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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 42, Issue 12 - Dec 2013
Volume 42, Issue 11 - Nov 2013
Volume 42, Issue 10 - Oct 2013
Volume 42, Issue 9 - Sep 2013
Volume 42, Issue 8 - Aug 2013
Volume 42, Issue 7 - Jul 2013
Volume 42, Issue 6 - Jun 2013
Volume 42, Issue 5 - May 2013
Volume 42, Issue 4 - Apr 2013
Volume 42, Issue 3 - Mar 2013
Volume 42, Issue 2 - Feb 2013
Volume 42, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Effects of Fermentation on the Metabolic Activities of Pine Needle Juice
Kim, So-Yun ; Lee, Hyun-Jung ; Park, Jae-Hee ; Kim, Rae-Young ; Cheong, Hyeonsook ; Park, Eunju ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 3, 2013, Pages 325~334
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.3.325
The objective of this study was to compare the content and metabolic activities between fresh pine needle juice (PNJ) and fermented pine needle juice (FPNJ). A variety of factors were measured, including total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity [DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA), total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), cellular antioxidant capacity (CAC)], anti-genotoxic activity,
-glucosidase inhibitory activity, and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. The TPC was
mg GAE/g in PNJ and FPNJ, respectively. The DPPH RSA, TRAP, and ORAC values increased in a dose-dependent manner for both PNJ and FPNJ, with significantly higher activities in PNJ than FPNJ. The CAC against AAPH-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells was protected by both PNJ and FPNJ. Pretreatment with PNJ and FPNJ in human leukocytes produced significant reductions in
-induced DNA damage at a concentration of
-Glucosidase inhibitory activity was significantly higher in FPNJ than PNJ. The ACE inhibitory activity was about 87.1% and 60.0% in 1:1 diluted PNJ and FPNJ, respectively. This study suggests that the fermentation of PNJ could enhance the regulation of blood glucose metabolism and both PNJ and FPNJ might be a new potential source of natural antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-hypertensive agents applicable to food.
Qualities and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Kyungokgos Sold in Local Markets
Lee, Ka-Soon ; Kim, Gwan-Hou ; Kim, Hyun-Ho ; Seong, Bong-Jae ; Kim, Sun-Ick ; Han, Seung-Ho ; Kang, Eun Ju ; Yoo, Yung Choon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 3, 2013, Pages 335~341
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.3.335
Kyungokgos purchased in local markets in Korea vary in their combination and mixing ratios during processing. This study was investigated qualities of Kyungokgos manufactured traditionally to evaluating its qualities. The general components of Kyungokgos were moisture (18.62~49.78%), ash (0.198~1.211%), protein (0.89~3.58%), lipid (0.16~1.14%) and carbohydrates (47.95~77.08%). The color values of L, a, and b were 26.49~73.87, 16.51~38.64, and 45.41~88.94, respectively. The viscosity was classified into three non-Newtonian type groups: high, medium, and non-dilatant, according to the increase of loop execution times. Three extracts (KOG-1, -7, and -8, in a 30-fold dilution) showed no cytotoxicity toward RAW 264.7 cells, while the extracts of KOG-2, -4, and -5 showed a low cytotoxic effect. KOG-1 and -2 extracts with low cytotoxicity markedly inhibited the production of the inflammatory mediators-nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-
) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results indicate that KOG-1 and -2 extracts have anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.
Organosulfur Compounds in Fermented Garlic Extracts and the Effects on Alcohol Induced Cytotoxicity in CYP2E1-Transfected HepG2 Cells
Jung, Eun-Bong ; Choi, Ji-Hwi ; Yu, Heui-Jong ; Kim, Ki-Ho ; Lee, Sung-Ku ; Hwang, Young-Il ; Lee, Seung-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 3, 2013, Pages 342~347
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.3.342
In this study, we investigated changes in the organosulfur compounds of garlic (by fermentation with lactic acid bacteria) and the effects of these fermented garlic extracts on alcohol-induced cytotoxicity in CYP2E1-transfected HepG2 cells. Lactobacillus plantarum has the highest growth rate in a garlic medium and the S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) in fermented garlic extracts with Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus were significantly higher compared to other lactic acid bacteria strains (p<0.05). The SAC, S-ethyl cysteine (SEC) and S-methyl cysteine (SMC) in garlic extracts were all increased by fermentation with lactic acid bacteria. However, alliin in the fermented garlic extracts with lactic acid bacteria strains was lower than the original garlic extract and the contents of cycloalliin in the garlic extracts did not change with fermentation (p<0.05). The electron donating ability of the fermented garlic extracts increased with dose. The electron donating ability of the fermented garlic extract with L. plantarum and P. pentosaceus was over 90% efficient at 5 mg/g. The fermented garlic extracts (with lactic acid bacteria) and garlic extract were not influenced, up to
, in CYPE1-transfected HepG2 cells. The CYPE1-transfected HepG2 cell viabilities were 92.60% and 92.23% when treated with both alcohol (200 mM) and fermented garlic extract (
) with lactic acid bacteria respectively, for 6 days.
Effects of D-Tagatose on the Growth of Intestinal Microflora and the Fermentation of Yogurt
Kang, Kyoung-Myoung ; Park, Chang-Su ; Lee, Shin-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 3, 2013, Pages 348~354
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.3.348
To investigate the effect of tagatose on the growth of intestinal bacteria, various species were cultivated individually on m-PYF medium containing tagatose as a carbon source. The tagatose inhibited the growth of intestinal harmful microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. In the case of beneficial microorganisms found in the intestine, Lactobacillus casei grew effectively on m-PYF medium containing tagatose, while Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Leuconostoc citreum, and Lactobacillus acidophilus did not. To examine the effect of tagatose on fermentation by Lactobacillus casei, yogurt was prepared with tagatose as a carbon source. The resulting acid production stimulated a remarkable growth of lactic acid bacteria in the yogurt. After fermentation for 24 hours, the viable cell count and viscosity of yogurt were above 8.49 log CFU/mL and 1,266 cps, respectively. Moreover, sensory evaluations showed that the yogurt supplemented with tagatose was as acceptable as control yogurt prepared with glucose as a carbon source. The changes in pH, titratable acidity and lactic acid bacteria in yogurt prepared with tagatose did not show any significant changes during storage for 15 days at
The Effects of Soybean Protopectinase on Melanin Biosynthesis
Yoo, Jin-Kyoun ; Lee, Jin-Hee ; Cho, Hyung-Yong ; Kim, Jung-Gook ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 3, 2013, Pages 355~362
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.3.355
This study was performed to assess the antioxidant activities and whitening effects of protopectinase enzymes and mechanical maceration from soybeans on melanin synthesis. The whitening effects of enzyme treatment and mechanical maceration were examined by an in vitro mushroom tyrosinase assay and by assessing markers in B16BL6 melanoma cells. We assessed inhibitory effects on the expression of melanogenic enzymes, including tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1), and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP-2) in B16BL6 cells. Inhibitory effects on free radical generation were determined by measuring DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. In DPPH radical scavenging activity, enzyme treatment and mechanical maceration had a potent anti-oxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner and significantly inhibited tyrosinase activity in vitro and in B16BL6 melanoma cells. There was also an inhibition in the expression of tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2 in B16BL6 melanoma cells. Our results show that soybean protopectinase treatment inhibits melanogenesis, with the underlying mechanism possibly due to the inhibition of tyrosinase activity and tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2 expression. We suggest that soybean protopectinase should be contained as natural active ingredients for antioxidant and whitening cosmetics.
Nutrients and Antioxidative Activities of Metasequoia glyptostroboides
Bae, Young-Il ; Lee, Ju-Won ; Ha, Tae Jung ; Hwang, Seung-Ha ; Shin, Chang-Sik ; Jeong, Chang-Ho ; Kim, Il-Hun ; Shim, Ki-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 3, 2013, Pages 363~368
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.3.363
The nutrients and antioxidative activities of fruits and leaves from Metasequoia glyptostroboides were investigated to provide basic data for the future development of functional foods. The nitrogen-free extract contents of fruit and leaves were 69.04% and 50.47%, respectively. Total phenolic content was higher in leaves (21.75 mg/GAE g) compared to the fruit (19.95 mg/GAE g). The mineral components of fruit and leaves mainly consisted of calcium (2,136.08 and 304.85 mg/100 g, respectively), potassium (1,355.53 and 1,144.04 mg/100 g, respectively), and phosphorous (426.30 and 350.50 mg/100 g, respectively). In terms of amino acid composition, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, proline, and leucine were relatively high, but methionine and cystine were low. The hot water extract from leaves was a more potent free radical-scavenger and had higher reducing activities than extracts from fruit. Thus, phenolics of M. glyptostroboides leaves can be utilized as an effective functional food substance for its natural antioxidant properties.
In vitro Antioxidant, Anti-allergic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Ethanol Extracts from Korean Sweet Potato Leaves and Stalks
Kwak, Chung Shil ; Lee, Kun Jong ; Chang, Jin Hee ; Park, June Hee ; Cho, Ji Hyun ; Park, Ji Ho ; Kim, Kyung Me ; Lee, Mee Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 3, 2013, Pages 369~377
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.3.369
In order to increase the utilization of sweet potato leaves and stalks as much as roots, it is necessary to study their beneficial potential. In this study, the antioxidant, antiallergic and anti-inflammatory effects of sweet potato leaves and stalks were evaluated by measuring total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, DPPH radical scavenging effects, the reducing power and inhibition effects on xanthine oxidase (XO), 5-lipoxygenase (LOX), and cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 activities. Blanched sweet potato leaves (SL), raw whole purple stalks (ST) and peeled stalks (PST) were freeze-dried and extracted with 95% ethanol. Total polyphenol content was highest in SL (11.03 mg/g), followed by ST (0.87 mg/g), and PST (0.37 mg/g). Total flavonoid content was highest for SL (9.01 mg/g), followed by ST (0.50 mg/g) and PST (0.25 mg/g). The
for DPPH radical scavenging effects was highest for SL (
), followed by ST (
) and PST (
). The reducing power was highest for SL (
ascorbic acid eq./mL), followed by ST (
ascorbic acid eq./mL) and PST (
ascorbic acid eq./mL) with
of ethanol extract. The inhibition rate on XO activity was highest for SL (13.06%), followed by ST (5.05%) and PST (0.0%) at
extract treatment. The inhibition rate on COX-2 activity was highest for SL (55.34%), followed by ST (2.18%) and PST (0.0%) at
extract treatment. The inhibition rate on 5-LOX activity was highest for SL (91.16%), followed by ST (33.38%) and PST (14.93%) at
treatment. Taken together, sweet potato leaves showed high antioxidative, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities, especially with very strong inhibition effects on 5-LOX activity. These beneficial effects of sweet potato leaves might be mainly caused by the high content of polyphenols and flavonoids.
Antioxidant and Alcohol Degradation Activities of Extracts from Acer tegmentosum Maxim.
Choi, Jun-Hyeok ; Lee, So-Hee ; Park, Yun-Hee ; Lee, Sung-Gyu ; Jung, Yung-Tae ; Lee, In-Seon ; Park, Jun-Hong ; Kim, Hyun-Jeong ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 3, 2013, Pages 378~383
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.3.378
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant activities of extracts from Acer tegmentosum Maxim. (AT) and the ability of these extracts to reduce the serum alcohol concentration in rats administered alcohol. The total amount of polyphenols in hot water and ethanol extracts from AT were
, respectively, while the total amount of flavonoids in hot water and ethanol extracts from AT were
, respectively. FRAP values in AT extracts were
. AT extracts were capable of directly scavenging DPPH and ABTS free radicals, with higher inhibitory activities for TBA. The hepatoprotective effect of hot water extracts from AT against ethanol-induced oxidative damage was investigated. Ethanol-induced damage on HepG2 liver cells were protected by hot water extracts from AT. Administration of hot water extracts from AT (200 mg/kg) had reduced serum alcohol levels in acute alcohol-treated rats. These results indicate that AT extracts can be protective against alcohol-induced toxicity, potentially through its antioxidant properties.
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Extracts from Caesalpinia sappan L. on Skin Inflammation
Eum, Won Sik ; Lee, Kwang-Jae ; Kim, Dae Won ; Lim, Soon Sung ; Kang, Il-Jun ; Park, Jinseu ; Choi, Soo Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 3, 2013, Pages 384~388
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.3.384
This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of extracts from Caesalpinia sappan L. (CSL) on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema in mice. Skin inflammation was detected by immunohistochemistry and the protein and mRNA expression levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-
) detected by Western blotting and RT-PCR. The activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-
) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were analyzed by Western blotting. CSL extracts markedly inhibited the TPA-induced expression of COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Also, CSL extracts significantly reduced the activation of NF-
and MAPK. These results suggest that CSL extracts may serve as therapeutic agents against skin diseases related to inflammation.
The Dietary Effect of Royal Jelly Supplementation on Epidermal Levels of Filaggrin and Free Amino Acids during Menopause in Rats
Kim, Yeaji ; Han, Sang-Mi ; Cho, Yunhi ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 3, 2013, Pages 389~396
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.3.389
Epidermal hydration is mainly maintained by natural moisturizing factors (NMFs). Of these various NMFs, free amino acids (AAs) are major constituents generated by filaggrin degradation. The reduction of these AAs has been reported in aging skin induced during menopause. In this study, we examined whether the dietary supplementation of royal jelly (RJ) during the pre- and post-menopausal period alters epidermal levels of filaggrins, free AAs, and peptidylarginine deiminase-3 (PAD-3) (an enzyme involved in filaggrin degradation processes). Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups: groups fed a control diet for 12 weeks, in which an ovariectomy (OVX) or sham operation (SHAM) were underwent at week 4; groups fed a diet with 1% RJ harvested in different area of Korea (RJ1 and RJ2); and a group fed a diet with isoflavone (IF), the typical functional food for menopause prevention, for 4 weeks before and 8 weeks after an ovariectomy operation. In the epidermis of group OVX, total filaggrins (including profilaggrin and filaggrin) were reduced; these levels in groups RJ1 and IF were similar or less than in group OVX. However, total AAs, which showed no apparent difference between groups SHAM and OVX, were highly increased in groups RJ1 and IF. Specifically, aspartate (Asp) and proline (Pro), the major AAs in functioning NMF, were highly increased in group RJ1. Although total filaggrins, profilaggrin, filaggrin and PAD3 increased, total AAs (including Asp and Pro) in group RJ2 were modest or less than in group RJ1. The PAD3 alteration was not apparent among the four other groups. Taken together, we demonstrate that the diet supplementation of RJ1 enhanced filaggrin degradation (but not through the increased protein expression of PAD3), and increased total AAs, Asp and Pro. RJ1 could be a dietary supplementation for preventing the skin aging induced during menopause.
Pre-treatment of the White-Spotted Flower Chafer (Protaetia brevitarsis) as an Ingredient for Novel Foods
Kwon, Eun-Young ; Yoo, Jeongmi ; Yoon, Young-Il ; Hwang, Jae-Sam ; Goo, Tae-Won ; Kim, Mi-Ae ; Choi, Young-Cheol ; Yun, Eun-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 3, 2013, Pages 397~402
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.3.397
The pharmacological efficacy of Protaetia (P.) brevitarsis larvae has been described in the Dongui Bogam. It is believed that the larvae are particularly useful for hepatic disorders. However, natural aversion has made it difficult to consume these larvae as food. Thus, we sought to make an eatable form of the larvae by establishing optimal conditions for larvae preparation. Larvae were selectively bred, sterilized, and a powder of larvae generated by freeze-drying. Afterward, the CellTiter
AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay (MTS) with the RAW 264.7 cell line was used to validate the safety of the powder as a food ingredient. We determined that oak sawdust sterilized by water vapor for 5 minutes could be used for larvae feed, and a feeding for 3~5 days followed by a fasting for 3 days were optimal conditions for larvae preparation. In addition, sterilization of larvae at
(to avoid contamination of pathogenic bacteria and fungi) was successfully applied in the production of edible powder from P. brevitarsis. The optimized processes established in our experiments can be used in the industrial production of P. brevitarsis as a food ingredient.
Quality Characteristics of Sweet Potato Varieties Baked and Freeze Thawed
Jang, Gwi Yeong ; Li, Meishan ; Lee, Sang Hoon ; Woo, Koan Sik ; Sin, Hyun Man ; Kim, Hong Sig ; Lee, Junsoo ; Jeong, Heon Sang ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 3, 2013, Pages 403~409
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.3.403
We investigated the quality characteristics of sweet potatoes [Shinyulmi (SM), Yeonhwangmi (HM) and Yunmi (YM) variety] baked and subsequently freeze thawed. Baking was performed with a far infrared radiation oven at
for 40 minutes. Baked sweet potatoes were frozen at
for 30 days, and thawed by a microwave oven for 3 minutes. The crude fat and protein content of HM were higher than the SM and YM varieties. Total sugar, reducing sugar, and free sugar content were increased after baking. Lightness, redness, and yellowness, as well as content of
-carotene, decreased after baking and freeze-thawing. Hardness, gumminess, and cohesiveness decreased during thawing after freezing, except for the YM variety. In a sensory evaluation, appearance, flavor, sweetness and overall acceptance were higher from baking and freeze-thawing the SM variety, instead of the HM and YM variety. From the results, the SM variety is preferred for the production of baked sweet potatoes.
Qualities of Konjac Containing Tunic Extract from Styela clava
Kim, Si-Kyung ; Kim, Seung-Wan ; Noh, Su-Jin ; Kim, Yeon-Joo ; Kang, Ji-Hee ; Lee, Seung-Cheol ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 3, 2013, Pages 410~414
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.3.410
Styela (S.) clava (Korean name: miduduk) tunic is produced as a by-product after processing of S. clava. For utilizing this tunic, a konjac containing the tunic extracts was prepared and the qualities evaluated for their color, textural properties, and sensory attributes. The tunic extract was prepared by boiling tunic with water, followed by filtration through filter paper. Significant 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging activity was found in the tunic extract. Increasing the concentration of tunic extract in the konjac tended to decrease lightness (L) and increase the redness (a) and the yellowness (b) of the konjac. The strength and hardness of the konjac increased with increasing concentrations of the tunic extract. All test samples with a 3 mm thickness had good flexibility and did not break even after 4 times folds. In sensory evaluations, the konjac containing 25% S. clava tunic extracts acquired a relatively higher score. The results suggest that S. clava tunic can be applied to konjac products to improve their quality and functionality.
Fortification of Rice with Soy Hydrosylate Containing CHP (Cyclo Histidine-Proline)
Lee, Hyun Jung ; Park, Hyein ; Park, Yooheon ; Suh, Hyung Joo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 3, 2013, Pages 415~420
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.3.415
A method for coating rice with a novel substance, SHC [soybean hydrolysate with Cyclo Histidine-Proline (CHP)], was developed to produce functional rice for food production. The dip coating and spray coating method was tested to reduce the loss of functionality during the manufacturing of enriched rice. The dip coating method showed a very low absorption rate (
) of the functional substance compared to control (
), while the spray-coating method with protective coating materials [a methyl cellulose solution (l%, w/v) containing 5% (w/v) of the SHC] showed relatively adequate absorption characteristics. A light yellowish stain was observed in the rice samples processed by the spray-coating method (b value; surface1 0.69, flour 4.91) compared to raw rice (b value; surface 9.67, flour 4.86). The microscopic appearance of whole kernels and longitudinal sections revealed that cracks formed in all rice samples, regardless of the coating method. In conclusion, spray coating is a potential method for producing SHC-fortified rice with excellent physical characteristics.
Physical Properties of Red Pepper Powder at Different Particle Sizes
Oh, Seung Hee ; Kang, You Ri ; Lee, Sang Hoon ; Hwang, In Guk ; Yoo, Seon Mi ; Kim, Hae Young ; Lee, Junsoo ; Jeong, Heon Sang ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 3, 2013, Pages 421~426
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.3.421
We evaluated physical properties such as density, compressive characteristics, irrecoverable work, and stress relaxation of red pepper powder with different particle sizes. The particle sizes showed a normal distribution in size, with a particle size of
accounting for 70.95% of the particles in the Hanbando cultivar and 82.21% in the Cheongyang cultivar. Loose bulk density ranged between 0.34 and
, while tapped bulk density ranged between 0.43 and
. The Hausner ratio was highest (1.531) at a particle size below
in the Cheongyang cultivar. The compressibility and compression ratios were 0.001351~0.004383 and 1.0062~1.0265, respectively. Irrecoverable work ranged between 69.16% and 90.24%. The
value and stress relaxation characteristics were greatest (1.74 and 44.92%, respectively) at particle sizes of
in the Cheongyang cultivar. The dynamic angle of repose was
. Overall, particle sizes below
had the highest compactibility, cohesiveness, and transformation.
Effects of Feed Moisture on the Physicochemical Properties of Extruded Corn Fibers
Kim, Cheol-Hyun ; Ryu, Gi Hyung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 3, 2013, Pages 427~433
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.3.427
This study was designed to examine changes in the physicochemical properties of extruded corn fibers with different amounts of feed moisture (30, 40, and 50%). The screw speed and die temperature were fixed to 200 rpm and
, respectively. The crude ash, fat, and protein in corn fiber decreased from the extrusion process. The insoluble dietary fiber in corn fibers decreased, while soluble dietary fiber increased at a feed moisture of 30%. The specific length of the extruded corn fiber increased while the specific mechanical energy input, density, breaking strength, and elastic modulus decreased. The water absorption index (WAI) and reducing sugar content of the corn fibers did not significantly change, but the water soluble index (WSI) decreased as the feed moisture content of the corn fiber increased. On the other hand, the WAI of de-starched corn fiber decreased while WSI and reducing sugars increased as the feed moisture content of the corn fiber increased.
The Optimal Production and Characteristics of an Alginate-degrading Enzyme from Vibrio sp. PKA 1003
Kim, Hyun-Jee ; Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ; SunWoo, Chan ; Jung, Seul-A ; Jeong, Da-Hyun ; Jung, Hee-Ye ; Lim, Sung-Mee ; Ahn, Dong-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 3, 2013, Pages 434~440
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.3.434
This study was conducted to screen the characteristics and alginate-degrading activity of marine bacterium isolated from brown seaweed (Sargassum thunbergii). The results of 16S ribosomal RNA sequence analysis the strain the genus Vibrio and the strain was subsequently named Vibrio sp. PKA 1003. The optimum culture conditions for the growth of Vibrio sp. PKA 1003 were at pH 7, 3% NaCl,
, and 6% alginic acid, with a 48-hour incubation time. A crude enzyme preparation from Vibrio sp. PKA 1003, showed its highest levels of alginate-degradation activity when cultured at pH 9,
, and 6% alginic acid, with a 63-hour incubation time. Thin layer chromatography analyses confirmed that the crude enzyme released monomers or oligomers from sodium alginate, and results from trypsin treatment showed that the alginate degrading activity depends on this enzyme produced by Vibrio sp. PKA 1003. These results suggest that Vibrio sp. PKA 1003 and its alginate-degrading crude enzyme is useful for the production of alginate oligosaccharides.
Quality Characteristics of Vinegar Fermented Using Omija (Schizandra chinensis Baillon)
Mo, Hye-Won ; Jung, Young-Hee ; Jeong, Ji-Suk ; Choi, Kyoung-Ho ; Choi, Sang-Won ; Park, Chan-Sung ; Choi, Mi-Ae ; Kim, Mi-Lim ; Kim, Mi-Sa ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 3, 2013, Pages 441~449
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.3.441
This study was conducted to ferment high quality vinegar by using Omija fruit. Strains of bacteria producing acetic acid were isolated from spoiled Omija wine (OV1 and OV2) and traditional rice vinegar (RA). The bacterium was from optimally-oxidized Omija wine containing 6.0% ethanol and from Omija vinegar with 5.21% acetic acid by 14 days of fermentation. The Omija vinegar got the highest sensory score (5.80) among several commercial vinegars. The Omija vinegar showed a potent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas fluorescens by the paper disc test, while Omija wine had limited antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. fluorescens. The diameter of the clear zone formed by the paper disc test using Omija vinegar was not less than 9.5 mm. The DPPH free radical-scavenging activity of Omija wine was higher than that from Omija water extracts. The nitrite scavenging ability of Omija wine (36.98% of all nitrites present) and vinegar (31.14%) was higher than that from Omija water extracts (22.53%). Omija vinegar exhibited strong antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In conclusion, we prepared high quality vinegar from dried Omija.
Quality Characteristics of Kimchi Fermented with Abalone or Sea Tangle Extracts
Lim, Jeong-Ho ; Park, Seong-Soon ; Jeong, Jin-Woong ; Park, Kee-Jai ; Seo, Kyoung-Ho ; Sung, Jung-Min ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 3, 2013, Pages 450~456
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.3.450
This study evaluated the quality characteristics of fermented abalone-kimchi or sea tangle-kimchi during 28 days of storage at
. Abalone and sea tangle were added as extracts compared to a control. We analyzed lactic acid bacteria, pH, acidity, salinity, reducing sugars, free sugars, organic acids, free amino acids, and sensory characteristics. The lactic acid bacteria levels were 4.4~5.3 log CFU/g on day 0, 6.8~7.1 log CFU/g after 7 days, and continued to rise during the fermentation period. The salinity increased slightly over time. As fermentation progressed, pH and reducing sugars, free sugars, and organic acid contents decreased. Free sugars, in particular, dramatically decreased about 70% compared to the initial day. The total free amino acid content was higher in abalone-kimchi. In terms of free amino acid contents, taurine was high in abalone-kimchi, while glutamic acid and aspartic acid content was high in sea tangle-kimchi. The sensory evaluation results show that abalone-kimchi and sea tangle-kimchi had higher scores for their savory taste and overall acceptance compared to the control.
Evaluation of the HACCP System on Microbiological Hazard during Dressing Production
Kwon, Sang-Chul ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 3, 2013, Pages 457~463
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.3.457
The purpose of this study was to apply the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system to the production of dressing. The hazard analysis examined the main materials, industrial water, microbial evaluation, and airborne microorganisms of each working area, as well as the pathogenic microbial contamination risk. The survey was conducted at SJ Company in Jincheon (Chungchengbuk-do), Korea for 30 days from April 1, 2012 to April 30, 2012. The results showed that raw material microorganisms had a total plate count in industrial water below
CFU/mL in working room I, working room II, the packing room, washing water, and the inspection room for five times in each place. During dressing production (including heat treatment and mixing), general bacteria were detected at an average of
CFU/mL, but yeast, mold, and pathogenic bacteria were not detected. Airborne microbiological evaluation (for total plate count, yeast, and mold) found levels below the legal limit at each working area. While workers were positive for microbes in total plate counts, coliform and Staphylococcus aureus were not detected. In conclusion, standards for hygienic management should be established to prevent and decrease hazards, such as general bacteria and pathogenic microorganisms (for example, E. coli, B. cereus, Listeria spp, Salmonella spp, Staph. aureus, Clostridium perfringens, yeast, and mold), and to found critical limits for microorganisms with an HACCP system.
The Implementation of a HACCP System through u-HACCP
Application and the Verification of Microbial Quality Improvement in a Small Size Restaurant
Lim, Tae-Hyeon ; Choi, Jung-Hwa ; Kang, Young-Jae ; Kwak, Tong-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 3, 2013, Pages 464~477
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.3.464
There is a great need to develop a training program proven to change behavior and improve knowledge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate employee hygiene knowledge, hygiene practice, and cleanliness, before and after HACCP system implementation at one small-size restaurant. The efficiency of the system was analyzed using time-temperature control after implementation of u-HACCP
. The employee hygiene knowledge and practices showed a significant improvement (p<0.05) after HACCP system implementation. In non-heating processes, such as seasoned lettuce, controlling the sanitation of the cooking facility and the chlorination of raw ingredients were identified as the significant CCP. Sanitizing was an important CCP because total bacteria were reduced 2~4 log CFU/g after implementation of HACCP. In bean sprouts, microbial levels decreased from 4.20 logCFU/g to 3.26 logCFU/g. There were significant correlations between hygiene knowledge, practice, and microbiological contamination. First, personnel hygiene had a significant correlation with 'total food hygiene knowledge' scores (p<0.05). Second, total food hygiene practice scores had a significant correlation (p<0.05) with improved microbiological qualities of lettuce salad. Third, concerning the assessment of microbiological quality after 1 month, there were significant (p<0.05) improvements in times of heating, and the washing and division process. On the other hand, after 2 months, microbiological was maintained, although only two categories (division process and kitchen floor) were improved. This study also investigated time-temperature control by using ubiquitous sensor networks (USN) consisting of an ubi reader (CCP thermometer), an ubi manager (tablet PC), and application software (HACCP monitoring system). The result of the temperature control before and after USN showed better thermal management (accuracy, efficiency, consistency of time control). Based on the results, strict time-temperature control could be an effective method to prevent foodborne illness.
Analysis of Consumer Consumption Status and Demand of Rice-wine
Kim, Eun-Hae ; Ahn, Byung-Hak ; Lee, Min-A ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 3, 2013, Pages 478~486
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.3.478
The purpose of this study was to analyze consumer consumption and product concept demands of Korean rice-wine. An online survey, conducted from April 28, 2010 to May 6 2010, targeted 200 consumers in Seoul and the Gyeonggi-do area. More than half of the respondents (51.3%) drank rice-wine because of the taste. The common reasons for dissatisfaction with rice-wine were hangovers (35.7%) and taste (16.9%). From analyzing rice-wine preferences, the most preferred ingredient was rice (57.8%), while the most preferred aroma and taste was derived from the fruit (48.7% and 58.4%, respectively). The most common methods consumers observed for promoting rice-wine consumption were the "development and management of rice-wine brands" (59.7%), and "continuous promotion" (44.8%). The most important attributes of a rice-wine product included its taste (4.60), followed by its quality (4.41) using 5-point Likert scale. An importance-performance analysis (IPA) was performed for the 17 attributes of rice-wine and identified targets for product management strategies, including the "usage of domestic ingredients", "ease of purchase", clarity of "product information", and "external image". Therefore, developing solid concepts in marketing strategy are required and may be achieved by understanding the consumer preferences and demands of rice-wine.
Pharmacological Activities of Coffee Roasted from Fermented Green Coffee Beans with Fungal Mycelia in Solid-state Culture
Shin, Ji-Young ; Kim, Hoon ; Kim, Dong-Gu ; Baek, Gil-Hun ; Jeong, Heon-Sang ; Yu, Kwang-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 3, 2013, Pages 487~496
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.3.487
Green coffee beans (CB, Indonesian Mandheling) were fermented with three kinds of mushrooms (Phellinus linteus, PL; Hericium erinaceum, HE; Ganoderma lucidum, GL) or two kinds of mycelia from molds (Monascus purpureus, MP; Monascus ruber, MR) using solid-state culture to enhance physiological activity. After the roasting of fermented green coffee beans, roasted coffees were extracted with a hot-water decoction or 95% ethanol reflux. Yields from hot water extracts (HW, 17.7~25.3%) were higher than those from ethanolic extracts (EE, 9.5~12.2%). Hot-water extracts of roasted coffees from green coffee beans fermented with two molds (MP-CB-HW and MR-CB-HW) showed higher total polyphenols, flavonoids, and DPPH free radical scavenging activity than roasted coffees from non-fermented (CB-HW) or fermented green coffee beans with the three mycelia from mushrooms. MR-CB-HW also had the most potent macrophage stimulating and mitogenic activity (1.32 and 1.40-fold of CB-HW, respectively). In addition, MP-CB-EE and MR-CB-EE did not show any cytotoxicity to the RAW 264.7 cell at a concentration of
, and these extracts significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production from the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell line (38.6 and 37.0% of the LPS-treated group). Meanwhile, the chlorogenic acid concentrations of MP-CB-HW or MR-CB-HW highly increased (to 76.21 or
, respectively), but caffeine concentrations were not affected by solid-state fermentation. In conclusion, the physiological activities of roasted coffees were enhanced by the solid-state culture of green coffee beans with M. purpureus or M. ruber, suggesting that these roasted coffees could possibly serve industrial applications as functional coffee beverages.