Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 42, Issue 12 - Dec 2013
Volume 42, Issue 11 - Nov 2013
Volume 42, Issue 10 - Oct 2013
Volume 42, Issue 9 - Sep 2013
Volume 42, Issue 8 - Aug 2013
Volume 42, Issue 7 - Jul 2013
Volume 42, Issue 6 - Jun 2013
Volume 42, Issue 5 - May 2013
Volume 42, Issue 4 - Apr 2013
Volume 42, Issue 3 - Mar 2013
Volume 42, Issue 2 - Feb 2013
Volume 42, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Inhibitory Effects of Sasa borealis on Mechanisms of Adipogenesis
Park, Hee Sook ; Kim, Gun-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 6, 2013, Pages 837~843
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.837
Sasa borealis is a major source of bamboo leaves used for traditional medicine in Korea. Obesity is a serious health problem in industrialized countries that has been implicated in various diseases, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cancer, and coronary heart disease. Recent reports have proposed mechanisms to reduce obesity by decreasing preadipocyte differentiation, and proliferation in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte. The preadipocytes play a key role by differentiation into mature adipocytes and increasing fat mass. In this study, we investigated whether ethanol-soluble extracts and ethyl acetate-soluble fractions from Sasa borealis inhibits intracellular accumulation of lipid droplets in a dose-dependent manner in 3T3-L1 cells (an important model system for studying adipogenesis). The down-regulation of PPAR
(key adipogenic transcription factors) were confirmed by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Ethyl acetate-soluble fractions from Sasa borealis attenuated the expression of PPAR
. These results suggest that Sasa borealis inhibits adipogenic differentiation by regulating adipogenic transcription factors in 3T3-L1 cells. Therefore, Sasa borealis extracts may be a good candidate for the management of obesity.
Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Production and Hyaluronidase Activities from the Combined Extracts of Platycodon grandiflorum, Astragalus membranaceus, and Schisandra chinensis
Kang, Chang-Ho ; Kwak, Dae Young ; So, Jae-Seong ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 6, 2013, Pages 844~850
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.844
In this study, the optimal extraction conditions for three medicinal herbs as functional sources against inflammatory and arthritic diseases were developed. Traditional medicinal herbs were screened for their inhibition of hyaluronidase (HAse) activity and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. For the screening of anti-inflammatory properties, ethanolic extracts of 53 species of traditional medicinal herb were examined. We confirmed that Astragalus membranaceus (A.R.), Schisandra chinensis (S.F.), and Platycodon grandiflorum (P.G.) inhibit NO production. For extraction from all three herbs simultaneously, an ethanol concentration of 95%, a 1:2:1 mixture ratio, and at 50 rpm mixing speed, for over 12 h and at
was the best condition for optimal extract yield and NO inhibition effects. HAse inhibition from the three herb extraction was three fold higher than single samples. The ethanol extracts were fractionated with various solvents (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water). The ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the herb mixture showed the highest extract yield (13%) and NO inhibition effects (73%). In conclusion, this study provides experimental evidence that a mixture of P.G., A.R., and S.F. could be used as a source of antioxidant ingredients in the food industry.
Effects of Garlic Extract on the Antioxidative Activity of Isoflavones
Kang, Jin-Hoon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 6, 2013, Pages 851~855
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.851
This study was carried out to elucidate the effect of garlic extracts on the antioxidative activities of three isoflavones. All isoflavone samples showed greater antioxidative activity than butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). In EDA (electron donating ability) tests, reducing power, SOD-like activity, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, all isoflavone samples with garlic extracts added showed significantly greater antioxidative effects than BHA. In conclusion, isoflavones have a potent antioxidative activity and garlic extracts have a big synergistic effect on this antioxidative activity.
Effect of Administration Method on Blood Garcinia cambogia Concentration and Antioxidative Activity
Park, Eun Jung ; Kim, Sang Ho ; Kim, Kyung Soo ; Oh, Han Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 6, 2013, Pages 856~860
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.856
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of administration methods for on Garcinia cambogia on blood Garcinia cambogia concentration and antioxidative levels. Rats were divided into three groups: G1 (normal group), G2 (one administration of Garcinia cambogia extract 2,800 mg/kg b.w.), G3 (three separate administrations every 6 h of Garcinia cambogia extract 750, 850, and 1,200 mg/kg b.w. for 18 h). Blood samples were collected every hour, and animals sacrificed 18 h after the oral administration of Garcinia cambogia extract. We examined changes in the serum concentration of Garcinia cambogia by HPLC analysis. Two hours following an oral administration of Garcinia cambogia extract (2,800 mg/kg b.w.), serum Garcinia cambogia levels reached their maximum, but gradually decreased until 10 hours when it was no longer detectable. In contrast, serum Garcinia cambogia levels under G3 administration were maintained above a certain level after 18 h. To determine whether this level of Garcinia cambogia could affect blood oxidative levels, we measured serum lipid peroxidation by TBARS levels. TBARS levels from G3 treatment were significantly lower than G1 and G2. To analyze other antioxidative activities, radical scavenging activities were measured by the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. There were no significant differences between the groups in DPPH radical scavenging activity. However, ABTS radical scavenging activity significantly increased with G3 treatment compared with G1 and G2. In conclusion, our data show that three times administration of Garcinia cambogia every 6 h may helpful for maintaining serum Garcinia cambogia levels and antioxidative effects.
Effects of Opuntia ficus-indica on Lipid Metabolism in the db/db Mouse
Yoon, Jin A ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 6, 2013, Pages 861~868
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.861
This study investigated the effects of Opuntia ficus-indica and other natural resources (OF) in db/db and C57 mice. Plasma triglycerides, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, fecal bile acid excretion, the histopathological appearance of the liver, and cholesterol-related mRNA expression were determined. Mice (12 db/db mice and 12 C57 mice) were assigned to diabetic-control (db-C), diabetic-OF treatment (db-OF), normal-control (C57-C), and normal-OF treatment (C57-OF) groups. Animals in the control group were fed an AIN-76 recommended diet and animals in the OF group were fed an experimental diet containing 5% of OF for 4 weeks. Concentrations of total plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol decreased with the administration of OF. In contrast, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels were minimally affected by the experimental diet. Plasma AST and ALT showed lower activities in the db-OF group, and the fecal excretion of bile acid was reduced in the db-OF group. Histopathological analysis of the liver showed that fatty liver conditions in the db-OF group were more improved than db-C. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) and cholesterol 7
-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) mRNA expression were increased in the db-OF group as well. However, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA-R) mRNA expression was lower in the db-OF group. These results provide experimental evidence about improved lipid metabolism of the OF feeding in the db/db mice.
Effect of Black Garlic and Gaeddongssuk (Artemisia annua L.) Extracts on the Lipid Profile and Hepatic Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Exercised Rats
Kang, Jae-Ran ; Lee, Soo-Jung ; Hwang, Cho-Rong ; Kim, In-Sung ; Sung, Nak-Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 6, 2013, Pages 869~876
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.869
To develop functional products based on black garlic, a black garlic extract (BG) of 7 brix, a gaeddongssuk extract (GS) of 0.7 brix and two types of mixtures (MBS-I, black garlic 7 brix : gaeddongssuk 0.7 brix; MBS-II, black garlic 14 brix : gaeddongssuk 1.4 brix, 93:7, v/v) were supplemented to rats training on a treadmill for 4 weeks. Body weight from the training did not decrease during the experimental period. Serum albumin content significantly increased in the groups fed an experimental diet compared to the control. The BUN content significantly decreased in BG and MBS-II groups compared to the control. AST and ALP activities significantly decreased in the groups fed an experimental diet compared to the control. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in MBS-I and MBS-II groups significantly decreased compared to the control. Lipid levels in the serum and liver tissue were not significantly different between the MBS-I and MBS-II groups. The lipid peroxide content in the serum and liver tissue was significantly reduced in the groups fed all extracts compared to the control; the serum and liver lipid contents was lowest in the MBS-I and MBS-II groups, respectively. Hepatic catalase activity in the GS and MBS groups increased by 1.8~2.3 times compared to the control. SOD and GSH-px activities significantly increased from treatment with the extracts by 1.3~1.5 times and 1.2~1.7 times, respectively. These results indicate that a mixture of BG and GS extracts has higher biological activity than a single supplementation of BG or GS extract. Therefore, the addition of gaeddongssuk to black garlic (MBS-I and MBS-II) is effective as a defense material against oxidative stress. MBS-I may be especially effective for its biological activities.
Quality Characteristics and Glycemic Index of Oatmeal Cookies Made with Artificial Sweeteners
Bang, Son Kwon ; Son, Eun-Jung ; Kim, Hyo-Jin ; Park, Sunmin ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 6, 2013, Pages 877~884
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.877
This study investigated the optimal composition of sugar and artificial sweeteners in oatmeal cookies. Modified cookies were examined for their quality characteristics and glycemic index in humans. Oatmeal cookies with various amounts of sugar (20, 30, or 40%) were made to the equivalent sweetness of 100% sugar cookies (the control) with sucralose and stevioside. The density and acidity of cookie dough were not significantly different between the different cookie groups. However, baking loss and the spread index were significantly lower in the 100% sugar cookie group compared to cookies supplemented with artificial sweeteners. The color lightness (L value) and redness (a value) were highest in 30% and 100% sugar cookies, respectively. The strength of the cookies was negatively correlated with sugar content. In sensory evaluations, scores for taste, color and texture were higher in 30% and 40% sugar cookies, respectively, but the overall preference was higher in 30% sugar cookies. We therefore tested 30% and 100% sugar cookies for their glycemic index in college students. After overnight-fasted students consumed either 30% or 100% sugar cookies (containing 50 g of carbohydrate in dough weight), blood glucose levels increased 27.8 and 15.7 mg/dL, respectively, at 1 hour from the baseline. However, at 2 hours from the baseline, students who consumed 100% sugar cookies had a remarkably lowered blood glucose levels. Students who consumed 30% sugar cookies did not have as much of a change in blood glucose levels. In conclusion, 30% sugar oatmeal cookies made with sucralose and stevioside can be used to make a low-sugar cookie with a low glycemic index.
Instant Gruel from Colored Barley and Oats for Improving Diabetic Conditions
Lee, Chang-Hyun ; Kim, Jaeju ; Kwon, Jin ; Youn, Young ; Kim, Young-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 6, 2013, Pages 885~891
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.885
The abilities of instant gruel manufactured with colored barley and oats to improve diabetic conditions were investigated using diabetes-induced mice and rats. Mice or rats were divided into a diabetic control group and one experimental group (seven animals per group). The control groups were fed without instant gruel and experimental groups were fed basal diets supplemented with 10% instant gruel for 8 weeks. The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats experimental group showed a significant decrease in food intake compared to the control group. Both Type II diabetic mice and STZ-induced diabetic rats experimental groups showed higher increases in body weight than the control groups. The blood glucose levels of the experimental groups (
mg/dL in Type II diabetic mice;
mg/dL in STZ-induced diabetic rats) were lower than the untreated control groups (
mg/dL in Type II diabetic mice;
mg/dL in STZ-induced diabetic rats). The serum insulin levels of Type II diabetic mice increased by 38.3% in the experimental group (
ng/mL) compared to the control group (
ng/mL). The immunohistochemical density of insulin-secreting cells and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-secreting cells in the pancreas were significantly higher in the experimental groups than the control groups for Type II diabetic mice and STZ-induced diabetic rats. Therefore, we conclude that instant gruel manufactured with colored barley and oats stimulates the secretion of insulin and decreases blood sugar by activating insulin-secreting cells in the pancreatic islets of diabetic animals.
Acute Toxicity of Crude Anti-fungal Compounds Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum AF1
Son, Hee-Kyoung ; Lee, Myung-Yul ; Chang, Hae-Choon ; Lee, Jae-Joon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 6, 2013, Pages 892~897
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.892
We investigated the acute toxicity from a single dose of crude anti-fungal compounds produced by Lactobacillus plantarum AF1, a lactic acid bacterium isolated from kimchi, on ICR male and female mice in vivo. The test article was orally administered once to both sexes of mice. The mortality rate, clinical findings, autopsy findings, and body weight changes were monitored daily for 14 days. In the oral acute toxicity test, male and female mice were gavaged with four doses (5, 50, 300 or 2,000 mg/kg) of the crude anti-fungal compounds. The oral
of the crude anti-fungal compounds was higher than 2,000 mg/kg. No significant changes in general conditions, body weights, clinical signs, or appearance of gross lesions were observed. In conclusion, our results suggest a low toxicity and no-adverse-effects from crude anti-fungal compounds produced by Lactobacillus plantarum AF1 up to 2,000 mg/kg via the oral route.
Safety Evaluation of 30 kGy Irradiated Chocolate Ice Cream
Jeon, Young Eun ; Yin, Xing Fu ; Chung, Cha-Kwon ; Kang, Il-Jun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 6, 2013, Pages 898~903
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.898
This study was investigated the potential toxicity of gamma-irradiated chocolate ice cream for its future use in space. Chocolate ice cream was irradiated at a dose of 30 kGy at a temperature of
. For the animal study, AIN-93G was used as a control diet and irradiated and non-irradiated chocolate ice cream diets were administered to male and female ICR mice (ten mice per group) for three months. During the experimental period, the group fed irradiated chocolate ice cream did not show any changes in appearance, behavior, mortality, body weight, organ weight, or food consumption compared to the control. Also, all biochemical parameters, including hematology profiles, erythrocyte counts, and serum biochemical values were in normal ranges. In histopathological examinations of liver and kidney tissues, there were no significant differences between the control group and the group fed irradiated chocolate ice cream. These results indicate that chocolate ice cream irradiated at 30 kGy did not cause any toxic effects and could be applied for the development of safe and hygienic space food.
Eating Behaviors and Nutritional Status According to the Purpose of Exercise
Shin, Yoonjin ; Ju, Minjeong ; Kim, Yangha ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 6, 2013, Pages 904~910
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.904
The aim of this study was to investigate the eating behavior and nutritional status of subjects according to their purpose of exercise. A total of 214 subjects, 20 to 30 years of age, who visited fitness centers in Seoul were enrolled. Anthropometrics, exercise habits, nutritional knowledge, and eating behaviors were analyzed using a questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed by serial 24 h recalls. The subjects were divided into two groups based on their purpose of exercise: increasing muscle (Muscle growth, n
Chemical Components and Enzyme Activity of Hydroponic-cultured Ginseng Roots and Leaves under Different Heating Temperatures
Hwang, Cho Rong ; Joung, Eun Mi ; Lee, Sang Hoon ; Hwang, In Guk ; Kim, Yong Bum ; Jeong, Jae Hyun ; Lee, Junsoo ; Jeong, Heon Sang ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 6, 2013, Pages 911~916
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.911
This study investigated changes in the chemical components and enzyme activities from hydroponic-cultured ginseng roots (HGR) and leaves (HGL) with various heating temperatures (90, 110, 130, and
) for 2 hours. The UV-absorbance and browning intensity of heated ginseng significantly increased with heating temperature. 5-HMF contents also significantly increased with increasing heating temperature. The free sugars (fructose, glucose, and sucrose) were detected and sucrose content decreased, but fructose and glucose content increased with increasing heating temperature. Malic, citric, lactic, and oxalic acid contents were 817.52, 722.25, 122.06, and 18.43 mg%, respectively, in HGR and 682.84, 338.21, 90.37, and 0 mg%, respectively, in HGL at
. Tyrosinase and ACE inhibitory activities significantly increased with heating temperature. These results show that various components and activities of HGT and HGL significantly increase with heating temperature.
Enzyme Inhibition Activities of Ethanol Extracts from Germinating Rough Rice (Oryza sativar L.)
Kim, Min Young ; Lee, Sang Hoon ; Jang, Gwi Young ; Park, Hye Jin ; Meishan, Li ; Kim, Shinje ; Lee, Youn Ri ; Lee, Junsoo ; Jeong, Heon Sang ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 6, 2013, Pages 917~923
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.917
This study investigated the enzyme inhibitory effects of ethanol extracts from the different parts of rough rice (Oryza sativar L.) from its germination period. Rough rice was germinated at
for 6 days, then separated into hull+sprout and brown rice.
-Glucosidase inhibitory activity had the highest value (39.38%) in hull+sprout extracts after 5 days of germination.
-Amylase and DPP-4 inhibitory activity had the highest values (75.32% and 47.77%, respectively) in hull+sprout extracts after germination for 5 days. ACE inhibitory activity of hull+ sprout extracts increased from 43.16% at the beginning to 58.60% at 5 days, while brown rice extracts increased this activity from 0.88% at the beginning to 14.50% at 4 days. The xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of hull+ sprout extracts increased from 62.02% at the beginning to 64.49% at one day, and then decreased. Lipase inhibitory activity had its highest value (55.17%) in hull+sprout extracts after germination for 5 days. These results indicate that the optimal germination period for increasing enzyme inhibitory activities may be 5 days, and that hull+sprout extracts have a higher enzyme inhibition activity than brown rice.
Antioxidant Activities of Processed Deoduck (Codonopsis lanceolata) Extracts
Jeon, Sang-Min ; Kim, So-Young ; Kim, In-Hye ; Go, Jeong-Sook ; Kim, Haeng-Ran ; Jeong, Jae-Youn ; Lee, Hyeon-Yong ; Park, Dong-Sik ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 6, 2013, Pages 924~932
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.924
This study investigated the antioxidant activities of processed Deoduck (Codonopsis lanceolata) extracts treated through high-pressure extraction and steaming with fermentation. The antioxidant activities were determined for DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activity, SOD-like activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and
chelating. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also measured. Among eight Deoduck extracts, the S5FDW extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content, 73.9 mg GAE/g and 50.9 mg QUE/g, respectively. The S5FDW extract had the highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity (27%) at a 1.0 mg/mL concentration. The ABTS radical-scavenging activity was highest for S5FDW extract (82.1%) at a 10 mg/mL concentration. The HFDE extract showed the highest SOD-like activity (29.7%) at a 1.0 mg/mL concentration. FRAP was highest in S5FDW extract (140.8
) at a 1.0 mg/mL concentration. The DE extract showed the highest
chelating (46%) at a 1.0 mg/mL concentration. The phenolic and flavonoid contents significantly correlated with the antioxidant activity of several processed Deoduck extracts and was higher in the processed Deoduck extracts compared to the raw Deoduck extracts. Therefore, processing techniques can be useful methods for making Deoduck a more potent and natural antioxidant.
Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions with Different Saturation Degrees from Beef Tallow Alcoholysis Products
Zhang, Hua ; Lee, Young-Hwa ; Shin, Jung-Ah ; Lee, Ki-Teak ; Hong, Soon-Teak ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 6, 2013, Pages 933~940
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.933
In this study, methyl esters with different saturated fatty acids (SFA) were prepared by urea fractionation to make an oil-in-water emulsion. Emulsion characteristics (emulsion stability and oxidative stability) of the methyl ester emulsion were then studied at different percentages of methyl ester saturation (5, 28, 39, 50, and 72%, termed
SFA72, respectively). The stability of emulsions (ES) with different SFA content was 46.0 (
SFA5), 39.5 (
SFA28), 32.7 (
SFA39), 32.6 (
SFA50), and 27.3 (
SFA72). Results from Turbiscan showed that creaming or clarification, based on the backscattering intensity, was more pronounced with increases in the saturation degree of the emulsion. These results implied that the emulsions with lower saturation were more stable. During 30 days of storage, the lipid peroxide value increased for all emulsions, with the increase less pronounced with the increasing saturation of the emulsion; 1.880 (
SFA5), 1.267 (
SFA28), 1.062 (
SFA39), 0.342 (
SFA50) and 0.153 (
emulsion. In addition, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were significantly lower in emulsions with high saturation (4.419 mg for
SFA50 and 4.226 mg for
SFA72) than emulsions with low saturation (6.229 mg for
SFA5, 6.801 mg for
SFA28 and 6.246 mg for
SFA39). In conclusion, the emulsions with a higher saturation degree of methyl esters showed lower emulsion stability but better oxidation stability.
Physicochemical Properties of Frying Ginseng and Oils Derived from Deep-frying Ginseng
Lee, Ka-Soon ; Kim, Gwan-Hou ; Kim, Hyun-Ho ; Seong, Bong-Jae ; Kim, Sun-Ick ; Han, Seung-Ho ; Lee, Sox-Su ; Lee, Gyu-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 6, 2013, Pages 941~947
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.941
To increase the consumption of frying ginseng, we investigated the physicochemical properties of frying ginseng and different edible oils processed through frying ginseng: soybean oil (SO), corn oil (CO), olive oil (OO), and grape seed oil (GO). We tested various parameters, including temperature (130, 160, 180, and
), frying time (2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 min), and frying amount (up to 30 times). The physicochemical properties of the fried ginseng and oils were evaluated for changes in acid value, peroxide value, free fatty acid content, acrylamide formation, color, and viscosity of oils. The acid value and peroxide value of the oils increased with frying temperature and amount. Saturated fatty acids increased and unsaturated fatty acids decreased with the amount of frying, but oleic acid in CO and GO and linoleic acid in OO increased. The concentration of acrylamide in fried ginseng increased as the frying temperature and amount increased and was the lowest in OO. The lightness and redness of the frying oil color decreased and its yellowness increased in SO and CO, but the lightness increased (redness and yellowness decreased) in OO. In particular, CO was significantly browned with increasing frying amounts. The viscosity of the frying oils increased with frying amount, with CO showing the lowest increases in viscosity of the oils. As a result, the optimal ginseng frying condition found was 2 min 30 sec at
, regardless the type of oils.
Effect of Grapefruit Seed Extracts and Acid Regulation Agents on the Qualities of Topokkidduk
Kang, Ho Jin ; Park, Jong Dae ; Lee, Hyun Yu ; Kum, Jun Seok ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 6, 2013, Pages 948~956
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.948
This study investigated methods to improve the quality of Topokkidduk using grapefruit seed extracts and acid regulation agents. Topokkidduk was investigated in terms of its moisture, color, pH, texture, microbial composition, and sensory properties. The moisture content of Topokkidduk was highest for Topokkidduk supplemented with grapefruit seed extracts. The color of Topokkidduk (the L value) decreased, whereas the "a" value increased with the addition of grapefruit seed extracts. The texture of Topokkidduk was affected more by additives than storage temperature. The addition of grapefruit seed extracts and acid regulation agents were effective for the inhibition of microbial activity in Topokkidduk during storage. The overall acceptability values of Topokkidduk (without supplements) were highest among the samples. These results suggest that grapefruit seed extracts and acid regulation agents can be used to control microbial load and moisture levels in Topokkidduk.
Quality Characteristics of Muffins Supplemented with Freeze-Dried Apricot Powder
Lee, Yun-Seon ; Chung, Hai-Jung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 6, 2013, Pages 957~963
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.957
This study evaluated the quality characteristics of muffins prepared with different amounts (0%, 4%, 8%, or 12%) of apricot powder. The moisture content was higher in groups containing 8% and 12% apricot powder. The specific volume of muffins decreased as the amount of apricot powder increased. The lightness value was lower in groups containing apricot powder, with redness and yellowness values increasing with increasing amounts of apricot powder. Rheology tests showed no significant differences in hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness between control muffins and muffins with apricot added. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the number and size of air cells decreased with increasing levels of apricot powder. The substitution of wheat flour with apricot powder yielded muffins with a higher DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity and total polyphenol content. Consumer acceptance tests revealed no significant differences in appearance, smell, and texture between muffin samples, but the taste and overall acceptability scores were lowest for muffins with 12% apricot added. Therefore, up to 8% apricot powder can be incorporated into muffins to meet the sensory quality and functional needs of the consumer.
Effect of Hydrocolloids on the Quality of Rice Dumpling Skins
Lim, Eun Ji ; Chio, SooJung ; Lee, Eun Jung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 6, 2013, Pages 964~968
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.964
This study investigated the formation of rice dumpling skins with various food additives to improve their texture. Rice (Millyang260 and Hanarum) was obtained from the Rural Development Administration. Rice was milled through an air classifying mill (ACM), and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), xanthan gum, guar gum, carrageenan, or propylene glycol alginate (PGA) was used as food additives. The effects of hydrocolloids on textural were evaluated and rice dumpling skin prepared with additives showed significantly higher values than the control for cooking properties and texture. The presence of hydrocolloids in rice dumpling skin appeared to decrease its weight and volume after cooking. Textural properties of rice dumpling skin with hydrocolloids were similar to the control regardless of cooking condition.
The Effect of Calcium Supplementation on Soy Sauce Seasoning and Cooking Meat
Lee, Syng-Ook ; Yu, Mi-Hee ; Choi, Jun-Hyeok ; Im, Hyo-Gwon ; Lee, In-Seon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 6, 2013, Pages 969~974
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.969
In this study, liquid calcium was used to develop a calcium-fortified soy sauce-based seasoning for meat and the quality characteristics of the seasoning and cooked meat were investigated. All seasonings with different amount of liquid calcium (0, 2, 4, or 8%) showed no significant changes in pH and titratable acidity at
for 9 days; however, the control seasoning and seasoning with 2% liquid calcium (Ca-2%) showed significant decreases in pH and increases in titratable acidity during storage at
for 9 days, compared to the seasoning with 4% (Ca-4%) and 8% (Ca-8%) liquid calcium. We also observed that during storage at
, the numbers of total aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast were significantly lower in Ca-4% and Ca-8% seasoning compared to the control or Ca-2%. The calcium contents in cooked meat seasoned with the control, Ca-2%, Ca-4%, or Ca-8% were 2.16, 33.47, 54.72, and 58.23 mg/100 g, respectively. Sensory evaluations demonstrated no significant differences in flavor, taste, juiciness, texture, and overall acceptability between the cooked meat samples. These results suggest that soy sauce seasoning supplemented with liquid calcium (2~8%) effectively increases the calcium content in cooked meat without adversely affecting its taste, flavor, and juiciness. Thus, this type of calcium-fortified seasoning may be helpful in combating the lack of calcium in modern diets.
Fermentation Characteristics of Makgelli Made with Loquat Fruits (Eriobotrya japonica Lindley)
Choi, Kuy-Won ; Lee, Jun-Ki ; Jo, Hyeon-Ju ; Lee, Kwon-Jai ; Yoon, Jin-A ; An, Jeung Hee ; Chung, Kang-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 6, 2013, Pages 975~982
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.975
In this study, we evaluated the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory characteristics of Makgeolli made with loquat fruits during fermentation. The pH values of all samples decreased after 3 days of fermentation, with a final pH ranging from 3.91 to 4.05. Total acidity increased (from 0.71 to 0.76%) from the addition of loquat fruits after 15 days of fermentation. Amino acid content increased (from 0.13 to 0.22%) with fermentation time after 15 days of fermentation. Total sugar and reducing sugar content decreased with fermentation, but was significantly higher with the addition of loquat fruit. The alcohol content of the loquat-added groups was also higher compared to the control group after 15 days of fermentation. The microbial and yeast count of all samples increased to its maximum after 3 days and then decreased after 5 days of fermentation. The sensory score of Makgeolli made with 3% loquat fruit showed higher values than other samples. The results of this study suggest that loquat effectively serves as a natural additive for improving the sensory qualities of Makgeolli and potentially other foods.
Characteristics of School Menus from the Daegu and Gyeongbuk Area
Ahn, Seon Woo ; Choi, Mi-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 6, 2013, Pages 983~990
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.983
The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of menu items offered for school meals in the Daegu and Gyeongbuk area. A total of 538 menu items were collected from six schools (two elementary schools, two middle schools, and two high schools). There was a significant difference in food costs according to menu groups (p<0.001), with the highest food costs for meat and fish dishes (881.66 won) and the lowest cost for kimchi (114.50 won). The proportion of menu items using processed foods and with low operational efficiency were significantly higher in middle schools (p<0.01). In addition, menu items containing animal products were significantly higher in the non-traditional menu items in middle schools (p<0.001). Traditional menu items were less frequently cooked with oil (p<0.001) and processed foods (p<0.001), and their operational efficiency was higher (p<0.001). In conclusion, we found that traditional menu items in school meals were being offered with healthier ingredients and cooking methods, as well as a more efficient foodservice management, than non-traditional menu items.
Edible Culture Media from Cereals and Soybeans for Pre-cultivation of Lactic Acid Bacteria
Park, So-Lim ; Park, Sunhyun ; Jang, Jieun ; Yang, Hye-Jung ; Moon, Sung-Won ; Lee, Myung-Ki ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 6, 2013, Pages 991~995
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.991
This study was conducted to develop an edible culture media with various types of cereals and soybeans for the pre-cultivation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). To manufacture the edible culture media, LAB enrichment media were prepared using cereals such as brown rice (including germinated brown rice, glutinous brown rice, and germinated glutinous brown rice), yellow soybeans (including yellow soybeans, hulled yellow soybeans, germinated yellow soybeans, hulled and germinated yellow soybeans), and black soybeans (black soybeans, hulled black soybeans, germinated black soybeans, hulled and germinated black soybeans). Seven species of LAB were used in the experiment: Lactobacillus (Lb.) farciminis, Lb. homohiochii, Lb. pentosus, Lb. plantarum, Leuconostoc (Leu.) paramesenteroides, Leu. citreum, and Leu. lactis. For edible culture media from cereals, the average viable cell count of the seven starter cultures was 7.6~8.0 log CFU/mL, while that of the MRS culture medium, a synthetic medium, was 9.2 log CFU/mL; thus proliferation was lower by about 1~2 log CFU/mL in starter cultures from cereals compared to the synthetic medium. In the case of the edible culture media from soybeans, most bacteria showed higher proliferation in the hulled and germinated soybean media. In particular, Lb. plantarum showed the highest cell count at 10.08 log CFU/mL. In the case of edible culture media from black soybeans, the proliferation rate was higher in the hulled and germinated black soybean medium. Lb. homohiochii showed the highest proliferation in the hulled and germinated black soybean medium at 9.90 log CFU/mL. All results show that edible culture media using cereals and soybeans are generally good for LAB. Especially, hulled and germinated black soybeans are optimal for the pre-cultivation of LAB medium.