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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 42, Issue 12 - Dec 2013
Volume 42, Issue 11 - Nov 2013
Volume 42, Issue 10 - Oct 2013
Volume 42, Issue 9 - Sep 2013
Volume 42, Issue 8 - Aug 2013
Volume 42, Issue 7 - Jul 2013
Volume 42, Issue 6 - Jun 2013
Volume 42, Issue 5 - May 2013
Volume 42, Issue 4 - Apr 2013
Volume 42, Issue 3 - Mar 2013
Volume 42, Issue 2 - Feb 2013
Volume 42, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Antioxidant Activities of Beverage Concentrates and Purees
Kim, Dan Bi ; Shin, Gi Hae ; Cho, Ju Hyun ; Baik, Soon Ok ; Lee, Ok-Hawn ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 7, 2013, Pages 997~1002
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.7.997
This study investigated the physicochemical properties (pH, Brix), total phenol content, antioxidant activities (DPPH radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)), and nitrite scavenging activity of beverage concentrates and purees. All concentrates and purees were produced from natural materials and have been used as the main ingredients in health-related beverages. Our results show that the pH values and Brix of all concentrates and purees ranged from 2.81 to 5.12 and 1.70 to 70.30 Brix, respectively. The highest total phenol content (182.71 mg GAE/mL), DPPH radical scavenging activity (69.88%) and nitrite scavenging activity (28.19%) were obtained from acai berry puree. The concentrate from wild blueberry had the highest ORAC value (
TE/mL). Among the correlation coefficient data, the total phenol content exhibited a high correlation coefficient (r=0.9099) and DPPH radical scavenging activity. These results suggest that concentrates and purees from natural materials contribute to antioxidant activities in healthy beverages.
The Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts of Selected Barley and Wheat Inhabited in Korean Peninsula
Jo, Sung-Hoon ; Cho, Cha-Young ; Ha, Kyoung-Soo ; Choi, Eun-Ji ; Kang, Yu-Ri ; Kwon, Young-In ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1003~1007
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.7.1003
In this study, the antibacterial activities of selected barleys (UB, unhulled barley; PB, pearl barley; and NB, naked barley) and wheat (WG, wheat with germ and endosperm) extracts were evaluated against the food-borne pathogens Staphylococcus aureus KCTC 1927, Escherichia coli KCTC 2593, Salmonella Typhimurium KCTC 2054, and Bacillus cereus KCTC 1014. The amount of the antibacterial biomarker, 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DMBQ), present in selected barleys and wheat, was measured by HPLC. Furthermore, antioxidant activity of samples was determined using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. WG (
) was found to be highly inhibitory to Staphylococcus aureus followed by UB (
), PB (
), and NB (
). The antibacterial activity of the selected grains was correlated with antioxidant activities and the amount of DMBQ (Pearson's correlation coefficient, 0.7831). The antioxidant activity of the selected grains was also correlated with the total phenolic content (Pearson's correlation coefficient, 0.9934). WG extract showed significantly higher antibacterial activity, compared with barley extracts such as UB, PB, and NB. The results of this study suggest that barley has a potential in the development of natural antimicrobials and food preservatives for controlling food-borne pathogens.
Effects of Medicinal Plant Water Extracts on Expression of Anti-diabetic Enzymes mRNA
Kim, Hyun Sook ; Kim, Tae Woo ; Kim, Dae Jung ; Kim, Kyoung Kon ; Choe, Myeon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1008~1014
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.7.1008
This study evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of medicinal plant water extracts on expression of hepatic glucokinase (GCK), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) mRNA. GCK, PDH and ACC mRNA expression levels were measured by RT-PCR. The medicinal plants used in our study were Cordyceps militaris (CM), Perilla sikokiana (PS), Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (SMB), Panax notoginseng (PN) and Angelica utilis Makino (AUM). We found that GCK mRNA expression was increased to about 181% at the 250 ppm of CM water extract. Furthermore, we also found that CM and AUM water extracts stimulated PDH mRNA expression level related to glucose metabolism, however, PS, SMB and PN did not stimulate PDH mRNA expression as expected. Expression of ACC mRNA was also significantly higher in both CM and AUM water extracts. Overall, the results of our study suggest that CM and AUM water extracts stimulate expression of hepatic GCK, PDH and ACC mRNA.
Effects of Glycyrrhiza inflata Batal Extracts on Adipocyte and Osteoblast Differentiation
Seo, Cho-Rong ; Byun, Jong Seon ; An, Jae Jin ; Lee, JaeHwan ; Hong, Joung-Woo ; Jang, Sang Ho ; Park, Kye Won ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1015~1021
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.7.1015
Glycyrrhiza inflata Batal, an important species of licorice, is one of the most widely used medicinal plants for over 4000 years. Glycyrrhiza plant species has been well known for its various therapeutic activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-ulcer. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Glycyrrhiza inflata Batal ethanol extracts (GBE) on adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation. Mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 cells were treated with sub-cytotoxic doses of GBE, and its effects on adipocyte differentiation were assessed. We found that GBE dose-dependently increased lipid accumulation and also induced the expression of adipocyte markers, such as
and its target genes, aP2, and adiponectin, in C3H10T1/2 cells. Consistently, similar effects of GBE on lipid accumulation were also observed in preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells that further supports the pro-adipogenic activities of GBE. We also investigated the effects of GBE on osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 cells. As a results, we found that GBE increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase in a dose-dependent manner and also promoted the expression of osteoblast markers, such as ALP and RUNX2, during osteoblast differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells. Similar pro-osteogenic effects of GBE were also observed in preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells. Finally, our data show that a major bioactive compound found in Glycyrrhiza inflata Batal, licochalcone A (LA) but not glycyrrhizic acid (GA), can mediate the pro-adipogenic and pro-osteogenic effects of GBE. Taken together, this study provides data to show the possibility of GBE and its bioactive component LA as putative strategies for type 2 diabetes and bone diseases.
Inhibition Effect of Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis by Inonotus obliquus in Human Glioblastoma U-87 MG Cells
Shin, Jung-A ; Park, Joo Hyun ; Kim, Sun Hee ; Song, Kwan Yong ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1022~1028
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.7.1022
Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) was considered a functional food with an anti-cancer effect in colon, gastric, and lung cancer. Therefore, this study was conducted in order to elucidate the effect of chaga mushroom extract in brain cancer. Glioblastoma U-87 MG cells were used in investigation of cell survivability, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest analysis. Treatment with various concentrations of chaga mushroom extract resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest. Although caspase-3 expression was increased over
of chaga mushroom extract treatment, apoptosis factors with Bcl-2, Bax and p53 did not change. In analysis of cell cycle regulatory factors, expression of cyclin D1 and CDK2 decreased in a dose-dependent manner. We have demonstrated the anti-cancer effect of chaga mushroom extract in glioblastoma, which may be mediated by activation of the caspase pathway and induction of cell cycle arrest.
Inhibitory Effects of Phellinus linteus and Rice with Phellinus linteus Mycelium on Obesity and Diabetes
Kim, Haeseop ; You, Jeheon ; Jo, Yeongcheol ; Lee, Youngjae ; Park, Inbae ; Park, Jeongwook ; Jung, Myung-A ; Kim, Young-Suk ; Kim, Sunoh ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1029~1035
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.7.1029
The objective of this study was to examine the ability of extracts from Phellinus linteus (PL) and rice with Phellinus linteus mycelium (PLM) to inhibit obesity and diabetes. The efficacy of PL and PLM were evaluated using Oil Red O staining, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) levels, protein tyrosine phosphate 1B (PTP1B) levels, organ weight, and serum lipid levels. Lipid accumulation significantly decreased by 76% and 59% upon treatment with
of PL and PLM, respectively (P<0.01). The inhibition of CETP activity increased 99% upon treatment with
of PL or PLM. Treatment with 3, 10, 30, 100, and
of PL, changed PTP1B activity by 10, 11, 14, 12, and 18% respectively. Also, treatment with increasing concentrations of PLM led to a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of PTP1B activity (P<0.01). PL and PLM were orally administered for 28 days after a high fat diet (HFD). PL significantly (P<0.05) reduced triglyceride and cholesterol levels. In addition, PLM significantly (P<0.05) reduced triglyceride, cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol levels. GOT and GPT were not significantly affected. These results indicate that PL and PLM extracts have potent and useful activities for the treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.
Anti-Obesity Effects of Salted and Unsalted Doenjang Supplementation in C57BL/6J Mice Fed with High Fat Diet
Bae, Cho-Rong ; Kwon, Dae Young ; Cha, Youn-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1036~1042
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.7.1036
The aim of the present study is to elucidate the anti-obesity effects of Doenjang with and without salt in C57BL/6J mice. For the analysis, a total of forty mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet group (ND), high-fat diet group (HD), high-fat diet supplemented with 20% Doenjang group (DJ), high-fat diet supplemented with 20% unsalted Doenjang group (NS). During the study period, food intake and body weight were measured daily and weekly, respectively. The animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks. Body weight gain, epididymal fat pad weight and serum triglyceride levels of DJ group were found to be significantly lower than those of the HD and NS groups. Serum total-cholesterol levels of DJ and NS groups were significantly lower as compared to the HD group. There were significant decreases in plasma insulin and leptin levels in DJ group compared with the HD and NS groups. We did not observe any significant changes in the expression of hepatic lipogenic-related gene
among the HD, DJ and NS groups. However, ACC expression was found to be significantly decreased in DJ group. Lipolysis-related gene (
and CPT-1) expression was significantly higher in the DJ group as compared to HD and NS groups. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that Doenjang supplementation lowers body weight gain and improves obesity-related parameters.
Dietary Effects of Fermented Soybean Curd Residue (Biji) on Body Weight, Serum Lipid Profiles, and Antioxidation-Related Enzymes Activity of Mice Fed a High Fat Diet
Lee, Sang-Il ; Lee, Ye-Kyung ; Kim, Soon-Dong ; Lee, In-Ae ; Choi, Jongkeun ; Suh, Joo-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1043~1053
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.7.1043
We investigated the ability of soybean curd residue (SCR) and its fermented products to inhibit obesity and improve the blood lipid profiles of obese mice fed a high-fat diet. Samples were prepared by fermenting SCR with Aspergillus oryzae var effuses KACC 44990 (ASCR), a microbe used for the fermentation of traditional Korean Meju, and with Monascus pilosus IFO 4480 (MSCR), a microbe used for the production of red rice. In addition, AMSCR, a mixture composed of equal amounts of ASCR and MSCR, was also prepared. Male mice were divided into six groups and fed with either a normal diet, a high-fat diet, or a high-fat diet supplemented with SCR, ASCR, MSCR, or AMSCR. After 8 weeks, body weight gain, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, and the activities of enzymes that generate or scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated. Compared with the high-fat diet group, all the test groups showed a significant reduction in body, organ, and epididymal fat weight gain. These effects were observed with supplements in the order AMSCR>ASCR>MSCR>SCR. Similarly, supplements of test samples reduced high levels of serum and hepatic triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol caused by hight-fat diet, while high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was increased. Interestingly, the ability of ASCR to lower serum TG was stronger than that of MSCR, while MSCR showed a stronger hypocholesterolemic effect than ASCR. Meanwhile, AMSCR returned comprehensively serum lipid levels to normal. In addition, hepatic damage was prevented with effects in the order AMSCR>ASCR>MSCR>SCR. Hepatic ROS generating system including xanthine oxidase (XO) and ROS scavenging system including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were recovered to normal level by all test diets. In conclusion, this study suggests that SCR and its fermented products can inhibit obesity and improve lipid profiles.
Dietary Habits and Climacteric Symptoms according to the Level of Food Supplement Use of Middle-aged Women
Kim, Mi Jeong ; Lee, Kyung-Hea ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1054~1064
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.7.1054
The purpose of this study was to examine the question of whether there is any difference in dietary habits, climacteric symptoms, and general health characteristics of middle-aged women according to food supplements (FS) use. A total of 745 midlife females participated in a face-to-face interview conducted by qualified interviewers, which guaranteed a higher quality of data collection. Three levels of FS use were defined: None, Single, and Multi for 0, 1, and 2 or more types of FS use, respectively. None, Single, and Multi accounted for 33.56%, 33.29%, and 33.15% of total subjects, respectively. FS users (Single and Multi) exerted more interest in FS and were more likely to believe that FS is helpful for health promotion and amelioration of climacteric symptoms than None (P<0.0001). Self-perceived health status of Multi was lower than that of None, but not different from Single (P<0.05). Factor analysis extracted three factors for dietary habits: regularity, variety and moderation, and four factors for climacteric symptoms: emotional, physical, psycho-somatic, and hot flash. The factor scores for dietary variety as well as emotional, psycho-somatic, and hot flash symptoms were higher for FS user than for None (P<0.01). Single reported more frequent family meals compared to None. Findings of the present study elucidated potential links between the level of FS use, dietary habits, and climacteric symptoms of middle-aged women, suggesting a possible scenario: the greater the climacteric symptoms a woman perceives, the more likely the woman will adopt FS use, the greater the efforts toward dietary improvement, such as dietary variety. Based on that, in this study, more peri-menopausal women belonged to Single and Multi; further investigation on the association between FS use, dietary quality, and climacteric symptoms in conjunction with menopausal status may be needed.
Qualitative Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of Buchimgaru Supplemented with Jerusalem Artichoke Powder
Kim, Gi Chang ; Kim, Hye Sun ; Jo, In Hee ; Kim, Jin Sook ; Kim, Kyung Mi ; Jang, Young Eun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1065~1070
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.7.1065
This study evaluated the qualitative properties of Buchimgaru supplemented with JAP (Jerusalem Artichoke Powder). In Buchimgaru, JAP and wheat flour were mixed in ratios of 1:9 (10% JAP), 2:8 (20% JAP), and 3:7 (30% JAP). The values for texture profiles (hardness, chewiness, springiness, and cohesiveness) decreased when JAP was added to Buchimgae formulations. The fructan contents of Buchimgaru supplemented with 0, 10, 20, and 30% JAP were 1.52, 6.39, 10.50, and 13.71%, respectively. The total polyphenol content of Buchimgaru supplemented with JAP was significantly higher than Buchimgaru without JAP. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of Buchimgaru supplemented with 30% JAP was approximately 11 times greater than Buchimgaru without JAP. In the sensory evaluation (color, flavor, overall preference), Buchimgae supplemented with JAP showed higher sensory values than Buchimgae without JAP.
Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Properties of Saccharified Banana Gruels
Kim, Jin Sook ; Kim, Ja Young ; Kim, Gi Chang ; Kim, Kyung Mi ; Kang, Myung Hwa ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1071~1078
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.7.1071
We conducted this study in order to investigate the quality and antioxidant properties of saccharifed banana gruel containing different levels (0, 15, 30, and 45%) of banana puree. Saccharified banana gruel with different ratios of banana was prepared and proximate composition, sweetness (
), pH, total acidity, Hunter's color value, viscosity, free sugar, sensory evaluation, and physiological activities of the sample were measured. With increasing banana content, proximate composition, sweetness, and acidity of banana gruel increased, and pH showed a significant decrease (P<0.05). Saccharified banana gruel prepared with 15~45% banana showed significantly lower viscosity. As the level of banana increased, L-value decreased, whereas the a-value, b-value increased. Free sugar content of fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose showed a significant increase (P<0.05). Saccharified banana gruel with 30% added banana was the most preferred for color, flavor, taste, mouth-feeling, texture, and overall acceptability. The total phenolic compound contents of saccharified banana gruel with banana puree ranged from 1.73 to 5.75 mg/g. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of saccharified banana gruel with banana puree were 8.67~31.26% and 6.02~55.16%, respectively. With increasing banana content, total polyphenol contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity of banana gruel showed a significant increase (P<0.05). From these results, we found that addition of 30% banana was the best method for preparation of gruel with high sensory quality.
Physicochemical Quality and Hypoglycemic Effect of Omija Sauce
Park, Eun-Joo ; Ahn, Jae-Jun ; Kang, Sun-Ae ; Kim, Hyo-Young ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1079~1085
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.7.1079
This study investigated how different amounts of omija fruit (Schisandra chinensis) juice concentrate (0~5%) in sauces affect perceived sensory and quality characteristics. Sauce samples were subjected to chemical analysis for different quality parameters such as Brix, reducing sugars, total phenolic compounds, alpha-amylase inhibition, and alpha-glucosidase inhibition activity. A decrease in pH values was observed with increasing concentrate percentage. As for color, the more concentrate added, the more the L value decreased and other values (
values) increased. Hypoglycemic effect, as determined by alpha-glucosidase, valuably increased in 4% juice concentrate. As the percentage of concentrate increased, the chemical component values also increased. Significant differences were observed between sauce samples in the sensory evaluation, with the highest overall acceptance being sauce containing 4% juice concentrate. When evaluated with marinated chicken breasts, sauce containing 5% juice concentrate achieved the maximum score.
Change of Antioxidant Activity and Quality Characteristics of Gaeseong-Juak Prepared with Prunus yedoensis Matsumura Extract during the Storage Period
Joo, Shin Youn ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1086~1095
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.7.1086
This study investigated the quality characteristics, oxidative stability, and antioxidative activity of a Korean fried rice cake, Gaeseong-Juak (doughnut of waxy rice) to which Prunus yedoensis Matsumura (PYM) extract, vitamin C, and BHT were added and stored at
for 4 days. Gaeseong-Juak was prepared by adding PYM extract at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2% of waxy rice powder. It was found that as the content of PYM extract increased, L-values significantly decreased while a-value and b-value significantly increased (P<0.001). The hardness and adhesiveness were increased with an increase in PYM extract, and as the storage period increased. In the sensory evaluations, the sample containing 0.5% and 1.0% PYM extract gave good scores. In the Gaeseong-Juak with PYM extract, the acid value, peroxide value, and p-anisidin value of PYM extract groups were found to have a higher oxidative stability than those of 0% PYM extract group (P<0.05). The antioxidative activity of Gaeseong-Juak to which PYM extract was added increased as the content of PYM extract increased (P<0.001). It was suggested that the shelf life of Gaeseong-Juak could be extended by the use of natural antioxidants, reducing the deterioration of the quality of Gaeseong-Juak.
The Quality Characteristics of Noodles Containing Roasted Liriopis Tuber
Park, Sung Hee ; Ryu, Ho Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1096~1102
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.7.1096
This study investigated the quality characteristics of noodles containing roasted Liriopis tuber. Roasted Liriopis tuber powder (LTP) was added in different amounts based on wheat flour (1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9%). Cooked noodles containing LTP exhibited significantly lower values for weight, volume, and water absorption; in contrast, higher values were exhibited for turbidity. The Hunter L value (for lightness) of uncooked and cooked noodles decreased but the a value (for redness) and b value (for yellowness) increased with the addition of Liriopis tuber. Textural properties (springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and brittleness) measured with a texture analyzer significantly decreased with the addition of Liriopis tuber. From the sensory evaluation results, noodle containing 7% Liriopis tuber was considered the best. To improve the quality of noodle containing 7% LTP, activated gluten was added at different percentages of flour (1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%). Cooked noodles containing activated gluten exhibited significantly higher values for weight, volume, and water absorption; in contrast, lower values for turbidity were exhibited. In addition, the textural properties significantly increased with the addition of activated gluten. From the sensory evaluation results, noodle containing 3% activated gluten was considered the best. In conclusion, noodle with 7% LTP and 3% activated gluten exhibited the most desirable qualities.
Effects of Autoclave and Microwave Treatments on Quality of Cookies
Kang, Bo-Kyeong ; Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri ; Jung, Seul-A ; Kim, Hyun-Ji ; Jeong, Da-Hyun ; Bark, Si-Woo ; Choi, Jung-Su ; Choi, Ho-Duk ; Ahn, Dong-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1103~1108
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.7.1103
This study was conducted in order to determine the effect of autoclave and microwave treatments on cookies. Wheat dough was treated in an autoclave (30 min), a microwave (1 min), and both autoclave and microwave (30 min/1 min). The treated dough was baked or non-baked and cookies quality was assessed. The pH, moisture content, color, and texture were measured, and sensory evaluation was performed. The pH showed a slight increase when dough was treated in a microwave (before baking) and decreased in both the autoclave and autoclave/microwave (after baking) treatments. The moisture content showed a significant increase, compared to the control, in autoclave treatments. Regarding surface color of cookies, lightness was decreased in all treatments and redness was higher compared with the control, except for microwave (before baking), and yellowness was lower compared to the control, except for microwave treatment (after baking). Hardness, gumminess, chewiness, and shear force showed a significant increase when dough was treated in an autoclave/microwave (after baking) compared to the control. In the sensory evaluation, color, taste, texture, shape, and overall preference of cookies treated with an autoclave/microwave (after baking) showed a low score. These results suggest that autoclaving and microwaving may reduce the quality of bread and that preparation of countermeasures is necessary.
Microbial Community Analysis of Tarak, a Fermented Milk Product
Lim, Goo-Sang ; Lee, Kyung-Soo ; Jang, Hye-Jin ; Jung, Jin-Kyung ; Lim, Ji-Young ; Chun, TaeHoon ; Han, Young-Sook ; Oh, Se-Wook ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1109~1114
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.7.1109
Microbial community analysis was performed on Tarak, a traditional Korean fermented milk product, by 16S rDNA cloning and pyrosequencing to obtain basic data for the standardization and systematization of the Tarak manufacturing process. Microbial analysis of the prokaryotic community revealed a slight difference in microbial abundance between Bontarak (n) and Tarak (n+1), but Firmicute was dominant at the phylum level. At the genus level, the Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc genera constituted over 90% of the population in Bontarak, but Lactococcus was the dominant genus in Tarak. Bontarak and Tarak showed further differences at the species level. Leuconostoc citreum was the dominant species in Bontarak, constituting 40% of the population. In eukaryotic community analysis, all samples were composed of Ascomycota at the phylum level. At the genus level, Saccharomyces was dominant in Bontarak (85% of the population), while Issatchenkia was dominant in Tarak (95% of the population). At the species level, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was detected at a relative abundance in Bontarak (82%), and Pichia kudriavzevii was the dominant species in Tarak, with a relative abundance of 95%. Sensory evaluation indicated that Tarak had a better appearance and texture than Bontarak. As sweetness was not significantly different between the two samples just slightly higher in Tarak, this was likely due to a significant decrease in sourness in Tarak. These results suggest that the microbial community used affects the quality of Tarak produced. Thus, a stable microbial community must be maintained for the production of Tarak with consistent quality.
Physicochemical Properties and Microbial Analysis of Korean Solar Salt and Flower of Salt
Lee, Hye Mi ; Lee, Woo Kyoung ; Jin, Jung Hyun ; Kim, In Cheol ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1115~1124
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.7.1115
The present study was conducted to ensure the diversity of domestic solar salt by analyzing the composition and microbiological characteristics of solar salt (from Docho island: DS) and the flower of salt produced in different Korean salt flats (Sinui island: SF, Bigum island: BF, and Docho island: DF). The analyses showed that the moisture content of the three types of flower of salt and solar salt ranged from 10.54~13.82% and NaCl content ranged from 78.81~84.61%. The mineral content of those salts ranged from 3.57~5.51%. The content of insoluble matter in these salts was
. The sand content of these salts was
. By Hunter's color value analysis, the color of the flower of salt was brighter and whiter than solar salt. The salinity of the flower of salt was a little higher than solar salt as well. The magnesium and potassium ion content of DF was
, respectively, which was lower than the content in SF, BF, and DS. The heavy metal content of all salts was acceptable under the Korean Food Sanitation Law. The flower of salt was confirmed to be sweeter and preferable to solar salt. More than 80% of the solar salt crystals were 2~3 mm in size, whereas crystals from the flower of salt were 0.5~2 mm in size. The bacterial diversity of DF and DS were investigated by culture and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) methods. The number of cultured bacteria in flower of salt was approximately three times more than solar salt. By DGGE analysis, major microbes of DF were Maritimibacter sp., Cupriavidus sp., and unculturable bacteria, and those of DS were Cupriavidus sp., Dunalidella salina and unculturable bacteria. The results of DGGE analysis showed that major microorganisms in solar salts were composed of unidentified and unculturable bacteria and only a few microorganisms were culturable.
Development of a Novel Medium with Chinese Cabbage Extract and Optimized Fermentation Conditions for the Cultivation of Leuconostoc citreum GR1
Moon, Shin-Hye ; Chang, Hae-Choon ; Kim, In-Cheol ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1125~1132
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.7.1125
In the kimchi manufacturing process, the starter is cultured on a large-scale and needs to be supplied at a low price to kimchi factories. However, current high costs associated with the culture of lactic acid bacteria for the starter, have led to rising kimchi prices. To solve this problem, the development of a new medium for culturing lactic acid bacteria was studied. The base materials of a this novel medium consisted of Chinese cabbage extract, a carbon source, a nitrogen source, and inorganic salts. The optimal composition of this medium was determined to be 30% Chinese cabbage extract, 2% maltose, 0.25% yeast extract, and
salt stock (2% sodium acetate trihydrate, 0.8% disodium hydrogen phosphate, 0.8% sodium citrate, 0.8% ammonium sulfate, 0.04% magnesium sulfate, 0.02% manganese sulfate). The newly developed medium was named MFL (medium for lactic acid bacteria). After culture for 24 hr at
, the CFU/mL of Leuconostoc (Leuc.) citreum GR1 in MRS and MFL was
, respectively. The number of cells in the MFL medium was 2.2 times higher than their number in the MRS media. In a scale-up process using this optimized medium, the fermentation conditions for Leuc. citreum GR1 were tested in a 2 L working volume using a 5 L jar fermentor at
. At an impeller speed of 50 rpm (without pH control), the viable cell count was
CFU/mL. From studies on pH-stat control fermentation, the optimal pH and regulating agent was determined to be 6.8 and NaOH, respectively. At an impeller speed of 50 rpm with pH control, the viable cell count was
CFU/mL after cultivation for 20 hr - a value was 3.34 times higher than that obtained using the MRS media in biomass production. This MFL media is expected to have economic advantages for the cultivation of Leuc. citreum GR1 as a starter for kimchi production.
Fermentation and Quality Characteristics of Cheonggukjang with Addition of Dropwort (Oenanthe javanica D.C.) Powder
Lee, Shin-Ho ; Kim, Jin-Hak ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1133~1138
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.7.1133
Characteristics of Cheonggukjang with addition of different dropwort (Oenanthe javanica D.C.) powders were investigated. The selected strain, with proteolytic, amylolytic, and antimicrobial activity, was identified as B. subtilis RS-9, using 16S rRNA analysis. The Cheonggukjang was prepared with cooked soybean without dropwort (Control), 0.5% raw dropwort powder (DW0.5), and 1% raw dropwort powder (DW1), 0.5% steamed dropwort powder (SDW0.5), and 1% steamed dropwort powder (SDW1) were added, respectively. The changes in pH of Cheonggukjangs with addition of dropwort powder were lower than those of control during fermentation for 72 hr at
. The total aerobes of the various Cheonggukjangs reached 8.88 (control), 8.82 (DW0.5), 8.70 (DW1), 8.85 (SDW0.5), and 8.75 (SDW1) log CFU/mL after fermentation for 72 hr at
, respectively. The amino nitrogen and viscous substance contents of different dropwort powders added to Cheonggukangs were lower than those of control. The total polyphenol contents and ABTS radical scavenging ability of various Cheonggukjangs were increased by addition of dropwort powder and fermentation. The polyphenol contents and ABTS radical scavenging ability of SDW1 were
and 82.16% and showed the highest value among tested Cheonggukangs. The sensory quality of DW0.5 was higher in taste and overall acceptability, compared with other groups.
Analysis of Relationship between Sanitary Knowledge and Sanitary Management Performance of School Foodservice Employees in Gyeongnam
An, Jeong-Mi ; Kim, Hyun-Ah ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1139~1147
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.7.1139
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between sanitary knowledge score and sanitary management performance among school foodservice employees. For this purpose, a paper-based questionnaire was developed and distributed to 300 school foodservice employees in Jinhae-gu, Changwon from May 13 to June 10 in 2009. A total of 276 responses were received and analyzed. The results of this study were as follows. The sanitary knowledge score of school foodservice employees was 16.60 (total score: 20). Their sanitary management performance level was 4.77 (based on a 5-point Likert scale). We found that sanitary management performance level of high sanitary knowledge score group was significantly higher than that of low sanitary knowledge score group (P<0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between sanitary knowledge score and sanitary management performance of school foodservice employees (P<0.01). Regression analysis showed that sanitary knowledge score of school foodservice employees had a positive effect on sanitary management performance (P<0.001). It implies that as school foodservice employees' sanitary knowledge increased, their sanitary management performance increased. In conclusion, to improve the sanitary quality of school foodservice, school foodservice employees' sanitary management performance level should be increased by improving their sanitary knowledge. So, a systematic and consistent sanitary education program should be conducted for school foodservice employees.
Development and Evaluation of Kimchi Menus for Elementary School Food Service
Kim, Sunghye ; Kim, Mi Jeong ; Kim, Hyun Ju ; Song, Yeong-Ok ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1148~1156
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.7.1148
Studies have shown that the preference and average consumption of kimchi among youths have been decreasing partly due to the westernization of the diet. In this study, we examined kimchi consumption status and the annual utilization of 29 kimchi menus registered in the National Education Information System (NEIS) among the students, and then developed seven kimchi menus based on the preference tests and plate waste analysis. Our findings showed that average kimchi consumption by second and fifth graders during lunch time was 19.3% and 17.3%, respectively, of the recommendation (40 g per meal) in the 2010 KDRI. Incidentally, more than 75% of elementary school dieticians answered that ten kimchi menus (31%) registered in the NEIS were never chosen by them in the previous year. The least adopted types of kimchi menu included cooked rice, porridge, stew, pancake, deep-fry and grill. The newly developed kimchi menus included kimchi sauce tofu deopbap, kimchi bacon rice ball, kimchi chicken potato stew, kimchi vegetable fried noodles, kimchi meatballs, kimchi cheese croquette and kimchi potato salad. All these kimchi food items contained 10~20 g of kimchi per serving, and the standardized recipes and nutrient analysis were provided. Kimchi cheese croquette was most liked by fourth graders followed by kimchi sauce tofu deopbap, kimchi meatball and kimchi chicken potato stew in that order. These four menus were again evaluated among second and fifth graders. The kimchi meatballs were most preferred among these groups of students with no leftover but kimchi sauce tofu deopbap was least favorable, producing 17.1% of plate waste. Finally, kimchi cheese croquette and kimchi potato salad were given the highest and lowest scores, respectively, by 87 school dieticians. The findings of this study suggest that efforts on the development of kimchi menu for school food services may help to promote a preference and consumption of kimchi among elementary school students.
Changes in Phytochemical Content and Antiproliferative Activity of Germinated Geunnun and Ilpum Rice Varieties
Sung, Jeehye ; Lee, Junsoo ; Oh, Sea-Kwan ; Lee, Jeom-Sig ; Choi, Won-Seok ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1157~1161
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.7.1157
The purpose of this work was to measure the changes in
-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and polyphenolic content of two different rice varieties (Geunnun and Ilpum), as well as the antiproliferative activities of both germinated brown rice varieties in cancer cells. The contents of GABA in Geunnun and Ilpum, especially in the bran of Ilpum increased significantly after germination. The content of polyphenol in Geunnun also increased after germination, but the contents of flavonoid in both varieties decreased after germination. A significant increase in the antiproliferative activity of both varieties on human lung and gastric cancer cell line was observed after germination.
Isolation of Iron-Binding Peptides from Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Seed Protein Hydrolysates
Choi, Dong Won ; Kim, Nam Ho ; Son, Kyung Bin ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1162~1166
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.7.1162
Proteins from sunflower seeds were hydrolyzed with Alcalase and Flavourzyme to isolate iron-binding peptides. The optimal hydrolysis conditions were determined. Hydrolysates were filtered under a 3 kDa membrane and iron-binding peptides separated from the hydrolysates using ion exchange and gel permeation chromatographic methods. A fraction with the highest iron-binding activity (Fe/peptide, 0.69), F22, was obtained. These results suggest that fractions isolated from sunflower seed protein hydrolysates can be applied toward the production of iron supplements.