chronic inflammatory responses.
Effects of the Artemisia capillaris Extract on the Hepatotoxicity in Ethanol-induced Rats
Yu, Keun-Hyung ; Lee, Sun-Yeop ; Yang, Hyun-Mo ; Ham, Young-Ahn ; Lee, Soo-Ung ; Chae, Seoung-Wan ; Lee, Yong-Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 10, 2013, Pages 1560~1566
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.10.1560
This study was conducted to find out the effects of aqueous extract from the leaves of Artemisia capillaris (AA) on the reduction of hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol in rats. In this experiment, Sprague Dawley rats were used in the experimental groups, which were divided into 5 groups; normal group, ethanol+UDCA (ursodeoxycholic acid)-treated group (positive control), ethanol-treated group (control), ethanol+Artemisia capillaris aqueous extract-treated group (200 mg/kg of BW) and ethanol+Artemisia capillaris aqueous extract-treated group (400 mg/kg of BW). AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase), GGT (gamma(
)-glutamyl transferase) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) activities of the ethanol+Artemisia capillaris aqueous extract-treated group (400 mg/kg of BW) were significantly decreased compared to that of the ethanol-treated group (P<0.05). The triglyceride level of the ethanol-treated group was significantly increased and the HDL-cholesterol level was significantly decreased compared to the normal group (P<0.05). On the other hand, the triglyceride level was significantly decreased (P<0.05) and the HDL-cholesterol level was significantly increased (P<0.05) in the ethanol+Artemisia capillaris aqueous extract-treated groups. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was enhanced significantly (P<0.05) in the ethanol+Artemisia capillaris aqueous extract-treated groups. Also, malondialdehyde contents were decreased in this group (P<0.05). Histologically, in the control group, there was a mild degenerative change around central venule. The AA treated group showed well preserved lobular architectures with no evidence of steatosis or liver damage in aqueous extract from the leaves of Artemisia capillaris treated group (H&E,
). As the results of this study, it is thought that Artemisia capillaris aqueous extract may have effects on the improvement of hepatic damage by ethanol.
Inhibitory Effects of Sulfur-Fed Duck Extracts on DSS-induced Colitis in Mouse
Kim, Sun-Mi ; Jeong, Min-Woo ; Kim, Yoon-Se ; Lee, Jae-Yang ; Jeong, Ji-Kang ; Kim, Sin-Jeong ; Park, Kun-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 10, 2013, Pages 1567~1575
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.10.1567
Anti-inflammatory effects of sulfur-fed duck extract on colitis induced by 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) were examined in male Balb/c mice. Animals were divided into eight groups: normal (0.1 mL of PBS without 2.5% DSS), control (0.1 mL of PBS with 2.5% DSS), SD-H (3 mL/kg of high sulfur-fed duck extract), SD-L (1 mL/kg of low sulfur-fed duck extract), GD-H (3 mL/kg of high general duck extract), GD-L (1 mL/kg of low general duck extract), GC-H (3 mL/kg of high general chicken extract), and GC-L (1 mL/kg of low general chicken extract). Mice were fed PBS or six different doses of extracts (sulfur-fed duck, general duck, and chicken), once daily for 14 days. Colitis was induced from day 7 to 14 via the administration of 2.5% DSS in drinking water. The colon length was significantly shortened in mice compared to the control group. The administration of SD-H, SD-L, and GD-L increased colon length and decreased histological colon injury from DSS-induced colitis. However, chicken extracts did not recover any clinical sign of the colitis. SD-L significantly suppressed not only the concentrations of IL-
, IL-6, TNF-
, IL-17A, and IL-12 in serum but also the mRNA expressions of IL-6, TNF-
, iNOS and COX-2 in DSS-treated colon tissues (P<0.05). The administration of SD-H suppressed the concentrations of IL-6 in serum and the mRNA expressions of IL-6, iNOS, and COX-2 in colon tissues. Administration of GD-L suppressed the concentrations of IL-6, TNF-
, and IL-17A in serum and the mRNA expressions of IL-6, iNOS, and COX-2 in colon tissues. The inhibitory effects of sulfur-fed duck extracts were effective at a dose of 1 mL/kg. Our results indicate that sulfur-fed duck extracts may possess anti-inflammatory effects on DSS-induced colitis mice.
Effects of Dietary Fructose and Glucose on Hepatic Steatosis and NLRP3 Inflammasome in a Rodent Model of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes
Lee, Hee Jae ; Yang, Soo Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 10, 2013, Pages 1576~1584
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.10.1576
This study is carried out to assess the relative effects of different doses of dietary glucose or fructose on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hepatic metaflammation in a rodent model of type 2 diabetes. KK/HlJ male mice were fed experimental diets as follows: 1) control (CON), 2) moderate glucose (MG, 30% of total calories as glucose), 3) high glucose (HG, 60% of total calories as glucose), 4) moderate fructose (MF, 30% of total calories as fructose), and 5) high fructose (HF, 60% of total calories as fructose) for three weeks. Food intake was not affected by treatments. Compared with HF, HG not only increased serum fasting glucose and area under the curve during oral glucose tolerance test, but also decreased the levels of serum insulin and adiponectin. It indicated that glucose control was complicated via high glucose intake. High fructose treatment led to increased triglyceride in the serum and liver. In comparison to HG, high fructose diet activated NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome consisting of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), NLRP3 and caspase 1, which increases interleukin (IL)-
maturation and secretion. The activation of NLRP3 inflammasome was accompanied by increased levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-
) and IL-6. However, the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome components and pro-inflammatory cytokines did not differ between CON and HG. These data suggested that dietary fructose triggers hepatic metaflammation accompanied by NLRP3 inflammasome activation and has deleterious effects on NAFLD.
Effects of Exercise Training on the Relationship with Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression and Leptin mRNA Expression in Hypothalamus, Serum Leptin, and Anti-obesity in High-fat Diet-induced Obese Rats
Woo, Sang Heon ; Kang, Sunghwun ; Woo, Jinhee ; Shin, Ki Ok ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 10, 2013, Pages 1585~1591
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.10.1585
The purpose of this study is to examine how to relate with hypothalamus protein BDNF and mRNA leptin expression, and test the effect of exercise training upon anti-obesity in high-fat induced obese rats. Weight and plasma TC of the high-fat diet group (HF) significantly reduced in comparison to those in the high-fat diet and training group (HF-T), high-fat diet and normal diet group (HF-ND), and high-fat diet, training, and normal diet group (HF-ND+T) (P<0.05). Plasm TG of the HF group significantly decreased in comparison to the HF-ND+T group (P< 0.05). The plasma leptin level significantly reduced in the HF-T group in comparison to the HF group, in the HF-ND group compared to the HF-T group, and the HF-ND+T group in comparison to the HF-ND group (P<0.05, respectively). All groups were significantly increased in hypothalamus BDNF protein expression in comparison to the HF group. In hypothalamus leptin mRNA expression, the HF-T and HF-ND groups reduced, but the HF-NF+T group increased in comparison to the HF group. This result suggests that it shows the effect of exercise training upon anti-obesity in high-fat diet induced obese rats and the combined exercise and/or normal diet may affect the optimal obesity improvement and prevention in appetite and weight control.
Underweight Related Factors in School-Aged Children in Daegu
Yun, Young-Hee ; Park, Kyong ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 10, 2013, Pages 1592~1599
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.10.1592
Despite numerous studies regarding overweight or obese children, only a limited number of studies have investigated the effect of underweight. The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of underweight among school-aged children. A total of 493 students (86 underweight and 407 normal weight students) aged 11 to 13 years were included in our study. Socio-demographic characteristics, eating habits, health information, self-perception of weight, weight-control efforts and birth-related information were collected by using survey questionnaires for children and parents. Dietary information was obtained by two 24-hour food records, which were completed by both children and their parents. The prevalence of underweight was significantly higher in girls than boys, and the frequency of medical treatment and flu symptoms were higher in underweight children than normal ones. Overall, girls tended to overestimate their own weight; this misclassification was greater among underweight girls. Birthweight was positively correlated with current weight (P<0.05) and height (P<0.01) in girls, but these correlations were not seen in boys. In conclusion, underweight girls had inappropriate self-perception of weight, and underweight in girls may be related with birthweight and inadequate dietary intakes. Therefore, it is important to build a well-designed framework that integrates efforts of home, school, and community to maintain a healthy weight with balanced diet and exercise throughout the lifetime.
Comparison of Consumption of Processed Food and Personality of Middle School Students on Nutrition Education
Lee, Kyung-Ock ; Cho, Eun Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 10, 2013, Pages 1600~1607
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.10.1600
The aim of this study was to investigate effect of nutrition education methodology on consumption of processed food and personality of middle school students aged 14 to 16 years who live in Busan. We categorized questionnaire based on students' consumption of processed food and personality characteristics. Based on the above, we determined serum mineral level to validate the correlation between personal characteristics and quantifiable serum mineral level. Following adoption of a proper nutrient education methodology, we found that consumption of processed foods such as meat and meat products, frozen food, noodles, bread and snacks, and drink was significantly reduced. In addition, there were distinct changes in personality characteristics such as stability, governmentality, sociality, and responsibility that became markedly increased, whereas impulsiveness decreased. We found that these distinct nutrition- education-based changes were statistically significant, when compared before and after providing proper nutrition education. We interpret these results as group with low stability showed a high consumption of meat and meat products, noodles, bread and snacks, and drink, whereas group with high stability showed a high consumption of milk and dairy products. Similarly, we also found that group with low impulsiveness showed a high consumption of canned foods, whereas group with high impulsiveness showed a high consumption of meat and meat products, frozen food, noodles, bread and snacks. Our results indicated that serum Na after nutrition education decreased, whereas other minerals including Ca, Fe, Zn, Mg and K increased, when compared with before nutrition education procedure. This study suggests that nutrition education methodology and establishment of proper dietary educational programs keeping in view balanced dietary habits for middle school students would not only appear to make them get along with healthy dietary habits, but also change their personality characteristics.
Effects of a Weight Management Program for Overweighted or Obese Office Workers
Han, Se-Ri ; Yu, Ok-Kyeong ; Byun, Moon-Sun ; Park, Tae-Sun ; Cha, Youn-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 10, 2013, Pages 1608~1617
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.10.1608
This study is performed to evaluate the effectiveness of a weight management program for overweight and obesity office workers; comparing their changes in the anthropometry, biochemistry, nutrient intakes, and exercise performance before and after the obesity management program. This program was performed on 39 workers, who are overweight or obese, over BMI 23 for 6 months in Jeollabuk-do public institution. As the results of this study suggests, triceps thickness (TT) of male subjects was significantly decreased (P<0.05). Waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) of the total subjects were significantly decreased after the weight management program (P<0.05). The biochemical result of the Total cholesterol (TC) (P<0.05) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) (P<0.01) was significantly decreased in male subjects. The results of abdominal computed tomography (CT) also showed that subcutaneous fat area (SFA) of male subjects was significantly decreased after the weight management program (P<0.01). The nutrient intake's results of female subjects, who took Fe, Vit B2, and niacin, were increased significantly after the weight management program (P<0.05). The nutrition knowledge score of male subjects was significantly increased (P<0.05), and a muscular endurance of the physical test was significantly increased after the obesity management program (P<0.01). At the work place, workers need a systemic health and obesity management program to improve their work efficiency and quality of life. After this study, the program should be developed and supported continuously to maintain positive results from this study.
Relationships between Fatty Acids and Tocopherols of Conventional and Genetically Modified Peanut Cultivars Grown in the United States
Shin, Eui-Cheol ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 10, 2013, Pages 1618~1628
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.10.1618
Relationships between fatty acids and tocopherols in conventional and genetically modified peanut cultivars were studied by gas chromatography with flame ion detector and high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Eight fatty acids and four tocopherol isomers in the sample set were identified and quantified. Oleic acid and linoleic acid are major fatty acids and the ratio of oleic and linoleic acids ranged from 1.11 to 16.26. Tocopherols contents were 6.76 to 12.24 for
-tocopherol (T), 0.08 to 0.39 for
-T, 5.28 to 15.02 for
-T, and 0.17 to 1.17 mg/100 g for
-T. Correlation coefficient (r) for fatty acids and tocopherols indicated a strong inverse relationship between oleic & linoleic acids (r=-0.97, P<0.05) and positive relationships between palmitic & linoleic acids (r=0.95, P<0.05) and
-T (r=0.83, P<0.05). Principal component analysis (PCA) of fatty acids and tocopherols gave four significant principal components (PCs, with eigenvalues>1), which together account for 85.49% of the total variance in the data set with PC1 and PC2 contributing 45.27% and 21.33% of the total variability, respectively. Eigen analysis of the correlation matrix loadings of the four significant PCs revealed that PC1 was mainly contributed by palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and gondoic acids, while PC2 was by behenic acid,
-T. The score plot generated by PC1-PC2 identified sample clusters in the two spatial planes based on the oleic and linoleic acids. The score plot PC3-PC4 didn't separate sample groups.
Properties of Non-GM Soybeans with Lipoxygenase Free Genotypes
Lee, Soo-Jung ; Kim, In-Sung ; Lee, Hye-Jin ; Chung, Jong-Il ; Sung, Nak-Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 10, 2013, Pages 1629~1637
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.10.1629
The properties of non-GM soybeans with lipoxygenase (LOX) free genotypes, such as Gaechuck#1 (black, LOX2,3-free), Gaechuck#2 (yellow, LOX2,3-free) and Jinyangkong (yellow, LOX1,2,3-free), were compared to Taekwangkong (yellow, LOX1,2,3-present) as control. Length and weight of soybeans were significantly longer in Gaechuck#1, but LOX free genotypes of yellow beans was smaller than Taekwangkong, in terms the size and weight. After soaking for 12 hr, increased ratios of soybean weight were 217.07~226.55%, and they were significantly higher in Gaechuck#2. The total color difference (
) to Taekwangkong was the highest in Gaechuck#1, but another yellow soybean were similar. Crude lipids content was significantly higher in Taekwangkong (17.30%), and these LOX free genotypes (13.71~14.66%) did not show significant difference. Crude protein contents were significantly higher in Gaechuck#1 (34.79%) compared to the other soybeans (32.93~33.47%). Contents of glutamic acid among the detected composition amino acid were highest, and its total contents were highest in Gaechuck#1 (32.42 g/100 g), and the total content of Gaechuck#2 was similar to Taekwangkong. Contents of total isoflavone were higher in LOX free genotypes than Taekwangkong, especially significantly higher in Gaechuck#1 (1672.54
). Contents of total phenol were highest in Gaechuck#1 (276.91 mg/100 g), and flavonoids content of Gaechuck#1 (26.93 mg/100 g) was 2.6~2.8 times higher than the other samples. DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activities and reducing power were significantly higher in Gaechuck#1. The yield of soybean curd from tested samples was the highest in Gaechuck#2. Gaechuck#2 as LOX free genotypes was similar to Taekwangkong with regard to physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities. Therefore, we propose that Gaechuck#2 is a more suitable genotype for soybean curd products.
Physicochemical Changes in Hemerocallis coreana Nakai After Blanching, Drying, and Fermentation
Jeong, Ji-Suk ; Kim, Yong-Joo ; Choi, Bo-Rum ; Park, No-Jin ; Son, Byeong-Gil ; Kwak, Young-Se ; Kim, Jong-Cheol ; Cho, Kyoung-Hwan ; Kim, In-Ho ; Kim, Seong-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 10, 2013, Pages 1638~1648
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.10.1638
To promote the utilization of wild edible plants, this study examined blanching, drying, and fermentation as methods for enhancing the functionality of Hemerocallis coreana Nakai. Specimens fermented for 24 hours at a fermentation temperature of
, with a relative humidity of 65%, contained the highest amount of organic acid (18,109.82 mg/100 g). For the blanched; specimens, total organic acid content decreased about 30% compared with the freeze-dried specimens. The main organic acid of Hemerocallis coreana Nakai was confirmed as succinic acid. After fermentation, free sugars decreased; in particular, specimens fermented at a relative humidity of 80% showed a 32~75% reduction in free sugar compared with the freeze-dried specimens. In terms of amino acid content, Hemerocallis coreana Nakai was mainly composed of valine, isoleucine, and phenylalanine. In fermented specimens the total amino acid content was highest in a moderately fermented (17 hr) specimen, (1,010.71 mg/100 g fresh wt.), but decreased in the maximally fermented (24 hr) specimen. The longer the fermentation, the higher the decrease in non-essential amino acids content, while the content of more essential amino acids consistently increased. In conclusion, since seasoned Hemerocallis coreana Nakai contains a considerable amount of glutamine and asparagine, it has a fresh sour and sweet taste; thus, it will likely be a highly preferred wild edible plant. Also, with an increase of essential amino acids after fermentation, Hemerocallis coreana Nakai is excellent in terms of nutrition. Thus, it may be possible to utilize fermented Hemerocallis coreana Nakai in the development of diverse products.
Quality Characteristics of Kimchi Added with Allium hookeri Root
You, Bo Ram ; Kim, Hyun Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 10, 2013, Pages 1649~1655
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.10.1649
This study is conducted to investigate the quality characteristics of kimchi with added Allium hookeri root (AHR) during a 56-day fermentation process at
. AHR was added to salted cabbage at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, and 20% (w/w). The quality characteristics of the kimchi with added AHR were determined by measuring pH, acidity, salinity, reducing sugar, microbial amounts, and sensory evaluation. AHR had a higher level of crude lipid and potassium than other kinds within the Allium family. All kimchi with added AHR gradually decreased in the pH level compared to Baechu kimchi until 2 weeks, and kept a higher level of pH than Baechu kimchi until 8 weeks. Salinity showed a range of 1.87~2.43% over 8 weeks. The reducing sugar content showed no difference between all kimchi. In sensory evaluations, overall acceptance, taste and texture were highest in kimchi with added 10% AHR.
Quality Properties and Processing Optimization of Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) Sausage
Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri ; Jeong, Da-Hyun ; Bark, Si-Woo ; Kang, Bo-Kyeong ; Pak, Won-Min ; Kang, Ja-Eun ; Park, Hong-Min ; Ahn, Dong-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 10, 2013, Pages 1656~1663
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.10.1656
Processing conditions of mackerel sausage were optimized for number of washes (0, 1, 2, and 3 times) and percentages of various additives: salt (1, 1.5, 2, 3%), phosphate complex (0.1, 0.3, 0.5%), sugar (1, 2, 3%), and corn starch (1, 3, 5%). The whiteness of mackerel sausage significantly increased with increasing washing time, but the whiteness of mackerel sausage prepared with additives did not show large differences. Conditions consisting of two washes, 2% salt, 2% sugar, and 5% corn starch showed the highest hardness and gel strength, whereas the group supplemented with phosphate complex showed no considerable differences compared to the control. In the sensory evaluation, the mackerel sausage prepared with two washes compared to the control scored higher for color, aroma, and overall preference. In addition, mackerel sausage supplemented with 2% salt, 2% sugar, and 5% corn starch scored highest in overall preference. There was no significant difference in mackerel sausage supplemented with phosphate complex. Therefore, these results suggest the optimal conditions for improving the texture and sensory properties of mackerel sausage were two washes, 2% salt, 0.5% phosphate complex, 2% sugar, and 5% corn starch.
The Physical and Chemical Properties of Salt Manufactured by New Process with Brine Produced in Korean Salt-farms
Kim, Kyeong Mi ; Kim, In Cheol ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 10, 2013, Pages 1664~1672
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.10.1664
Solar salt is manufactured naturally, and therefore, it contains insoluble substances such as sandy compounds. This study is performed in order to effectively produce clean sea salt by removing the impurities in sea salt through filtration and evaporation in a vacuum condition. Brine was concentrated and crystallized at
by a rotary vacuum evaporator, which was then recovered as salt crystals by filtration, and then the salt was dehydrated. Manufacturing yields were determined by the amount of water evaporation. Brine was concentrated to 40%, 50% and 60% of the initial volume of brine and manufactured salt were designated as 40S, 50S and 60S, respectively. The salt produced by this process is called ESBS (evaporated salt with brine from salt-farm). The yield of 40S, 50S and 60S were 7.22%, 10.79% and 15.06%, respectively. The NaCl concentration of 40S and 50S were 90.38% and 91.16%, respectively. From a sensory evaluation analysis, the most tasty salt was 40S and the bitter salt was 60S. The average contents of sand compound and insoluble substances in ESBS were 0.001~0.012% and 0.067~0.12%, respectively. The mineral compositions, such as Na, Mg, K, and Ca of 40S and 50S were similar with those of the natural solar salt. In solubility tests, the solubility (g of salt/100 mL
/sec) of 40S, 50S, and 60S was 0.69, 0.70, and 0.69, respectively. On the other hand, the solubility of natural solar salt was 0.47. By comparing the water reabsorption rate analysis results, water reabsorption rate of 40S and 50S was about 3 to 5 times lower than that of the solar salt. In the aspects of physical and chemical properties, such as minerals, impurities, solubility and moisture re-absorption rate, salts developed in this study are judged to be better than that of the general solar salt.
Identification of Pre-pasteurization or Pre-irradiation Treatment in Frozen Crushed Garlic Commercially Available in Korean Market
Kim, Hyo-Young ; Ahn, Jae-Jun ; Kim, Gui-Ran ; Jeong, Jin-Hwa ; Park, Ki-Hwan ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 10, 2013, Pages 1673~1681
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.10.1673
Five different chopped frozen garlic products samples, three from Chinese and two from Korean origins being commercially available products in Korean market, were used to confirm their pre-pasteurization or pre-irradiation status by screening (direct epifluorescent filter technique/aerobic plate counts, DEFT/APC; electronic nose, E-nose; photostimulated luminescence, PSL) and identification (thermoluminescence, TL; electron spin resonance, ESR) techniques. Some parts of samples were gamma-irradiated at 1 kGy to be used as control samples in irradiation history identification. DEFT/APC and e-nose successfully showed distinct results between the domestic and imported samples. The PSL photon counts of all the unknown samples were less than 700 (negative), while most of 1 kGy-irradiated samples gave PSL photon counts more than 5,000 (positive). The domestic unknown samples produced the TL glow peaks after
or more, whereas the imported samples showed TL peaks at the range of
. A clear TL glow peak was obtained from all irradiated samples at
. The unknown samples of Chinese origin gave radiation-specific cellulose ESR signal that was not shown by domestic samples. A multiple step of applying the physical analytical methods is recommended for the effective identification of irradiation status on chopped frozen garlic products.
Physicochemical and Microbial Properties of Korean Traditional Rice Wine, Makgeolli, Supplemented with Mulberry during Fermentation
Kim, Eunkyung ; Chang, Yoon Hyuk ; Ko, Jae Youn ; Jeong, Yoonhwa ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 10, 2013, Pages 1682~1689
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.10.1682
The objective of the present study is to elucidate the physicochemical and microbial properties of Korean traditional rice wine, Makgeolli, supplemented with mulberry during the fermentation process. Four hundred grams of mulberries (20% of the total amount of rice) were ground and incorporated into the rice solution (3.5 L of distilled water, 2.0 kg of rice, 28.0 g of yeast, and 80.0 g of nuruk). The rice solution was then placed in a water bath set at
and left to ferment for 7 days. The alcohol contents between the control and mulberry Makgeolli were not significantly different. The pH values of the control and mulberry Makgeolli decreased and the total acidity values were elevated after a 7-day fermentation. In the microbial analysis, the total viable cell count, lactic acid bacteria count and yeast count increased considerably through the 7-day fermentation process. For all the samples, the glucose and succinic acid contents were highest among all free sugars and organic acids, respectively. Forty-eight different volatile compounds were found in all the samples after the 7-day fermentation process.
Development and Validation of Predictive Model for Foodborne Pathogens in Preprocessed Namuls and Wild Root Vegetables
Enkhjargal, Lkhagvasarnai ; Min, Kyung Jin ; Yoon, Ki Sun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 10, 2013, Pages 1690~1700
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.10.1690
The objective of this study is to develop and validate predictive growth models for Bacillus cereus (diarrhea type) vegetative cells, spores and Staphylococcus aureus in preprocessed Namul (bracken and Chwinamul) and root vegetables (bellflower and burdock). For validation of model performance, growth data for S. aureus in preprocessed vegetables were collected at independent temperatures (18 and
) not used in the model development. In addition, model performance of B. cereus (diarrhea type) in preprocessed vegetables was validated with an emetic type of B. cereus strain. In primary models, the specific growth rate (SGR) of the B. cereus spores was faster than that of the B. cereus vegetative cells, regardless of the kinds of vegetables at 24 and
, while lag time (LT) of the B. cereus spores was longer than that of the B. cereus vegetative cells, except for burdock. The growth of B. cereus and S. aureus was not observed in bracken at temperatures lower than 13 and
, respectively. The LT models for B. cereus (diarrhea type) in this study were suitable in predicting the growth of B. cereus (emetic type) on burdock and Chwinamul. On the other hand, SGR models for B. cereus (diarrhea type) were suitable for predicting the growth of B. cereus (emetic type) on all preprocessed vegetables. The developed models can be used to predict the risk of B. cereus and S. aureus in preprocessed Namul and root vegetables at the retail markets.
Development and Evaluation of Consumer Educational Contents on Hazard Chemicals in Food for Female College Students in Seoul
Cho, Sun-Duk ; Kang, Eun-Jin ; Kim, Meehye ; Park, Sung-Kug ; Paek, Ock-Jin ; Kim, Gun-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 10, 2013, Pages 1701~1706
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.10.1701
Domestic and overseas information with regard to harmful substances are analyzed. From the results, environmental-derived hazard chemicals, which show relatively low recognition, and hazard chemicals that occur unavoidably in food manufacturing process are selected as target harmful substances. Thus, educational leaflet contents were developed based on these substances. To find the effects of education with the above contents, this study surveyed 120 female college students living in Seoul. The purpose of the survey is to analyze the change in recognition, attitude and behavior on hazard chemicals in foods. The survey found that the recognition on harmful substance in foods increased; from 31.5~78.0% before education to 98.8% after education. It also indicates that vague anxiety in which the harmful substances may damage their health decreased by approx. 25.0%; from 77.8% before education to 52.8% after education. For the question of what they would do when government promotes to reduce harmful substances in foods, 12.3% of respondents said that they would actively follow the suggestions and 73.5% of them said that they would do their best before an education. However, 56.1% of them said that they would actively follow the suggestions after the education. It indicates that the ability to recognize harmful substances changed after the education. With regard to consumer behavior, when they knew about the harmful substances in foods, 49.6% of them said that they would select foods after investigating relevant information before the education, while 77.4% of them said that after the education; which is an increase of 27.8%. Further, 45.4% of them said that they would not purchase relevant foods before the education, while 20.9% of them said that after the education; which is a decrease of 24.5%. Therefore, it is considered that vague anxiety of consumers can be eliminated by providing persuasive information on harmful substances. To expand on the communication channel with consumers for food safety, contents development and educational promotion should be enhanced for providing food safety related information.
Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity and Neuronal Cell Protection of Hydrothermal Extracts from Watermelons
Heo, Da-Jeong ; Kim, Su-Jung ; Choi, Ae-Ran ; Park, Hae-Ryong ; Lee, Seung-Cheol ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 10, 2013, Pages 1707~1711
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.10.1707
In our study, each part (flesh, white rind, and green rind) of watermelon was extracted using hydrothermal extraction method at temperatures ranging from 100 to
at the intervals of 10, 30, and 60 min. We found that hydrothermal treatment has a significant bearing not only on tyrosinase inhibitory activity but also on neuronal cell protection of watermelon parts. The peak tyrosinase inhibitory activity (about 93%) was observed in both the flesh and green rind extracts at
for 60 min. In addition, we observed that hydrothermal extracts of watermelon parts at
for 60 min also evidenced significant protection effect for neuronal cell against
in a concentrationdependent manner. The results of this study confirm that hydrothermal treatment may be an efficient processing method for the purpose of obtaining potent bioactive substances from watermelon.
Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of Hot Water Extracts of Medicinal Herbs
Shin, Yu-Jin ; Hwang, Jeong-Man ; Lee, Seung-Cheol ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 10, 2013, Pages 1712~1716
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.10.1712
In our study, as many as 29 edible medicinal herbs were selected for testing their ability in the effective treatment of gout based on oriental medicine theory. We extracted each medicinal herb (135 g) with 4 L of distilled water at
for 210 min. Thereafter, we evaluated both the antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibition activities of the extracts obtained. Among all the edible medicinal herbs used in our study, only the extract from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Korean name: hwang-geum) showed (1) the maximum total phenolic content (TPC) (2.25 mg gallic acid equivalent/mL), (2) DPPH radical scavenging activity (94.04%), and (3) xanthine oxidase inhibition activity (87.75%). We also observed that TPC was relatively highly correlated with both the DPPH radical scavenging activity (r=0.63) and xanthine oxidase inhibition activity (r=0.77). Our results suggest that S. baicalensis G. may be a potent antioxidant source for the extraction and development of nutraceuticals that may be utilized for effective treatment of gout.