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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 42, Issue 12 - Dec 2013
Volume 42, Issue 11 - Nov 2013
Volume 42, Issue 10 - Oct 2013
Volume 42, Issue 9 - Sep 2013
Volume 42, Issue 8 - Aug 2013
Volume 42, Issue 7 - Jul 2013
Volume 42, Issue 6 - Jun 2013
Volume 42, Issue 5 - May 2013
Volume 42, Issue 4 - Apr 2013
Volume 42, Issue 3 - Mar 2013
Volume 42, Issue 2 - Feb 2013
Volume 42, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Phenolic Compound Content and Antioxidant Activity of Citrus Peels
Hwang, Joon-Ho ; Park, Kyeong-Yeol ; Oh, You-Sung ; Lim, Sang-Bin ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 2, 2013, Pages 153~160
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.2.153
The peel from seven types of citrus was extracted with 80% methanol, and their phenolic compound content, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), inhibitory activities of nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by LPS and t-BHP in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells were measured. Total phenolic content was high in Yungkyool, Cheonhyehyang, and Jinkyool (30.6, 30.2, and 28.2 mg GAE/g, respectively), while total flavonoid content was high in Yungkyool and Jinkyool (30.3 and 25.5 mg RE/g, respectively). ORAC was the highest at 1,076 mM TE/g in Yungkyool, followed by Cheonhyehyang (1,012), Jinkyool (984), and Hallabong (914). High inhibitory activity against NO production was shown in Cheonhyehyang, Yungkyool, and Jinkyool with
values of 215.3, 259.2, and 328.9
, respectively. LPS-induced ROS production was inhibited by 16.4% and 12.8% in Hallabong and Jinkyool, while t-BHP-induced ROS production was inhibited by 28.7%, 26.1%, and 26.6% in Jinkyool, Hallabong, and Cheonhyehyang, respectively. Correlation coefficients between total phenolic, total flavonoid content, and ORAC were 0.884 and 0.855. Inhibitory activity against NO production showed higher correlation with total phenolic content than total flavonoid content. It was concluded that citrus peels had potent antioxidant activities and could be used as natural antioxidants in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
Protective Effects of Perilla frutescens Britt var. japonica Extracts from Oxidative Stress in Human HaCaT Keratinocytes
Ji, Na ; Song, Jia-Le ; Kil, Jeung-Ha ; Park, Kun-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 2, 2013, Pages 161~167
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.2.161
The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of methanolic extract from perilla (Perilla frutescens Britt var. japonica) leaves (PLME) on oxidative injury from hydrogen peroxide (
) in human HaCaT keratinoctyes. Cells were co-incubated with various concentrations (0~200
) of PLME for 24 hr, and then exposed to
) for 4 hr.
significantly decreased cell viability (p<0.05). However, PLME provided protection from
-induced HaCaT cell oxidation in a dose-dependent manner. To further investigate the protective effects of PLME on
-induced oxidative stress in HaCaT cells, the cellular levels of lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzymes (including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and catalase (CAT)) were measured. PLME decreased cellular levels of lipid peroxidation, and also increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, the antioxidant activities of PLME were also determined by DPPH and hydroxyl (
) radical scavenging assay, and major antioxidant compounds of PLME were measured by colorimetric methods. DPPH and
radical scavenging activities of PLME increased in a dose dependent manner and was similar to the DPPH scavenging activity of ascorbic acid at 50
; however PLME activities were stronger than ascorbic acid (50
) in the
scavenging assay. The amounts of antioxidant compounds, including total polyphenolics, total flavonoids, and total ascorbic acid from PLME were
mg gallic acid (GAE)/g,
mg rutin (RUE)/g, and
mg ascorbic acid (AA)/g, respectively. These results suggest that PLME has a strong free radical-scavenging activity and a protective effect against
-induced oxidative stress in the keratinocytes.
The Effects of Extraction Conditions on the Antioxidative Effects of Extracts from Campbell Early and Muscat Bailey A Grapevine Leaves
Choi, Soo-Kyong ; Yu, Qi-Ming ; Lim, Eun-Ji ; Seo, Jung-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 2, 2013, Pages 168~174
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.2.168
We investigated the physiological activities of extracts from Campbell Early and Muscat Bailey A (MBA) grapevine leaves. Total phenol and flavonoid contents were highest in ethanol extracts from MBA grapevine leaves compared to extracts from Campbell Early grapevine leaves. Specific polyphenols higher in ethanol extracts from MBA grapevine leaves include gallic acid, epicatechin, caffeic acid, naringin, and resveratrol. Resveratrol content from MBA grapevine leaves increased when extracted for more than two hours in ethanol and water. The hydroxyl radical scavenging ability of ethanol extracts was higher than the water extract from both strains of grapevine leaves. DPPH and total antioxidants were highest in ethanol extracts from MBA grapevine leaves among the other extracts. Therefore, these results suggest that ethanol extracts from MBA grapevine leaves are a highly valuable resource for the development of natural functional foods.
Inhibitory Effects of Lentinus edodes and Rice with Lentinus edodes mycelium on Diabetes and Obesity
Kim, Haeseop ; You, Jeheon ; Jo, Yeongcheol ; Lee, Youngjae ; Park, Inbae ; Park, Jeongwook ; Jung, Myung-A ; Kim, Young-Suk ; Kim, Sunoh ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 2, 2013, Pages 175~181
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.2.175
This study investigated the ability of extracts from Lentinus edodes (LE) and rice with Lentinus edodes mycelium (LEM) to inhibit diabetes and obesity. Lipid accumulation significantly decreased by 78% and 74% upon treatment with 300
of LE and LEM, respectively (p<0.01). Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibition activity increased by 94% and 99% upon treatment with 300
of LE and LEM, respectively. In order to investigate the effect of LE and LEM on diabetes, the inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphate 1B (PTP1B) activity from the LE and LEM extracts at various concentrations (1, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300
) was assessed. PTP1B activity by treatment with 10, 30, and 100
of LE, was inhibited at a rate of 7, 9, and 7% respectively. Also, PTP1B activity from treatment with increasing concentration of LEM led to a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of PTP1B activity (p<0.01). LE and LEM were orally administered for 28 days after a high fat diet (HFD). LE and LEM significantly reduced triglyceride, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. GOT and GPT were not significantly effected. These results indicate that extracts of LE and rice with LEM have potent activities useful in the treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.
Effect of Calcium Extracted from Salted Anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) on Calcium Metabolism of the Rat
Kim, Hyang Suk ; Choi, Eun Ok ; Kim, Man Do ; Choi, Yung Hyun ; Kim, Byung Woo ; Kim, Soo Yeon ; Hwang, Hye Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 2, 2013, Pages 182~187
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.2.182
This study was conducted to examine the effect of calcium extracted from salted anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) on the calcium metabolism of rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed low-calcium diets (0.15%) for 2 weeks after the adjustment period. Rats were divided into five groups and were fed experimental diet for four weeks. Experimental diets were low calcium (LC, 0.15%
(CC), seaweed calcium (SC), calcium lactate (LC), anchovy calcium (AC). The low-calcium diet group (LC) showed the lowest weight gain and had no differences among the groups with adequate calcium intake. Calcium retention was lowest in the LC group and higher in the CL, SC, AC groups than in SC groups. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level was highest in LC group, and significantly low in the CC and AC groups (p<0.05). Parathyroid hormone and osteocalcin levels showed no differences among experimental groups. The urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) level was lower in AC and CC groups compared to the LC group (p<0.05). The dry weight of the femur showed no significant differences among normal calcium groups. The bone mineral density of the femur in AC and CC group were significantly higher than the LC group (p<0.05). From these results, calcium extracted from salted anchovy can be useful as a calcium supplement comparable with calcium carbonate.
Effects of White Bread with Konjac Glucomannan on Body Weight and Serum Lipids on Rats with Diet-Induced Obesity
Park, Jin-Soo ; Lee, Sang-Il ; Park, Inshik ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 2, 2013, Pages 188~194
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.2.188
The effects of white bread supplemented with konjac glucomannan on diet-induced obesity in rats were investigated. Four groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were examined: a non-obese control group (NC), an obese high fat diet group (HF), an obese high fat diet group given bread supplemented with 10% konjac glucomannan (KGM1) and an obese high fat diet group given bread supplemented with 20% konjac glucomannan (KGM2). The daily weight gain of the KGM1 group increased slightly and decreased in the KGM2 group compared to the HF group. The serum triglycerides, total lipid, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol increased in the HF compared to the NC group, whereas they decreased in KGM1 and KGM2 groups. After having this experimental diet for 6 weeks, the body weight in KGM1 and KGM2 groups decreased compared to the HF group. While the initial R
hrer index was 23.13 in the NC group, and 31.50~32.59 in the HF, KGM1, and KGM2 groups, the index after the experimental diets for 6 weeks was 28.39 in the NC group, 36.88 in the HF group, 33.48 in the KGM1 group and 29.64 in the KGM2 group. The level of body fat increased from 1% to 7.14% in the NC group, from 15.60% to 60.05% in the HF group, and from 10.60% to 10.83% in the KMG1 group, but decreased from 10.45% to 8.20% in the KGM2 group. These results demonstrate that white bread with glucomannan is effective in reducing body weight and serum lipids in high fat diet-induced obese rats.
Biochemical Bone Turnover Markers, Bone Mineral Density, and General Characteristics in Korean Women
Kim, Hwa-Young ; Heo, Young-Ran ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 2, 2013, Pages 195~202
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.2.195
This study was carried out to identify the relationship of biochemical bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD), and general characteristics in Korean women. One hundred eighty healthy women, 20 to 50 years of age, living in Gwangju and Chonnam participated. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and osteocalcin (OC) were used as bone formation markers and N-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTx) was used as a bone resorption maker to evaluate the state of bone turnover. T-scores were measured to evaluate BMD. We analyzed general characteristics, including age, menopause status, osteoporosis history, alcohol consumption, physical activity level, and degree of obesity (BMI, percent of fat). The BAP level significantly decreased in the group of twenty-year olds and increased in the non-alcohol consuming group, the group with a family history of osteoporosis, the menopause group, and the obese group (p<0.05). The OC level was lower in the group of twenty-year olds and increased in the non-alcohol intake group and the menopause group (p<0.05). BMD significantly decreased in the obese group (p<0.05). In conclusion, BAP and OC were affected by age, alcohol consumption, osteoporosis history, menopause status, and obesity. BMD was affected by obesity degree. These results suggest that the management of alcohol consumption and obesity are important for maintaining bone status during aging in Korean women.
The Perception of Aseptic Foods in Cancer Patients
Lee, Kyung-A ; Son, Eun-Joo ; Song, Beom-Seok ; Kim, Jae-Hun ; Lee, Ju-Woon ; Lyu, Eun-Soon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 2, 2013, Pages 203~211
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.2.203
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of aseptic foods (sterilized foods with radiation technology) in cancer patients in Busan. The subjects were 192 cancer patients at a hospital. This study was performed through interviews using questionnaires. Patients had perception scores on the need to develop aseptic foods (4.30 points out of 5.00), use aspetic foods (4.06/5.00), and intake aseptic foods (4.04/5.00). Patients less than 59 years old had significantly higher perception scores than those over 60 years old (p<0.05). The scores on aseptic food indicated the importance of various factors, including sanitation (4.86/5.00), good materials (4.82/5.00), nutritional value (4.79/5.00), unused of monosodium glutamate (MSG) (4.66/5.00), taste (4.61/5.00), and reasonable prices (4.60/5.00). The patients who were college graduates showed significantly higher scores and importance in good materials, proper packaging unit, simple cooking methods, food diversity, and familiar foods (p<0.05). In the aseptic menu items, patients wanted to include seasoned raw vegetables (4.11/5.00), a set menu (including cooked grain, soup, and a side dish) (4.08/5.00), seasoned cooked vegetables (4.04/5.00), low sodium kimchi (3.98/5.00), and fermented sauces (3.92/5.00). The patients with gastrointestinal cancer and other cancers (e.g. breast, thyroid, and renal cancer) had significantly higher necessity scores than lung patients for stew, seasoned raw vegetables, salad, low sodium kimchi, and a set menu (p<0.05).
Correlation between Sleep Quality and Snack Intake in Third Year Middle and High School Students in the Gwangju Area
Kim, Hyo Bok ; Park, Yang Won ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 2, 2013, Pages 212~222
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.2.212
We studied the eating habits and sleeping patterns of 682 middle and high school students in their third year in Gwangju. According to the body mass index (BMI) of the subjects, obesity (over weight) was significantly higher in the third graders of high school students (
, 32.9%) than middle school students (
, 14.2%) (p<0.001). In addition, 71.1% of high school students experienced a lack of sleep compared to 48.8% of middle school students (p<0.001). There was a difference between good and bad sleepers in the number of times they ate snacks and the quantity of their snacks. Good sleepers had more fruit and dairy products (e.g. fruit juice 2~4 times (p<0.05), milk 2~4 times (p<0.001), apples 2~4 times, strawberries 2~4 times (p<0.01), and bananas 2~4 times a week), while bad sleepers consumed more beverages, frozen desserts, flour-based foods, fast food, bread, and rice cake. Bad sleepers clearly consumed snacks more frequently. From analyzing the correlations between sleep quality and snack intake, eating fruits 2~4 times a week (30 g~200 g/once) and drinking dairy products 2~4 times a week (120 mL~400 mL/once) appears to promote better sleeping habits.
The Dietary Habits and Perception of Vegetable Intake of Elementary Students in Gwangju and Jeonnam
Go, Young-Sook ; Jeon, Eun-Raye ; Jung, Lan-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 2, 2013, Pages 223~233
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.2.223
The purpose of this study was to analyze the dietary habits and perception of vegetable intake of elementary students in Gwangju and Jeonnam Gokseong county. Data collection was conducted from 5th and 6th grade students of elementary schools in Gwangju and Jeonnam Gokseong county using a structured questionnaire survey. The SPSS program was used for statistics processing and data analysis. The chi-square test was also conducted. In terms of dietary intake habits, female students consumed their meals slower than male students. Information on dietary habits and nutrition was commonly obtained from family, including the mother or father who commonly prepared meals at home. Snacks were commonly consumed less than twice daily, with the Gwangju area having a higher frequency of snacks than the Jeonnam area. Elementary students indicated that vegetables were their least favorite food, with female students having a higher interest in vegetables than male students. The pattern and perception of vegetable intake came when the students (that did not eat vegetables) were lectured by their parents on the nutritive value of vegetables. Most students understood the important nutritional ingredients of vegetables. In the case of an interest in vegetables, the Gwangju area showed significantly more comprehension than the Jeonnam area on the definition and role of dietary fiber, the dental benefits of dietary fiber, and the identification of the environment-friendly certification mark.
Antioxidant Activities and Quality Characteristics of Cookies Supplemented with Mulberry Pomace
Jeon, Hye-Lyun ; Oh, Hye-Lim ; Kim, Cho-Rong ; Hwang, Mi-Hyun ; Kim, Hyung-Don ; Lee, Sang Won ; Kim, Mee Ree ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 2, 2013, Pages 234~243
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.2.234
The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality characteristics and antioxidative properties of cookies supplemented with mulberry pomace (0%, 4%, 8%, 12%). The bulk density, spread ratio, and leavening rate of cookies decreased with increasing amounts of mulberry pomace. The lightness and b value (of the Hunter color system) decreased based on the amount of mulberry pomace. The pH of cookies decreased (acidity increased) with increasing mulberry pomace. The soluble solid content increased according to the amount of added mulberry pomace, but the amount of reducing sugars decreased. In texture analysis, cookies with 12% mulberry pomace had the highest hardness. Total phenol and flavonoid content increased according to the amount of mulberry pomace added. Antioxidant activities, such as DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, and FRAP were highest in cookies with 12% mulberry pomace. In the sensory evaluation, sensory scores for color, taste, flavor, texture, and overall preference were highest in cookies with 8% mulberry pomace. Thus, our results suggest that the optimum amount of mulberry pomace to add to cookies is 8%.
Confirmation of Schizandrin as a Marker Compound in Jangsu Omija Powder
Kim, Yunjeong ; Ha, Na ; Han, Song-Hee ; Jeon, Ji-Young ; Hwang, Minho ; Im, Yong-Jin ; Lee, Sun Young ; Chae, Soo-Wan ; Kim, Min-Gul ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 2, 2013, Pages 244~248
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.2.244
We studied the development of schizandrin as a marker compound in Jangsu Omija. Schizandrin was validated for its LOD (limit of detection), LOQ (limit of quantitation), precision, accuracy, and recovery by HPLC relative to Omija powder. It showed a high linearity in the calibration curve with a coefficient of correlation (
) of 0.9990. The LOD and LOQ were 0.2
, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision of schizandrin calibration standards was 0.06~0.66% and 0.13~1.19%, respectively, and the intra- and inter-day accuracy of schizandrin was 98.35~103.30% and 98.35~103.00%, respectively. Overall, schizandrin was validated through our analytical methods as a marker compound in Jangsu Omija.
Comparative Analysis of Nutritional and Harmful Components in Korean and Chinese Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor)
Yoo, Jeongmi ; Hwang, Jae-Sam ; Goo, Tae-Won ; Yun, Eun-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 2, 2013, Pages 249~254
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.2.249
As part of a study on insects as food, the nutritional and harmful components in the mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) were analyzed. In addition, due to a recent introduction of live Chinese mealworms in the Korean market, components between Korean and Chinese mealworms were compared. Analysis of general composition (moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, crude fiber, and carbohydrates) showed that crude protein (50.32~52.79%) was abundant in both Korean and Chinese mealworm powders, with the protein content in the Chinese mealworm powder higher than that in the Korean mealworm powder by 2.67%. The amino acid compositions were similar, but the fatty acid compositions differed in the Korean and Chinese mealworm powders. The unsaturated fatty acid contents were 76.80~80.55% of the total fatty acid content in the mealworms. The linoleic acid contents in the Korean and Chinese mealworms were
; the linolenic acid contents were 0.47% and 1.31%; and the oleic acid contents were
, respectively. With respect to harmful components, such as heavy metals and bacteria that cause food poisoning, bacteria such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. were not detected in both Korean and Chinese mealworms, and the mercury content was below the standard values for common foods (Korea, 0.03 mg/kg; China, 0.08 mg/kg).
A Study of Coffee Bean Characteristics and Coffee Flavors in Relation to Roasting
Lee, Moon Jo ; Kim, Sang Eun ; Kim, Jong Hwan ; Lee, Sang Won ; Yeum, Dong Min ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 2, 2013, Pages 255~261
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.2.255
This study investigated changes in the physicochemical characteristics and coffee flavors of coffee beans under different roasting conditions. Four different kinds of roasted coffees were analyzed using a headspace gas chromatographic technique. The moisture content and total acidity of roasted coffee decreased whereas the pH and weight loss (%) increased, as coffee beans were roasted at higher temperatures. The Hunter's color values of the roasted coffee (indicating L (lightness) and b (yellowness)) decreased as the roasting temperature of the coffee beans increased, but a (redness) value only increased with light roasting. We also noted that the color of the Arabica coffee was darker than that of the Robusta coffee. The aroma compounds, acetaldehyde, acetone, 2-methylfuran, 2-methylbutanol, 2-methylpyrazine, furfural, 2-propanone, furfuryl alcohol, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine and furfuryl acetate were mainly analyzed. A sensory evaluation of all light-roasted coffees had flavor and sourness and those of all medium-roasted coffees had heaviness and finishness.
Change of Antioxidant Activities in Carrots (Daucus carota var. sativa) with Enzyme Treatment
Yoo, Jin-Kyoun ; Lee, Jin-Hee ; Cho, Hyung-Yong ; Kim, Jung-Gook ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 2, 2013, Pages 262~267
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.2.262
The purpose of this research is to minimize the loss of nutrients in carrots (Daucus carota var. sativa). A protopectinase was used to enzymatically macerated and separate cells without damage. The enzyme modification group's collection rate was 81% (residue rate 19%), while the grinding process group's collection rate was 56% (residue rate 44%)-an over 20% of collection rate difference. Thus we predicted a big difference in transference number after the process and wastage. In comparing ingredient changes in the enzyme modification group versus the grinding process group, the content of
-carotene (the carrot's main ingredient) showed a change in protection factor (PF) (
PF, respectively), total polyphenol content (
, respectively), and total flavonoid content (
, respectively). Thus we confirmed that nutrient destruction, due to cell membrane preservation, occurred less often in the enzyme modification process than the mechanical grinding process group. We also measured DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and nitrite scavenging activity. DPPH radical scavenging activity was
in the enzymatic modification group compared to the mechanical grinding process group, respectively. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was
in the enzymatic modification group compared to the mechanical grinding process group, respectively. Nitrite scavenging activity was
in the enzymatic modification group compared to the mechanical grinding process group, respectively. Our results show that cell membrane preservation, via the protopectinase enzyme process, decreases the loss of nutrients and still preserves inherent antioxidants.
Heavy Metal and Amino Acid Contents of Soybean by Application of Sewage and Industrial Sludge
Moon, Kwang-Hyun ; Kim, Jae-Young ; Chang, Moon-Ik ; Kim, Un-Sung ; Kim, Seong-Jo ; Baek, Seung-Hwa ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 2, 2013, Pages 268~277
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.2.268
This study investigates the effects of accumulated levels of heavy metals and nutrients of cultivated soybean plant tissues, after the continuous application of sewage sludge (SS) and industrial sludge (IS). SS and IS were applied to soybean plants at loading of 0, 11.25, 22.50, and 45.00 Mg/ha, and the contents of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Zn), proteins, and amino acids in the cultivated soybean plants were measured. The Cd content in the soybean was 0.02~0.05 mg/kg, which is within the safety level set in the standard, and that of Pb was 0.02~0.15 mg/kg, which is also within the safety level except for IS 45 Mg/ha. The soybean harvest quantity was higher in the treatment groups than the control group in the first year. However, in the second year, SS had lower harvest and IS had the same level or a decreasing tendency, compared with the control group. In the first year, the content of amino acid which followed handling of SS was increased in the sludge groups more than in the control group in the case of glutamate. However, the influence of continuous application was increased in the sludge groups in the case of amino acids of 12 types. In conclusions, the accumulation in soybean of heavy metals by sludge treatment is not a problem, but the decreased yields needs to be considered. In addition, the most appropriate level of sludge treatment was 11.25 Mg/ha.
A Comparative Study on Foodservices and Their Satisfactions between Kindergartens with and without Dietitians in Chungnam
Lee, Kyoung-Hee ; Kim, Myung-Hee ; Choi, Mi-Kyeong ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 2, 2013, Pages 278~285
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.2.278
We investigated foodservices and levels of their satisfaction from parents of children in kindergartens with and without dietitians. Foodservice facilities consisted of kitchens and cafeterias for all kindergartens with a dietitian (KWD) and only kitchens for all kindergartens without a dietitian (KWOD) (p<0.001). Children consumed lunch in a lunchroom for all KWD and in a classroom for all KWOD (p<0.001). The person in charge of the diet menu was a dietitian for all KWD and a director for 52.2% of KWOD (p<0.001). About 48% of total kindergartens were served different amounts according to the child's age and body size. About 30% of parents from total kindergartens responded that a difficulty of foodservice management was children's safety while distributing the lunch. The majority of respondents claimed that foodservices need a more balanced menu and active instructions on proper dietary habits. Parents who visited and participated in foodservice were significantly higher from KWD than KWOD. Also, the desire to participate in foodservices was significantly higher in the parents from KWD (p<0.01). Sixty one percent of parents from KWD and 19% of parents from KWOD considered foodservices when choosing a kindergarten (p<0.001). The satisfaction in foodservices of parents from KWD was significantly higher from all points of view in terms of the quality of foodservice, nutrition, and hygiene. In conclusion, we found that foodservices and their levels of satisfaction from parents of kindergartens with dietitians were better and higher than those without dietitians. Therefore, all kindergartens should consider having a dietitian exclusively in charge of foodservices.
The Evaluation of Food Service Menus in an Immigration Detention Center
Kim, Hye-Jin ; Kim, Woon Joo ; Lee, Young Eun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 2, 2013, Pages 286~305
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.2.286
The purpose of this study was to investigate the recognition and satisfaction with the menu quality of food services in an immigration detention center. The survey was conducted from January 22, 2010 to April 22, 2010 by questionnaires. A survey with 265 respondents was conducted and data analyzed by the SAS Program. In analyzing leftovers, the most common was kimchi (37.61%), followed by breads (21.52%), and beans/bean curd (17.99%). The common cause for leftover were undesirable taste (31.84%), sickness or a lack of desire for eating (19.85%). In terms of cooking methods, stir-frying, broiling, and frying were highly preferred to steaming, boiling, and salting. In the analysis of preferences in the taste and satisfaction of food service, there were significant differences in hot, sour, bitter, and light tastes (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001). Satisfaction was low with hot and light tastes, whereas sour and the bitter tastes showed a high degree of satisfaction. In the opinions for quality improvement, most immigrants wanted a tastier food supply (58.69%), a diverse food supply (40.54%), and clean utensils (36.68%). In the analysis of the gap between importance and performance, food taste, variety, and sanitation were recognized as poorly performed, causing major dissatisfaction with the food. The overall satisfaction score was 'average' (3 points out of 5 points) with 3.26 points. The satisfaction score showed insignificant difference depending on religions and duration of stay in Korea, but showed significant differences depending on nationality (p<0.001).
Quality and Consumer Perception of White Bread Baked with Hallabong Powder
Bing, Dong-Joo ; Chun, Soon-Sil ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 2, 2013, Pages 306~312
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.2.306
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of white bread and added 2%, 4%, 6%, or 8% Hallabong powder. Dough pH of the control group was 5.65, and it decreased as increasing amounts of Hallabong powder were added. Also, total titratable acidity of dough significantly increased with increases in Hallabong powder. The fermentation power and dough expansion significantly increased with increasing incubation time; the control was highest at 98.67%. White bread pH, specific volume, and baking loss decreased significantly as with increased Hallabong powder content. The bread moisture content was not significantly different between samples, differing only from 40.61~41.83%. Water activity was 0.960 Aw in the 6% Hallabong powder mixture, which was the highest in samples. In color, lightness of crust significantly decreased with increased Hallabong powder content, whereas redness showed the reverse effect. Lightness of crumbs significantly decreased, with increased Hallabong powder content, whereas redness and yellowness showed the reverse effect. In texture, hardness and fracturability significantly increased, while resilience showed the reverse effect. In the sensory evaluation, citrus flavor, bitterness, astringency, and off-flavor significantly increased with increased Hallabong powder content, and the control sample showed the highest score in color, flavor, softness and overall acceptability. The 2% and 4% samples showed more than average scores. Based on these results, Hallabong powder could be considered a functional material. The optimum amount of Hallabong powder to add for baking bread would be 2~4%.
Quality Characteristics of Yanggaeng Incorporated with Mugwort Powder
Choi, In Kyung ; Lee, Jun Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 2, 2013, Pages 313~317
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.2.313
The feasibility of incorporating mugwort powder as a value-added food ingredient in food products was investigated using yanggaeng as a model system. Mugwort powder was incorporated into yanggaeng at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% (w/w) levels by adding mugwort amounts based on the total weight of bean sediment. Lightness and yellowness significantly decreased but redness gradually increased. Hardness, gumminess, chewiness, and springiness increased with higher amounts of mugwort powder added in the formulation. Total polyphenol content and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging activity were significantly influenced by the higher amounts of mugwort powder in the formulation. The highest level of incorporation (8%, w/w) had a considerable adverse effect on consumer acceptance in all attributes. Yanggaeng containing 2% mugwort powder is recommended for overall acceptance, as well as the functional properties of mugwort powder, without sacrificing consumer acceptability.
A Study on the Awareness of Fermented Vegetable Beverage by Gender
Bae, Hyun-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 2, 2013, Pages 318~323
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.2.318
This study was carried out to investigate the levels of awareness of fermented vegetable beverages according to consumers' gender. The data were obtained through questionnaires completed randomly by 441 respondents and analyzed using the SPSS, t-tests, ANOVA, X-square tests, multiple regression, and logistic regression analyses. Among 441 respondents, 32.9% of male and 30.2% of female ever consumed fermented vegetable beverages. This beverage were consumed as an alternative for water in males (6.3%) and in females (7.9%) which was the most common reason for consumption. As for the most common reason for non-consumption, males (5.9%) and females (6.6%) responded that they did not consume fermented vegetable beverages because people around them have never consumed fermented vegetable beverages. The awareness that fermented vegetable beverages help reduce hunger was higher in females (3.2%) than and in males (2.9%). These results revealed that the awareness of fermented vegetable beverages as hunger alleviators was more prevalent in females than in males which can be used as preliminary data for research on the development of fermented vegetable beverages.