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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 42, Issue 12 - Dec 2013
Volume 42, Issue 11 - Nov 2013
Volume 42, Issue 10 - Oct 2013
Volume 42, Issue 9 - Sep 2013
Volume 42, Issue 8 - Aug 2013
Volume 42, Issue 7 - Jul 2013
Volume 42, Issue 6 - Jun 2013
Volume 42, Issue 5 - May 2013
Volume 42, Issue 4 - Apr 2013
Volume 42, Issue 3 - Mar 2013
Volume 42, Issue 2 - Feb 2013
Volume 42, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Antioxidant and Anticancer Effects of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms
Qi, Yongcai ; Zhao, Xin ; Lim, Yaung-Iee ; Park, Kun-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 5, 2013, Pages 655~662
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.655
The antioxidant and anticancer effects of the edible mushrooms Lentinus edodes (LE, Pyogo mushroom) and Agaricus blazei (AB, Agaricus mushroom), and the medicinal mushrooms Cordyceps militaris (CM, Dong chunghacho), Ganoderma lucidum (GL, Youngji mushroom), Inonotus obliquus (IO, Chaga mushroom), and Phellinus linteus (PL, Sangwhang mushroom) were studied in vitro. The bioactive components were extracted by methanol. The antioxidant effects were evaluated using the DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. The antioxidant activities of medicinal mushrooms (35~90%) were higher than edible mushrooms (4~23%). The in vitro anticancer effects of the mushrooms were evaluated using the MTT assay in AGS gastric adenocarcinoma cells, HCT-116 colon carcinoma cells, and HepG2 hepatoma cells. The medicinal mushrooms CM, GL, IO, and PL showed 28~91% inhibition, while the edible mushrooms LE and AB exhibited 5~40% inhibition. The medicinal mushrooms, compared to edible mushrooms, effectively down-regulated the gene expression of the anti-apoptosis related gene Bcl-2 and inflammation-related genes iNOS and COX-2, and up-regulated the pro-apoptosis gene Bax (p<0.05). Total polyphenol and flavonoids contents of the medicinal mushrooms were 9.1~35.7 mg/g, while the edible mushrooms showed 0~13.3 mg/g. This study showed that antioxidant activities and anticancer activities in vitro increased in the order LE, AB, GL, CM, IO and PL. LE and AB showed the lowest effects among the samples, GL and CM had medium effects, and IO and PL exhibited the highest effects in the antioxidant and anticancer effect for three different human cancer cells. Taken together, PL resulted in the highest and LE the lowest effects in this study.
Antioxidant Activity of Panax ginseng Flower-buds Fermented with Various Microorganisms
Kim, Kyoung-Hee ; Kim, Da-Mi ; Byun, Myung-Woo ; Yun, Young-Sik ; Yook, Hong-Sun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 5, 2013, Pages 663~669
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.663
To improve the use of ginseng flower-buds, antioxidant activities of ginseng flower-buds fermented using a variety of useful microorganisms were analyzed. Non-fermented grape pomace was used as a control, while fermentation was carried out using Bacillus subtilis (BS), Lactobacillus plantarum (LP), Lactobacillus casei (LC), Candida utilis (CU), Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CHY1011 (Y1), Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain ZP 541 (Y2), and a mixed-strain culture with LP, LC, and CU (M). The total polyphenol content of ginseng flower-buds was highest in the control compared to the other fermented ginseng flower-buds. DPPH radical and ABTS radical scavenging activity were also highest in fermented group by BS. The FRAP value (10 mg/mL) was highest in the control group but did not show a significant difference in the fermented group by BS. The highest reducing power activity was in the fermented group by LC compared to the other group, including the control. Therefore, the fermentation of ginseng flower-buds using various microorganisms, shows that fermentation with the Bacillus subtilis strain increases antioxidant activity. More research of its effects on other physiological activities will be needed.
Effects of Acorn Powder on Lifespan and a Resistance to Oxidative Stress in Caenorhabditis elegans
Lee, Soon-Young ; Lee, Jin-Sun ; Park, Sang-Kyu ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 5, 2013, Pages 670~674
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.670
The free radical theory of aging suggests that oxidative damage caused by free radicals plays a key role in normal aging. We measured the anti-oxidant activity of acorns and asked whether it can modulate the aging process in Caenorhabditis elegans. Different concentrations of acorn powder were added to culture medium, followed by the monitoring of fertility and survival under oxidative stress. The anti-oxidant activity of 500 mg/L of acorn powder exhibited significant increases in the resistance to oxidative stress in vivo. Acorn powder also significantly extended both the mean and maximum lifespan of C. elegans (the mean lifespan was increased up to 22.4%). The fertility assay indicates the lifespan extension from acorn does not accompany a reduced reproduction, which is common in long-lived mutants. These findings indicate that acorn has a strong antioxidant activity and can induce longevity without the trade-off of reduced reproduction in C. elegans.
Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Kochujang with Broccoli Leaf Powder
Oh, You-Sung ; Baek, Jin-Woo ; Park, Kyeong-Yeol ; Hwang, Joon-Ho ; Lim, Sang-Bin ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 5, 2013, Pages 675~681
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.675
Home-made broccoli Kochujang (HMBK) was prepared with the addition of 5% broccoli leaf powder. Its physicochemical and functional properties were measured in extracts (80% methanol, 80% ethanol, and distilled water) and compared with home-made Kochujang (HMK) and factory-produced Kochujang (FPK). Total phenolic content (TPC) was 22% higher in methanol extract from HMBK (524.2 GAE/100 g) compared to HMK (431.0 GAE/100 g). TPC was 8% higher in ethanol extract from HMBK (541.9 GAE/100 g) compared to HMK (499.9 GAE/100 g). DPPH radical scavenging activity was 1.6 times higher in the methanol extracts from HMBK than HMK. In contrast there was no difference in DPPH radical scavenging activity between HMBK and HMK. Oxygen radical absorbance capacities in methanol and ethanol extracts from HMBK were similar to HMK, but both were higher than extracts from FPK (55% and 23% higher, respectively). Inhibition of angiotensin I converting enzyme activity in methanol extracts from HMBK was similar to HMK, but it was 2.6 times higher than inhibition activities from FPK. Interestingly, only ethanol extract from HMBK showed a 10.7% and 18.3% inhibition on cell growth of the human colon adenocarcinoma grade II cell line (HT-29) and human lung carcinoma cell line (NCI-H1229), respectively. These results indicate home-made Kochujang with broccoli leaf powder contains high total phenolics, antioxidant activities, and cancer cell growth inhibition activities.
Inhibitory Effects of Cabbage Juice and Cabbage-Mixed Juice on the Growth of AGS Human Gastric Cancer Cells and on HCl-Ethanol Induced Gastritis in Rats
Hong, Ye-Ji ; Kim, Seong Yoon ; Han, Jaegab ; Lim, Yaung-Iee ; Park, Kun-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 5, 2013, Pages 682~689
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.682
This study determined the effects of cabbage juice and cabbage-mixed juices on the growth of AGS human gastric cancer cells and their anti-gastritic effects on HCl-ethanol induced gastritis in SD rats. Cabbage juice showed the highest growth inhibition on AGS gastric cancer cells in vitro (42%), compared with chlorella (20%) and kale juice (21%). However, cabbage-chlorella and cabbage-kale juice mixtures (at a 7:3 ratio) showed synergistic effects (57% and 65% inhibitory effects, respectively) on the gastric cancer cells. Inflammatory genes (iNOS, COX-2, TNF-
) were significantly down-regulated in the mixed juices. Tests of DPPH radical scavenging activity and acid-neutralizing capacity with the mixed juices also showed this trend, as cabbage-chlorella and cabbage-kale mixed juices showed synergistic effects compared to cabbage juice alone. The inhibition rate of acute gastritis induced by HCl-ethanol in rats was 46% with high amounts of cabbage (CH; 800 mg/kg), 71% with high amounts of cabbage and chlorella (CChH; 800 mg/kg), 74% with high amounts of cabbage and kale (CKH; 800 mg/kg), and 75% with cimetidine (positive control) compared with the control. In addition, rates with CChH and CKH showed decreasing gastric secretions with increasing pH. These results show that cabbage juice and cabbage-mixed juices, especially with chlorella or kale, exhibit remarkable anti-gastritic effects and can be administered for a long period for the prevention and treatment of gastric cancer and gastritis.
Protective Effect of Canavalia gladiata on Gastric Inflammation Induced by Alcohol Treatment in Rats
Kim, Ok Kyung ; Nam, Da-Eun ; You, Yanghee ; Jun, Woojin ; Lee, Jeongmin ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 5, 2013, Pages 690~696
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.690
The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effect of extracts from Canavalia gladiata (CGE) on gastric inflammation induced by alcohol treatment in SD rats. Rats were divided into four groups: G1 (normal group), G2 (gastric inflammation induced by alcohol), G3 (gastric inflammation induced by alcohol with lansoprazole pretreatment), G4 (gastric inflammation induced by alcohol with 250 mg/kg b.w. CGE pretreatment), G5 (gastric inflammation induced by alcohol with 500 mg/kg b.w. CGE pretreatment). After the oral administration of 40% alcohol and samples for seven days, acute gastritis was induced with 70% alcohol and 0.15 M HCl. After 1 h of alcohol administration, the animals were sacrificed. Groups pretreated with lansoprazole or CGE showed an attenuation of gastric mucosal injury, including decreases in sub-epithelial loss, hemorrhages, and gastric juice secretion induced by administration of alcohol. The oral administration of CGE (500 mg/kg b.w.) significantly decreased the levels of TBARS. To examine molecular factors that regulate inflammation, the protein expression of NF-
and COX-2 were measured through immuno-histochemistry. Compared with the normal group (G1), the expression of NF-
and COX-2 were clearly increased in G2. COX-2 and NF-
were expressed even higher in groups pretreated with CGE compared to G2. In conclusion, our data show that Canavalia gladiata has inhibitory and protective effects on gastric inflammation induced by alcohol treatment in SD rats.
Therapeutic Effects of Curdrania tricuspidata Leaf Extract on Osteoarthritis
Nam, Da-Eun ; Kim, Ok Kyung ; Lee, Jeongmin ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 5, 2013, Pages 697~704
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.697
The inhibitory effect of ethanol extracts from Curdrania tricuspidata leaves (CTL) on osteoarthritis was investigated in primary cultured rat cartilage cells and a monosodium-iodoacetate (MIA)-induced arthritis rat model. To identify the effects of CTL 80% ethanol extracts (CTL80) and CTL 10% ethanol extracts (CTL10) against
treatment in vitro, cell survival was measured by the MTT assay. Cell survival after
treatment increased with CTL80 and CTL10 close to normal up to
. The mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was determined MMP-7 and MMP-13 (known catabolic factors), were significantly inhibited by CTL 80 and CTL10; a
dose of CTL80 especially decreased MMP-13 expression. In vivo, osteoarthritis was induced by an intra-articular injection of MIA into the knee joints of rats, then CTL80 and CTL10 orally administered daily for 35 days. After the animals were sacrificed, histological evaluations of their knee joints revealed a reduction in polymorphonuclear cell infiltration and smooth synovial lining in the CTL80-500 group. Micro-CT analysis of hind paws from CTL80-500 and CTL10 showed a protection against osteophyte formation, soft tissue swelling, and bone resorption. In conclusion, CTL ethanol extracts are effective in ameliorating joint destruction and cartilage erosion in MIA-induced rats. CTL decreases and normalizes articular cartilage through preventing extracellular matrix degradation and chondrocyte injury, and could potentially serve as a therapeutic treatment for humans.
Dietary Behaviors and Lifestyle Characteristics Related to Frequent Eating Out Among Korean Adults
Koo, Sle ; Park, Kyong ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 5, 2013, Pages 705~712
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.705
Epidemiologic research has suggested that frequent eating out may be associated with poor dietary habits, including high-calorie and inadequate nutrient intakes. Limited studies, however, have evaluated dietary behaviors with patterns of eating out in South Korea. The aims of this study were to examine the associations between nutrient intakes, adherence to dietary guidelines, and frequencies of eating out among Korean adults. Data were analyzed from adult (30 to 64 years old) participants of the 2007~2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n
Evaluation of Effectiveness of Vegetable-related Nutrition Education for Elementary School Students
Lee, Sun-Ok ; Kim, Hyun-Ah ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 5, 2013, Pages 713~720
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.713
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of vegetable-related nutrition education for fourth grade elementary school students in Gyeongnam province. A comparative analysis of nutritional knowledge on vegetables, vegetable preferences, and vegetable intake in school foodservices were assessed between a control group and an experimental group. The control and experimental group contained 62 and 67 students, respectively, and the experimental group received nutritional education in four sessions (40 minutes each session) per week. A self-administered survey was conducted before and after this education, and 122 questionnaires (for 61 members of the experimental group and 61 members of control group) were analyzed. In the experimental group, there was a significant (p<0.001) increase in vegetable-related nutrition knowledge (form 5.02 to 6.10 out of a total score of 9), while there were no significant differences in the control group. Vegetable preference scores also significantly (p<0.001) increased (from 3.44 to 3.85 on the 5-point Likert scale) in experimental group, while there were no significant difference in control group. We also observed a significant (p<0.001) increase in vegetable intake from school foodservices (89.34% to 95.49%) in the experimental group, but there were no significant differences in the control group. In conclusion, a vegetable-related nutrition education for fourth grade elementary school students was effective at improving the nutritional knowledge of vegetables, vegetable preferences, and vegetable intake from school foodservices. Therefore, to encourage the vegetable-related right dietary habits, sustainable, and systematic nutrition education programs should be implemented for elementary students.
Quality Characteristics, Shelf-life, and Bioactivities of the Low Salt Squid Jeot-gal with Natural Plant Extracts
Hong, Won Jun ; Kim, Sang Moo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 5, 2013, Pages 721~729
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.721
To improve the quality and functionality of the low salt squid Jeot-gal, extracts from three types of medicinal and edible plants (bay leaf, green tea, pine needle) were added. The quality characteristics, bioactivities, and shelf-lives of these preparations were determined at three different fermentation temperatures. The pH decreased more rapidly at higher temperatures, while the amount of volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), total viable cells, and amino nitrogen (
-N) increased. The shelf-lives of Jeot-gal with natural plant extracts at
were 34~35 days, similar to the control. The major free and compositional amino acids of Jeot-gal were glutamic acid, proline, and alanine, while the major nucleotides (and related compounds) were hypoxanthine and inosine. In bioactivity assays, samples supplemented with plant extracts showed higher bioactivities than the control. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of ethanol extracts from Jeot-gal were stronger than the water extracts; in contrast, the water extracts were stronger for hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. However, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity and
-glucuronidase inhibitory activity were moderately low at 20 mg/mL. Based on sensory evaluation results, the quality of low salt squid Jeot-gal with natural plant extracts is similar to the control. Therefore, low salt squid Jeot-gal with natural plant extracts can be commercialized as a functional fermented food.
Nutritional Composition of Drought-Tolerant Transgenic Rice
Lee, Young-Tack ; Lee, Hyang-Mi ; Ahn, Byung-Ohg ; Cho, Hyun-Suk ; Suh, Seok-Chul ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 5, 2013, Pages 730~735
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.730
This study compared the nutritional components (proximate components, fatty acids, amino acids, minerals and vitamins) between genetically modified (GM) drought-tolerant rice and a parental rice cultivar (Ilmibyeo) as a non-GM control. Both GM and non-GM rices were grown and harvested in two different locations, Gunwi and Suweon in Korea. Proximate components (moisture, starch, protein, lipid, and ash contents) were similar between the drought-tolerant GM rice and the conventional non-GM rice. There were no significant differences between the GM and non-GM rice in most of their nutrient compositions, despite minor locational differences of some amino acids and minerals. These results indicate that transgenic rice with a genetically improved resistance to drought is equivalent to the parental rice cultivar without major changes in its chemical contents.
Physicochemical Properties of Commercial Fruit Vinegars with Different Fermentation Methods
Kim, Kyung-Oh ; Kim, Seong-Mi ; Kim, Su-Mi ; Kim, Dong-Young ; Jo, Deokjo ; Yeo, Soo-Hwan ; Jeong, Yong-Jin ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 5, 2013, Pages 736~742
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.736
The physiochemical properties of commercial fruit vinegars were compared according to fermentation methods. Type A vinegars were synthesized through acetic acid fermentation while Type B vinegars were produced using both alcohol and acetic acid fermentation serially. There were differences from using these fermentation methods; Type A vinegars had a lower pH and slightly higher total acidity than Type B vinegars. The content of total sugar and reducing sugar were relatively higher in Type B vinegars, which showed a higher content of the free sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, and maltose). The intensity of brown color and Hunter`s a and b values were also high in Type B vinegars. In contrast, the content of organic acids was higher in Type A vinegars, which were mainly composed of acetic, tartaric, malic, and succinic acid. We were also able to estimate the fruit juice content of vinegars through its content of organic acids. Type B vinegars contained a higher total phenolics and flavonoids content than Type A vinegars, and showed a higher DPPH radical scavenging activity.
Quality Characteristics of Fruit Spirits from a Copper Distillation Apparatus
Cho, Ho-Cheol ; Kang, Soon Ah ; Choi, Sung-Inn ; Cheong, Chul ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 5, 2013, Pages 743~752
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.743
The objective of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics of spirits derived from fruit using copper distillation equipment. First, optimal yeast strains were chosen through a fermentation test on raw materials (apples, mandarins and rowanberries). The normal fermentation condition for rowanberries observed at a rowanberry concentration of 8% during mashing included chaptalization with sugar to increase the alcohol content. During the mashing, fruits were fermented and distilled through one of three different types of distillation apparatuses (pot distiller, vacuum distiller, or multistage distiller made of copper). The results revealed that the type of apparatus used affects the content of alcohol and flavor components. The distilled spirits prepared through a copper multistage distiller had a much higher tendency to retain components of fruit aromas such as ethyl acetate and provided higher yields than spirits prepared with a pot distiller or vacuum distiller. Thus, the copper multistage distiller apparatus can be applied to positively influence the taste and flavor of fruit distilled spirits by enhancing fruit aromas, removing impurities such as sulfur components and enhancing yields.
Quality Characteristics of Codonopsis lanceolata Tea Manufactured with Sugar
Jin, Tie-Yan ; Wang, Myeong-Hyoen ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 5, 2013, Pages 753~758
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.753
The physicochemical, sensory, and functional properties of Codonopsis (C.) lanceolata tea with different amounts of sugar (25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) were investigated. There were no significant changes in crude protein, crude fat, and ash contents of C. lanceolata tea with different amounts of sugar. In contrast, carbohydrates decreased and moisture content increased in C. lanceolata tea with different amounts of sugar. The natural presumption is that carbohydrates increase with increasing amounts of sugar. In terms of color, the L-value decreased and the b-value increased with increasing amounts of sugar. Although there were no significant changes in total dietary fiber, soluble dietary fiber increased and insoluble dietary fiber decreased with increasing amounts of sugar. The total phenolic and flavonoid content increased, while saponin content remained constant with increasing amounts of sugar. The highest overall acceptability values in the sensory test for color, flavor, taste, and overall preference were 5.77, 5.82, 5.72, and 5.95, respectively, with the addition of 75% sugar.
Quality Characteristics of Sikhe Prepared with the Roots Powder of Doraji (Platycodon grandiflorum A. DE. Candolle)
Jeong, Seung-Il ; Yu, Hyeon Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 5, 2013, Pages 759~765
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.759
In this study, we investigated the quality characteristics of Sikhye, a traditional Korean drink, made with various amounts (0.5, 1, 2, and 3%) of powder from the roots of Doraji (RPD), for different storage periods (1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 13, or 15 days). The pH and Hunter`s L value of Sikhye decreased with higher amounts of added RPD, while saccharinity as well as "a" and b values increased. During storage, pH and Hunter`s L value of Sikhye tended to decrease while "a" and b values increased. The saccharinity of Sikhye with 0.5% and 1% RPD reached its maximum values on the tenth storage day and continuously decreased during the storage period. In contrast, the saccharinity of Sikhye with 2% and 3% RPD increased during the storage period, and had its maximum saccharinity on the fifteenth storage day. During the storage of Sikhye the total microbial cell count, typically
CFU/mL on the third storage day, was undetected in Sikhye with 3% RPD. The total microbial cell count of Sikhye without RPD increased to
CFU/mL by the fifteenth storage day, while Sikhye with 0.5, 1, 2, and 3% RPD added contained
CFU/mL, respectively. Thus, the total cell count was lower with higher additions of RPD. In sensory tests, the Sikhye control, or with 0.5% and 1% RPD added, didn`t show significant differences in the texture of rice granules, plumpness of rice granules, floating of rice granules, taste, flavor, and sweetness values. The overall preference was highest (5.38) for Sikhye with 0.5% RPD, followed by the control, 1% RPD, 2% RPD and 3% RPD. In conclusion, according to preference tests, we recommended the addition of 0.5% or 1% RPD in Sikhye.
Quality Characteristics of White Bread Manufactured with Shinan Seomcho (Spinacia oleracea L.) Powder
Ko, Sang-Heui ; Bing, Dong-Joo ; Chun, Soon-Sil ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 5, 2013, Pages 766~773
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.766
In this study, white bread was prepared with Shinan seomcho powder (SSP). Different amounts of SSP were tested (2, 4, 6 and 8%) to determine the optimal amount. The samples and a control were compared for quality characteristics, including pH, total titratable acidity, specific volume, baking loss, moisture content, water activity, color, textural characteristics, external and internal surface appearances, and sensory qualities. As the SSP increased, the total titratable acidity of the dough decreased (pH increased), and a decreased specific volume and baking loss was observed as well. However, the total titratable acidity and pH of the bread did not show significant differences among the samples. The moisture content was highest at a substitution level of 8%, and increased with increasing SSP contents. The crumb L value, a value, and resilience decreased with increasing SSP, whereas the crumb b value and hardness increased. Color, flavor, softness and overall acceptability were highest for the control group and were lowest for the 8% group. This likely reflects the high value of a grassy flavor, green tea taste, bitterness, astringency, and off-flavor at addition level of 8%. As a results, the optimum amount of SSP to add for baking bread would be 2~4%.
The Quality Characteristics of Boiled Pork Supplemented with Tea Extracts
Cho, Kyung Ok ; Kim, Sun Im ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 5, 2013, Pages 774~783
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.774
This study investigated the quality characteristics of boiled pork with different amounts (0.5, 1, 1.5, or 2%) of green tea, oolong tea and black tea extracts. Characteristics measured included approximate composition, water holding capacity (WHC), hardness, pH, Hunter`s color value, total aerobic bacterial counts, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and sensory qualities. Green tea approximately contained 3.4%, 31.8%, 5.5%, and 57.7% of moisture, crude protein, crude ash, and carbohydrate, respectively. There were no significant differences with the type of tea. However, the crude fat content of green tea, oolong tea, and black tea were 1.6%, 1.0%, and 0.9%, respectively. Green tea had the highest content of crude fat (p<0.05). Boiled pork approximately contained 55.1%, 38.6%, 5.2% and 0.9% moisture, crude protein, crude fat and crude ash, respectively. The WHC of boiled pork, with tea extract added, significantly increased and there were no significant differences according to the type of tea. The hardness of boiled pork significantly increased as the amount of tea extract added increased (p<0.05). The pH of the boiled pork was not significantly different after storage for one day, but significantly decreased in control groups and boiled pork with 0.5% of any tea extract added during storage. However, in boiled pork with 1%, 1.5%, or 2% of any tea extract added, pH was not significantly different during storage. The Hunter`s L and b values decreased in all boiled pork. The Hunter`s a-values also decreased in boiled pork with green and black tea extract added, but increased in boiled pork with oolong tea extract added. In boiled pork with tea extract added, total aerobic bacterial counts significantly decreased as the amount of tea extract added increased during storage (p<0.05). The VBN values significantly increased during storage in all groups. TBARS values were significantly lower in boiled pork with green tea extract added, oolong tea added (at concentrations of 1%, 1.5%, or 2%), and black tea extract added compared to control groups on the first day. The sensory evaluation results showed that the color, flavor, and overall acceptance of boiled pork containing 1% of oolong or black tea extracts had the highest scores but there were no significant differences. However, taste scores were significantly different (p<0.05). These results indicate that boiled pork has improved quality characteristics with 1% of oolong or black tea extracts added.
Quality Characteristics of Black Raspberry Wine Fermented with Different Yeasts
Lee, Yoonji ; Kim, Jae Cheol ; Hwang, Keum Taek ; Kim, Dong-Ho ; Jung, Chang Min ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 5, 2013, Pages 784~791
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.784
Four different yeasts (Fermivin (FM), Saf-instant yeast red (SI), Angest wine active dry yeast (AW) and Angest instant yeast high sugar (AI)) were used for the fermentation of black raspberry wine. The amount of reducing sugars in FM (2.7%) and AI (2.8%) were higher than those in SI (2.4%) and AW (2.5%). The amount of glucose (the major free sugar) was higher in AW (2.57 mg/mL) and AI (2.50 mg/mL) than FM (2.03 mg/mL) and SI (1.75 mg/mL). AW (11.95%) had the highest alcohol content, while SI (11.75%) had the lowest. The pH of FM (pH 3.73) was the lowest, and there were no significant differences in total acidity among the samples. The major organic acid in the wines was citric acid (6.71~8.18 mg/mL) and the amount of organic acids depended on the type of yeasts. The amount of malic acid was highest in SI (2.92 mg/mL), and lowest in AI (1.83 mg/mL). The Hunter color test showed that SI was highest in lightness, redness and yellowness, whereas AI was lowest. There were no differences in turbidity between the samples. There were no significant differences in total phenolic contents (TPC) and total anthocyanin contents (TAC). However, the TPC and TAC of black raspberry wines were higher than those in commercial red wines. The antioxidant activities of wines (determined by ABTS and FRAP) increased in the order of FM, AI, AW and SI. It could not be concluded which yeast is adequate for the fermentation of black raspberry wine because any of the tested yeasts showed the best in all the quality characteristics of the wines.
Scutellaria baicalensis Extracts as Natural Inhibitors of Food Browning
Park, Miji ; Chang, Min-Sun ; Jeong, Moon-Cheol ; Kim, Gun-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 5, 2013, Pages 792~799
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.792
This study was designed to develop natural browning inhibitors. The anti-browning effects of distilled water (SBD) and 80% ethanol extracts (SBE) of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi in apple slices were investigated by L and
values. Both SBD and SBE were effective in reducing the browning of apple slices and were successively fractionated into chloroform (
), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and water (
) fractions. These extracts were measured for total phenolic content, flavonoid content, anti-oxidative activity (through free radical scavenging activity and the FRAP assay), ferrous ion chelation, and the inhibition of PPO (polyphenol oxidase) activity. Overall, fractions of SBE were better than fractions of SBD in all measurements. The highest total phenolic and flavonoid content were measured in the EtOAc and
fractions of SBE. EtOAc and
fractions also exhibited the highest anti-oxidative activities (in DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging and the FRAP assay). Unusually, the highest ferrous ion chelating capacity was found in the
fraction of SBD, but the other fractions showed more than triple the ascorbic acid already in use. Also,
fractions showed a stronger inhibition of PPO activity than ascorbic acid. All of these results suggest that EtOAc and
fractions from Scutellaria baicalensis can be used as natural anti-browning agents.
Quality Characteristics and Microbial Hazard Analysis of Commercial Garlic
Oh, Se-In ; Kim, Ok-Sun ; Sung, Jung-Min ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 5, 2013, Pages 800~807
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.800
This study investigated the quality characteristics and microbial hazards of commercial garlic available in supermarkets, traditional markets, and online shopping malls. Total bacterial counts were 2.55 log CFU/g in whole garlic and 5.20~7.40 log CFU/g in processed garlic, possibly due to contamination during processing. The total bacterial count from garlic purchased in supermarkets was below 5 log CFU/g, while garlic purchased in traditional markets and online shopping malls had counts of 3.87~6.34 and 3.73~6.11 log CFU/g, respectively. Thus garlic purchased at supermarkets appears to be more hygienic than garlic from traditional markets or online shopping malls. Some garlic purchased from supermarkets also had a lower pH (4.96~5.17) compared to fresh chopped garlic (7.4~7.5), likely due to the addition of citric acid and ascorbic acid, to reduce microbes and prevent browning. The moisture content of chopped garlic was 61.92~89.32%, with moisture content in imported garlic from China above 75%. The L, a, and b color values were 52.63~64.47, -3.74~8.75, and 10.67~17.88, respectively. The a and b values of supermarket garlic (-3.74~-3.20 and 10.67~13.90) were lower due to the addition of citric acid.
Comparative Analysis of Job Satisfaction Factors between Permanently and Temporarily Employed School Foodservice Dietitians in Gyeongsangnam-do
Sung, Ki-Hyun ; Kim, Hyun-Ah ; Jung, Hyun-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 5, 2013, Pages 808~817
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.808
This study was conducted to compare job satisfaction and factors related to job satisfaction between permanently and temporarily employed dietitians in school foodservices in the Gyeongsangnam-do area. A total of 204 questionnaires were used in the final analysis. The average age, length of employment, and monthly wage of temporarily employed dietitians was significantly lower than those of permanently employed dietitians. However, there was no significant difference of overall job satisfaction between permanently and temporarily employed dietitians, although the average pay, welfare benefits, and promotion factors for permanently employed dietitians was significantly higher. Work and pay factors had significant effects on the overall job satisfaction of permanently employed dietitians, while work factors and work atmosphere had significant effects on the overall job satisfaction of temporarily employed dietitians. In conclusion, there was a significant difference in overall factors related to job satisfaction between permanently employed dietitian and temporarily employed dietitians. The pay, welfare benefits, and promotion condition of temporarily employed dietitians should be improved to ensure the efficient management of the school foodservice workforce in the future.
An Analysis of Food Consumption Patterns of the Elderly from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES Ⅴ-1)
Kim, Eun Mi ; Choi, Mi-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 5, 2013, Pages 818~827
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.818
The purpose of this study was to identify food consumption patterns of the elderly and factors affecting them to improve their dietary health. Data from 1,172 elderly subjects (over 65 years old) from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-1) were used in our analysis. Validity and reliability analyses of food consumption frequency allowed the identification of seven factors: fruits, foods for Korean style meal, instant foods, alcohols, carbohydrate-rich snacks, vegetables, and legumes/mixed grains. Food consumption patterns were classified into four groups (according to the food consumption frequency) using cluster analysis. Cluster 4 showed a significantly higher food consumption frequency and Cluster 3 had a relatively high overall food consumption frequency but lower alcohol consumption frequency compared to the other clusters. Cluster 2 was characterized by a generally low food consumption frequency but a significantly higher alcohol consumption frequency. Cluster 1 showed a generally low food consumption frequency; however, the consumption frequency of legumes/mixed grains was higher than Cluster 2. Further analysis showed that the food consumption patterns of the elderly were affected by variables such as gender, age, town, economic status, education level, family type, and frequency of eating out. We conclude that a proper nutritional education program should be conducted to address specific dietary problems for each elderly segment.
Effects of Red Pepper Powder Addition Times on Ethanol Production from Apple Gochujang Mash
Oh, Chul-Hwan ; Oh, Nam-Soon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 5, 2013, Pages 828~831
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.828
Fermentation patterns of apple Gochujang mash prepared with different addition times of red pepper powder were investigated. Red pepper powder was added into Gochujang mash before and after fermentation of the mash. In the apple Gochujang mash without red pepper powder, viable yeast cell counts of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii Y-80 increased to 6.5 log CFU/g shortly after five days of fermentation, and ethanol concentration reached its maximum value (3.8% of the total volume) after 15 days of fermentation. On the other hand, in apple Gochujang mash prepared by the initial addition of red pepper powder before fermentation, viable yeast cell counts increased to 7 log CFU/g after 20 days of fermentation, and ethanol concentration reached 1.3% after 25 days of fermentation. Yeast growth and ethanol production were stimulated in the Gochujang mash without red pepper powder. Sensory evaluation scores were similar in the apple Gochujang regardless of addition time of red pepper powder.
Developing a Predictive Model for the Shelf-life of Fish Cake
Kang, Ji Hoon ; Song, Kyung Bin ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 5, 2013, Pages 832~836
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.832
To develop a predictive model for the shelf-life of fish cake, fish cake was stored at 30, 35, or
and populations of total aerobic bacteria were determined during storage. Gompertz model parameters were determined and their dependence on temperature formulated as a quadratic equation for applications toward shelf-life prediction. The predicted shelf-life values for fish cake used in this study were 6.9, 5.5, and 3.8 days at 0, 4, and
, respectively. The shelf-life prediction equation was appropriate based on statistical analyses that reveal accuracy and bias factors. These results suggest that our prediction model is applicable for estimating the shelf-life of fish cake.