Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 42, Issue 12 - Dec 2013
Volume 42, Issue 11 - Nov 2013
Volume 42, Issue 10 - Oct 2013
Volume 42, Issue 9 - Sep 2013
Volume 42, Issue 8 - Aug 2013
Volume 42, Issue 7 - Jul 2013
Volume 42, Issue 6 - Jun 2013
Volume 42, Issue 5 - May 2013
Volume 42, Issue 4 - Apr 2013
Volume 42, Issue 3 - Mar 2013
Volume 42, Issue 2 - Feb 2013
Volume 42, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Glutamine Deprivation Inhibits Invasion of Human Prostate Carcinoma LnCap Cells through Inactivation of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Modulation of Tight Junctions
Shin, Dong Yeok ; Choi, Yung Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 8, 2013, Pages 1167~1174
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.8.1167
Cancer cells exhibit increased demand for glutamine-derived carbons to support anabolic processes. Indeed, the spectrum of glutamine-dependent tumors and the mechanisms through which glutamine supports cancer metabolism remain areas of active investigation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of glutamine deprivation on the correlation between tightening of tight junctions (TJs) and anti-invasive activity in human prostate carcinoma LnCap cells. Glutamine deprivation markedly inhibited cell motility and invasiveness in a time-dependent manner. The anti-invasive activity of glutamine deprivation was associated with an increased tightness of the TJ, which was demonstrated by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). The activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were inhibited in a time-dependent fashion by glutamine deprivation, which was correlated with a decrease in expression of their mRNA and proteins and up-regulation of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) expression. Furthermore, glutamine deprivation repressed the levels of the claudin family members, which are major components of TJs that play a key role in the control and selectivity of paracellular transport. Moreover, the levels of E-cadherin, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, and snail, an epithelial to mesenchymal transition regulator and zinc finger transcription factor, were markedly modulated by glutamine deprivation. Taken together, these findings suggest that TJs and MMPs are critical targets of glutamine deprivation-induced anti-invasion in human prostate carcinoma LnCap cells.
Characteristics and Antioxidative Activity of Fermented Mixed Grain Beverages Produced by Different Microbial Species
Lee, Jae Sung ; Kang, Yun Hwan ; Kim, Kyoung Kon ; Lim, Jun Gu ; Kim, Tae Woo ; Choe, Myeon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 8, 2013, Pages 1175~1182
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.8.1175
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional characteristics of fermented mixed grain beverages obtained using different microbial species and to evaluate their suitability for consumption. Various fermented mixed grain beverages were prepared through fermentation with Aspergillus (A.) oryzae CF1003 (A), A. acidus KACC46420 (B), Rhizopus (R.) delemar KACC46149 (C), R. oryzae KACC45714 (D), R. oryzae KACC46148 (E), A-E mixed strains (F), A. oryzae CF1001 (G), A. acidus CF1005 (H) and A+H mixed strains (I). The visual appearance, flavor, taste, and the antioxidant capacity of each fermented beverage were then assessed. The chromaticity and aesthetic quality of the fermented beverage was measured and all fermented beverages appeared yellow. The C-, G-, H- and I-fermented beverages received scores of 3.319, 3.206, 3.170 and 3.025 points, respectively, following a sensory evaluation, while the others received less than 3 points. The polyphenol content of the different beverages were similar, while the flavonoid content significantly differed. In particular, the flavonoid content of the C- and E-fermented beverages was significantly higher than other beverages. Although the electron donating ability and reducing power of the fermented beverages was very low, the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of all beverages (except the E-fermented beverage) increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Specifically, the SOD-like activity from the F-fermented beverage at 10,000 ppm was more than 50%. Interestingly, the antioxidant activities of the beverages were unrelated to their polyphenol or flavonoid levels. This study also found that the aesthetic qualities of G- and H-fermented beverages were the highest and that this was completely independent of their antioxidant capacity. Therefore, our results suggest that further studies are required to develop mixed grain-derived fermented beverages that can also fulfill a useful functional purpose.
Effects of Oyster Shell Extract on Papain-induced Osteoarthritis in C57BL/6J Mice
Lee, Se-Young ; Kim, Hak-Ju ; Han, Ji-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 8, 2013, Pages 1183~1189
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.8.1183
We investigated the effects of oyster shell extract (OSE) on papain-induced osteoarthritis in C57BL/6J mice. Osteoarthritis was induced in mice by a papain injection into the knee joint. The mice were divided into a total of five groups (n=8). The normal group was untreated, whereas the papain group (negative control) was induced with osteoarthritis and treated with water daily. The papain+DS group (positive control) was treated with diclofenac sodium. Papain+OSE groups were treated with OSE concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg/bw for 20 days. Proteoglycan content in articular cartilage was analyzed through safranine-O fast green staining and H&E staining. The histopathological changes in cartilage were measured by the Rudolphi score approach. The contents of tumor necrosis factor-
), interleukin (IL)-
, and IL-6 in plasma were analyzed by the ELISA method. After experiments, body weights of the treated groups were not significantly different compared with the normal group. Cartilage loss and joint instability significantly improved in a dose-dependent manner in the OSE-treated group compared with the papain group (P<0.05). Proteoglycan content was significantly higher in the OSE-treated group than the papain group (P<0.05). Osteoarthritis scores of the OSE-treated group were significantly decreased compared with the papain group (P<0.05). TNF-
, and IL-6 content in the plasma of the papain+OSE treated groups significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner compared with the papain group (P<0.05). These results suggest that OSE treatment might have anti-arthritic effects on papain-induced osteoarthritis in C57BL/6J mice.
The Effects of Korean Ginseng on Memory Loss in a Rat Models
Kang, Shin-Jyung ; Woo, Jeong-Hwa ; Kim, Ae-Jung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 8, 2013, Pages 1190~1196
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.8.1190
The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism and effects of different types of ginseng on memory improvement in an experimental rat model. In this study, SD rats were induced for memory deficits through scopolamine treatment (1 mg/kg, i.p.) then administrated with ginseng extract for 7 weeks. The rats were divided into five groups: saline (1 mL/kg, NC: negative control), white ginseng (300 mg/kg, WG), red ginseng (300 mg/kg, RG), black ginseng (300 mg/kg, BG), and scopolamine (1 mg/kg, PC: positive control). The step through latency of the BG and RG groups was significantly longer than the PC group in the retention trial of multiple trial passive avoidance test. In the spatial reference memory triads of the Morris water maze test, the latency time of BG and RG was significantly lower than the PC group. In addition, in the prove test, the time spent in the platform quadrant of BG and RG groups were significantly longer than the PC group. Brain choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activities BG and RG groups significantly increased compared to other groups. On the other hand, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly lower in the BG and RG groups compared to other groups. These result suggested that black ginseng could be useful to enhance learning memory and cognitive function by regulation of cholinergic enzymes.
Effects of Endurance Exercise and Ginsenoside Rb
on AMP-Activated Protein Kinase, Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Expression and Glucose Uptake in the Skeletal Muscle of Rats
Jung, Hyun-Lyung ; Shin, Young Ho ; Kang, Ho-Youl ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 8, 2013, Pages 1197~1203
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.8.1197
This study investigated the effects of endurance exercise and ginsenoside
on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) protein expression and glucose uptake in the skeletal muscle of rats. A total of 32 rats were randomly divided into four groups: CON (Control group, n=8), Ex (Exercise group; 25 m/min for 1 h, 6 days/week, 2 weeks, n=8),
group; n=8), and
+Exercise group, n=8). The
groups were incubated in ginsenoside
) for 60 min after a 2-week experimental treatment. After 2 weeks, the expression of phosphorylated
, the p85 subunit of PI3K, pIRS-1
, and pAkt
were determined in the soleus muscle. Muscle glucose uptake was measured using 2-deoxy-D-[
] glucose in epitroclearis muscle. Muscle glucose uptake was significantly higher in the three experimental groups (Ex,
) compared to the CON group (P<0.05). The expression of
was significantly higher in the Ex,
groups compared to the CON group (P<0.05). The expression of pAkt
was significantly higher in the
group compared to the CON and EX groups. However, the expression of pIRS-1
and the p85 subunit of PI3K were not significantly different between the four groups. Overall, these results suggest that ginsenoside
significantly stimulates glucose uptake in the skeletal muscle of rats through increasing phosphorylation in the AMPK pathway, similar to the effects of exercise.
Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Commercial Vinegars with High Acidity
Jo, Deokjo ; Park, Eun-Joo ; Yeo, Soo-Hwan ; Jeong, Yong-Jin ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 8, 2013, Pages 1204~1210
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.8.1204
Various commercial vinegars of high-strength acidity (10% or more of total acidity) were investigated to compare their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. The total acidity of double-strength vinegars was relatively lower than triple-strength vinegars. Irrespective of the acidity, sugar and reducing sugar content ranged from
and 1.32~3,885.90 mg%, respectively. Free sugars were mainly composed of fructose and glucose, and were relatively high in double-strength vinegars. The content of acetic acid (a principal organic acid in vinegars) increased with acidity, but oxalic acid was not identified in commercial high-strength acidity vinegars. Double-strength vinegars using malt extracts were the highest in free amino acid content, showing 24 kinds of amino acids. The content of total phenolics and flavonoids was highest in apple vinegars of double-strength acidity, which affected the scavenging ability of DPPH and ABTS radicals. Overall, the quality of high-strength acidity vinegars was affected by its content and production methods, and double-strength acidity vinegar using apples showed the best antioxidant activities.
Antioxidant Capacity and Effect of Storage Periods on Textures and Sensory Properties of Dasik (Korean Traditional Confectionaries)
Yang, Jeong-Eun ; Kim, Ji Young ; Jang, Eun Yeong ; Lee, Jae Hwan ; Lee, Ji Hyeon ; Chung, Lana ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 8, 2013, Pages 1211~1219
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.8.1211
Dasik is a kind of traditional Korean dessert, which has polysaccharides as the major base. Dasik was prepared using rice and various ingredients and its antioxidant properties were determined. In addition, textural changes and sensory evaluation were conducted on Dasik during 7-day storage at
. Dasik containing brown rice, red ginseng, and rice bran oil showed higher radical scavenging ability, reducing power, total flavonoid, and total phenolic contents among tested rice-based samples. Dasik prepared using black sesame seeds showed the highest radical scavenging ability and reducing power compared to rice-based Dasik. In sensory evaluation, 10 trained panelists found that hardness of the rice-based Omija Dasik sample increased significantly (P<0.05) while moistness and softness attributes decreased as the storage period of Dasik increased. The roasted bean Dasik and black sesame Dasik samples were evaluated similarly and their moistness decreased significantly (P<0.05) with longer storage period. The overall and texture acceptability of the rice-based Omija Dasik and the roasted bean Dasik samples decreased significantly (P<0.05), and scores of willingness to try again of the rice-based Omija Dasik decreased as the storage period of Dasik increased. Positive or negative correlations among the results from sensory evaluation and textural analysis were observed in Dasik.
Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of Yanggaeng with Aronia Juice
Hwang, Eun-Sun ; Lee, Yae-Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 8, 2013, Pages 1220~1226
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.8.1220
The objective of this study is to investigate the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yanggaeng prepared with different amounts of aronia juice. Aronia juice was incorporated into yanggaeng at different levels (containing 50, 100, and 150 g of aronia juice in AJ 50, AJ 100, and AJ 150, respectively) based on the total weight of water. Total acidity and sugar contents showed a significant increase, however, pH showed a decrease with increasing levels of aronia juice. Hardness also showed an increase with increasing levels of aronia juice. Regarding texture profile analysis, hardness, springiness, and chewiness of yanggaeng were increased, however, cohesiveness was similar compared to the control and aronia juice added treatments. In chromaticity determination, L and b values showed a decrease, however, a value increased with increasing levels of aronia juice. The total polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanin contents were increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity measured by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were significantly higher than those of control and increased proportionally according to the concentration of aronia juice. The sensory evaluation indicated that AJ 100 showed the best preference in color, taste, texture, flavor, and overall acceptance. These results suggest that aronia juice may be a useful ingredient in yanggaeng for improvement of quality and antioxidant potential.
Effects of Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of Dry Noodles with Added Sorghum Flour by Characteristics of Endosperm
Ko, Jee Yeon ; Woo, Koan Sik ; Kim, Jung In ; Song, Seuk Bo ; Lee, Jae Saeng ; Kim, Hyun Young ; Jung, Tae Wook ; Kim, Ki Young ; Kwak, Do Yeon ; Oh, In Seok ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 8, 2013, Pages 1227~1235
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.8.1227
This study was conducted in order to investigate the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of dry noodles with addition of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) flour from glutinous and non-glutinous varieties. The sorghum varieties used in this study were glutinous 'Hwaggumchal' and non-glutinous 'Donganme', and the contents added to noodles were 'Hwaggumchal' 5%, 'Hwaggumchal' 10%, 'Donganme' 5%, and 'Donganme' 10%. The turbidity of soup of cooked noodles was increased by addition of sorghum flour. The cooking loss of 'Hwaggumchal' flour added noodles (HFN) was greater than that of 'Donganme' flour added noodles (DFN), reflecting endosperm characteristics. Phenolic compounds such as polyphenol, flavonoid, and tannin contents and antioxidant activity of sorghum flour added noodles were increased in proportion to the amounts of added sorghum flour. In the added varieties, DFN showed greater amounts of phenolic compounds and higher levels of DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities than HFN. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of 5~10% DFN were increased by 4.6~6.2 fold and 10.5~13.4 fold, respectively, compared to non-added noodles. Regarding cooking effects, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of sorghum flour added noodles were increased by 10.9~11.2% after cooking. In sensory evaluation, color and appearance value were highest in HFN, and no differences in taste and overall acceptability were observed among treatments.
Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Buckwheat Soksungjang Prepared with Different Material Formula
Eom, Hyun-Ju ; Kang, Hye Jeong ; Park, Jung-Mi ; Kim, Sang Hee ; Song, In Gyu ; Yoon, Hyang-Sik ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 8, 2013, Pages 1236~1241
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.8.1236
This study was conduct in order to provide information on formula optimization, salinity, and water content for commercialization of traditional buckwheat Soksungjang. To do this, we determined quality characteristics such as total microbial flora counts, amino-type nitrogen content, total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, and performed a sensory evaluation. The moisture contents showed a gradual decrease during the fermentation period. There was no significant difference in all samples. During 70 days of fermentation, the pH showed a similar trend starting at a pH of 6, and dropping sharply to 5.5, except Experiment C (15% buckwheat powder in the meju, 10% NaCl, and 130% water in the total Soksungjang). On the other hand, total acidity increased regularly, however, its ranges were various points in all samples. The microbial population was reduced by 1~3 log cycle in all samples during the fermentation period. The content of amino-type nitrogen showed a gradual increase during fermentation, ranging from 160 to 213 mg% after 70 days. No remarkable difference in total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity was observed in all samples. In sensory evaluation, Soksungjang with 30% (control) and 15% (Experiment C) buckwheat showed a significantly higher overall score.
Effects of Pretreatment and Drying Methods on Quality and Antioxidant Activities of Dried Jujube (Zizyphus jujuba) Fruit
Kim, Jae-Won ; Lee, Shin-Ho ; No, Hong-Kyoon ; Hong, Joo-Heon ; Park, Chang-Su ; Youn, Kwang-Sup ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 8, 2013, Pages 1242~1248
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.8.1242
This study was performed to determine the effects of pretreatment (NT: non-treatment, BTS: boiling treatment with 3% sodium chloride, DTG: dipping treatment in glycerol) and drying methods (sun drying, hot air drying, and cold air drying) on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of dried jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.) fruits. Our results show that moisture content is lower (P<0.05) with DTG, and that moisture content is lower with hot air drying compared to other drying methods. The bulk density was highest with BTS. The soluble solids content was highest with DTG. Additionally, the soluble solids content were highest in the following order: hot air drying> cold air drying> sun drying. The titratable acidity of hot air drying was highest of all the drying methods. The titratable acidity was higher with NT and DTG, and the brix and acid ratio of sun drying was higher than other drying methods. Among the drying methods, BTS showed the best browning-retarding effect, whereas boiling treatment affected quality and color. The total polyphenol content from hot air drying and NT or DTG treatment was relatively higher than the content from BTS. The flavonoid content was highest with BTS, and all dried jujube showed relatively high antioxidant activities. The sensory evaluation results indicated that the organoleptic scores for overall preference were higher in the NT and DTG treatment groups. These results suggest that pretreatment and drying methods affect the quality of dried jujube fruit, and show that glycerol treatment with hot air drying can be applied to the production of high quality dried jujube.
Effects of Extraction Methods on the Antioxidative Activity of Artemisia sp.
Kang, Kyoung-Myoung ; Lee, Shin-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 8, 2013, Pages 1249~1254
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.8.1249
The effect of extraction methods, such as reflux extraction (RE), autoclave extraction (AE), low temperature high pressure extraction (LTPE) and ultrasonification extraction (USE) on antioxidant activity of various species of Artemisia (Artemisia capillaris T., Artemisia princeps P., Artemisia annua L.) was investigated. The extraction yield of RE and AE was higher than other methods tested for all Artemisia. The total polyphenol and flavonoid content of Artemisia sp. extracts from RE was highest of the extraction methods tested. The total polyphenol and flavonoid content of A. capillaris T. extracted by RE was 260.82 mg GAE/g and 11.52 mg RHE/g, respectively. The A. capillaris T. extract showed higher DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity than that of the other tested Artemisia sp. Nitrite scavenging activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of various extracts from RE was 45.48% and 68.29% (A. capillaris T.), 45.73% and 61.43% (A. princeps P.), and 44.25% and 58.19% (A. annua L.), respectively. The RE method was the most effective method for extracting antioxidant substances from various A. capillaris T. compared with AE, LTPE and USE. These results suggest that extracts of Artemisia sp. from RE can be used as bioactive and functional materials in the food industry.
Analysis of the General and Functional Components of Various Soybeans
Lee, Sol ; Lee, Yoon Bok ; Kim, Hyang Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 8, 2013, Pages 1255~1262
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.8.1255
The objective of this study was to analyze the general and functional components of various soybeans, used for producing soy sauce, tofu, bean sprouts, and for cooking with rice. The moisture, crude protein, crude fat, and ash content of soybeans were in the ranges of 5.50~6.16%, 38.49~41.08%, 14.89~21.89%, and 4.89~5.86%, respectively. Mineral and functional components varied by sample and showed no relationship with usage type. Somyeong for bean sprouts had the highest level of Ca (406.36 mg/100 g), and Sinpaldal for soy sauce and tofu had the highest level of Mg (247.79 mg/100 g). However, Jinpum No. 2 for soy sauce and tofu had the lowest level of Ca (199.51 mg/100 g), and Seonhuk had the lowest level of Mg (90.03 mg/100 g) among the soybeans tested. The isoflavone content in soybeans was in the range of 97.54~402.00 mg/100 g. Somyeong for bean sprouts had the highest level and Seonheuk for cooking with rice had the lowest level. Total oligosaccharides were in the range of
. Sucrose content was approximately 50% of total oligosaccharides in all samples. Raffinose content was
, and stachyose content was
. Phytosterols including bracassisterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and
-sitosterol ranged from 19.25~35.34 mg/100 g.
-sitosterol represented 50% of total phytosterols in almost all samples, followed by campesterol, stigmasterol and bracassisterol. The phytic acid content in soybeans tested was around 2%, except for Sinpaldal No. 2 and Jinpum No. 2 at 0.86% and 1.65%, respectively. The dietary fiber of soybeans was in the ranges of 24.20%~29.20%.
Inhibitory Effects of Histamine Production in Mackerel Muscle by Medicinal Herbs and Seaweed Extracts
Jung, Seul-A ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri ; Kim, Hyun-Jee ; Jeong, Da-Hyun ; Kang, Bo-Kyong ; Bark, Si-Woo ; Pak, Won-Min ; Kim, Bo-Ram ; Byun, Myoung-Woo ; Ahn, Dong-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 8, 2013, Pages 1263~1269
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.8.1263
This study was conducted in order to investigate the inhibitory effects of natural materials on histamine production in mackerel. Antimicrobial activities on Photobacterium phosphoreum of medicinal herbs and seaweeds were investigated using the paper disc assay and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) test. According to the results, Sargassum sagamianum and Ecklonia cava ethanol extracts exhibited antibacterial activity. In particular, Sargassum sagamianum ethanol extract showed excellent antibacterial activity at 0.015625 mg/mL by the MIC test. Anti-histamine release activities of natural materials were further investigated by examining their inhibitory effects on histidine decarboxylase (HDC) activity in the crude enzyme preparation from Photobacterium phosphoreum. The ethanol extracts of Ecklonia cava and Eisenia bicyclis exhibited the strongest HDC inhibitory activity, with 32% and 22%, at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, natural materials may reduce histamine poisoning through decrease of histamine production in mackerel.
Composition of Amino Acids, Minerals, and Heavy Metals in Differently Cooked Laver (Porphyra tenera)
Hwang, Eun-Sun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 8, 2013, Pages 1270~1276
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.8.1270
Laver, a red algae belonging to the genus Porphyra tenera, is one of the most widely consumed edible seaweeds in Korea, China, and Japan. Lavers are usually consumed in dried, roasted, and seasoned forms to improve their palatability. We evaluated the composition of amino acids, minerals, and trace heavy metals in these three differently cooked forms of laver. The moisture and ash contents of three differently cooked lavers ranged from 1.49~9.69% and 6.07~10.31%, respectively. The crude protein and lipid content ranged from 17.24~36.88% and 0.52~42.42%, respectively. Dried laver was found to be a good source of amino acids such as taurine, alanine, and glutamic acid (871.10 mg, 833.53 mg, and 719.77 mg per 100 g dry weight, respectively). Laver was a good source of macro and micro minerals such as K, Ca, Mg, Na, P, I, and Fe, although laver more extensively cooked (roasted and seasoned) contained less minerals compared to the dried form. Mercury levels in the three differently cooked forms of laver were all less than 100 ng/g dry weight (the limit of detection with our methodology). The levels of arsenic were the most abundant elements in the differently cooked laver. There was a clear variation, depending on the cooking process, in terms of amino acid, mineral, and trace metal contents of laver.
Effects of Pregelatinized Rice Flour on the Textural Properties of Gluten-free Rice Cookies
Lee, Joon-Kyoung ; Lim, Jae Kag ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 8, 2013, Pages 1277~1282
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.8.1277
The effects of pregelatinized rice flour (PRF) as an additive on the textural properties of rice cookies were investigated in this study. PRF was used at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60% per 100 g of rice flour. The hardness of dough and cookies, as measured by a texture analyzer, increased upon the addition of PRF. In contrast, the moisture content of the dough and cookies decreased upon the addition of PRF. The L value of the dough and cookies decreased upon the addition of PRF, whereas the a value increased upon the addition of PRF. The bulk density of the cookies increased upon the addition of PRF. In addition, the spreadability of the cookies was lower than the control. In the sensory evaluation, rice cookies with 50% PRF showed the highest scores for hardness, brittleness, softness, and moisture. Rice cookies with 60% PRF showed the highest scores for sandiness. Our results suggest that the texture of the rice cookies can be improved by adding PRF.
Effect of Black Garlic Extracts on Quality Characteristics of White Pan Bread
Wang, Sug-Ja ; Lee, Jeong-Hoon ; Lee, Si-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 8, 2013, Pages 1283~1289
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.8.1283
This study was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of black garlic extract on quality characteristics of white pan bread. White pan bread contained black garlic extract at levels of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% based on flour. Analysis of volume and specific loaf volume, water activity, texture, crumb color, and sensory evaluation of white pan bread were performed. As the amount of black garlic extract increased, volume and specific loaf volume decreased. Hardness, Max. G (maximum gram), gumminess, and cohesiveness by texture analyser showed a higher value in treatment, however, in hardness, no differences were observed between control and treatment with addition of 5% black garlic extract. In crumb color analysis, as the amount of black garlic extract increased, L value decreased and values for a and b increased. On sensory evaluation, no differences were observed between control and treatment containing 5% black garlic extract, however, addition of more than 10% resulted in lower scores. As a result of this study, 5% black garlic extract was considered a reasonable level for preparation of a health promoting white pan bread.
Quality Characteristics of Bread Supplemented with Extruded Corn Fiber
Lee, Kyu-Chul ; Ryu, Gi-Hyung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 8, 2013, Pages 1290~1295
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.8.1290
The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality characteristics of bread supplemented with extruded corn fiber. The extrusion was conducted as the moisture content of the corn fiber reached 30% and 40% (at
and 200 rpm). The bread baked with 5% extruded corn fiber at a 40% feed moisture exhibited the highest specific volume. The hardness of the bread supplemented with 10% corn fiber was the highest during storage compared to bread supplemented with extruded corn fiber and the control (100% wheat flour). However, the hardness of bread with corn fiber or extruded corn fiber (5%) was lower than the control. In the sensory evaluation, preferences decreased with the increased addition of untreated and extruded corn fiber. Quality characteristics, such as specific volume and texture, of bread baked with extruded corn fiber were better than bread baked with corn fiber. This improvement in quality is likely due to modification of corn fibers and starch gelatinization from the extrusion process. Supplement of extruded corn fiber had the potential for bread making compared to raw corn fiber.
Investigation of Packaging of Fresh Jujube (Zizyphus jujuba) on Quality during Storage
Chung, Hyun-Jung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 8, 2013, Pages 1296~1302
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.8.1296
The quality of fresh jujube (Zizyphus jujuba) fruit rapidly declines in the postharvest stage and thus the effective storage conditions for agricultural warehouses were investigated in this study. Fresh jujubes (~10 kg) were stored using five different storage methods: plastic box without further packaging as a control (C-PL), plastic box with hanji packaging (H-PL), plastic box with functional film packaging (F-PL), cardboard box with hanji packaging (H-CB), and cardboard box with functional film packaging (F-CB). The storage boxes were stored in a refrigerator (
and 80~90% RH), equipped with an ethylene gas scavenging device for 9 weeks and then the quality characteristics were analyzed. The control storage conditions of jujubes showed a substantial decline in quality with decreases in moisture content, hardness, and sugar content as well as increases in decay ratio and redness. Among the tested storage conditions, F-CB was most effective in terms of maintaining the quality of jujube fruit while maintaining firmness, weightlessness, ripening degree from redness and visible appearance. In conclusion, effective storage and packaging conditions during storage enabled maintenance of fruit quality of jujubes for 9 weeks.
Sodium and Potassium Content of School Meals for Elementary and Junior High School Students in Daegu, Masan, Gwangju, and Jeju
Lim, Hyeon-Sook ; Ko, Yang Sook ; Shin, Dongsoon ; Heo, Young-Ran ; Chung, Hae-Jung ; Chae, In-Sook ; Kim, Hwa Young ; Kim, Mi-Hye ; Leem, Dong-Gil ; Lee, Yeon-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 8, 2013, Pages 1303~1317
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.8.1303
The purpose of this study was to determine the sodium (Na) and potassium (K) content of school meals served in elementary and junior high school in Korea. In this study, 872 kinds of school meal dishes were collected from twelve elementary and twelve junior high schools located in four different cities in Korea (Daegu, Masan, Gwangju, and Jeju). The dishes were classified into three main categories; staple dish, subsidiary dish, and dessert. Each main category was further sub-classified into 4 kinds of staple dishes, 15 kinds of subsidiary dishes, and 5 kinds of dessert dishes. The Na and K content of dishes were then analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Na content of individual dishes showed considerable differences, ranging from 9 to 2,717 mg/100 g. Among the staple dishes, cooked rice contained relatively less Na, but other staple dishes such as a la carte, noodle, and rice-gruel contained considerably high amounts of Na. Regarding the subsidiary dishes, the Na content of salad was low, but those of Jangachi, stir-fried dishes, and kimchi were considerably high. Among the dessert dishes, beverages, fruit, and milk/dairy products contained relatively low amount of Na, while rice cakes and baked goods, and snacks contained noticeably high amounts of Na. Unlike the Na content, the K content between the dishes did not show much variability. Cooked rice and rice cakes contained relatively low amounts of K, similar to other dishes, and ranged from 104 to 220 mg/100 g. The Na/K ratio was especially high in rice cakes and Jangachi, while of the ratio in beverages, milk/dairy products, salad, and fruit were pretty low. The total content of Na and K and the Na/K ratio of elementary school meals were 974 mg, 378 mg and 2.7, respectively, and those in junior high school meals was 1,466 mg, 528 mg and 3.0. The results show that most school meals provide a significant amount of Na but significantly small amounts of K, as suggested by the Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans.
Relationship Between Foodservice Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty in Industry Contracted Foodservice
Kim, Hyeon-Ju ; Lyu, Eun-Soon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 8, 2013, Pages 1318~1324
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.8.1318
The purpose of this study was to improve the satisfaction of industry contracted foodservice customers by analyzing the correlation between satisfaction with foodservice and customer loyalty. To accomplish this, a questionnaire was distributed to 300 customers at five industry contracted foodservice establishments. The average customer satisfaction score was 3.51/5.00, and customer satisfaction was highest with sanitation, followed by service, food, and environment. Blue collar workers showed significantly higher foodservice satisfaction than white collar workers with respect to menu, service, sanitation, and environment (P<0.01). The average customer loyalty score was 3.46/5.00 and revisit intentions, word-of-mouth intentions, and intentions not to switch were 3.60, 3.52, and 3.46, respectively. Blue collar workers had significantly higher customer loyalty than white collar workers for word-of mouth intentions and intentions not to switch (P<0.01). Revisit intentions correlated significantly (P<0.01) with food (r=0.649), service (r=0.636), sanitation (r=0.648), and environment (r=0.579). Word-of mouth intentions and intentions not to switch showed significant (P<0.01) positive correlation with service. The explanation power (
) of foodservice satisfaction and revisit intention was 0.483, word-of-mouth intention was 0.526, and intention not to switch was 0.3641. The sanitation satisfaction had the highest positive influence on revisit intentions (P<0.01). Service and food satisfaction had a significant (P<0.01) positive influence on word-of-mouth intentions and intentions not to switch.
Multicultural Competency of University Students Majoring in Food and Nutrition
Lee, Kyung-Eun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 8, 2013, Pages 1325~1334
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.8.1325
The purposes of the study were to assess the multicultural competencies and to identify potential barriers toward improving multicultural competencies of food and nutrition majors at the university level. A total of 500 students were surveyed and 457 responses were analyzed for the study. The multicultural competencies, based on a literature review, included food culture knowledge, multicultural attitude, and multicultural skills. Approximately half of the respondents took a food culture class as a college course. The food and nutrition majors showed positive multicultural attitudes; however, food culture knowledge scores for traditional Korean food culture and 11 other food cultures remained low (average score: 63.7 out of 100 points). In addition, familiarity with cultural foods and knowledge of food-related cultures were not necessarily related. As a result of factor analysis, multicultural skills, required for dietitians, were classified into three factors: professional skills, food preparation skills, and communication skills. Overall, students rated their professional skills the highest and communication skills the lowest. Multicultural attitudes and skills increased with school years, and students who took a food culture class showed significantly higher multicultural attitudes and knowledge scores compared to their counterparts. Economical issues, lack of time, and lack of opportunities for learning multicultural competencies in majors and experiencing different cultures were highly rated potential barriers for improving multicultural competencies. Our research indicates that food and nutrition educators should review their curriculums to incorporate content that encourages food and nutrition majors to learn about other food cultures and improve their multicultural competency. These skills will be critical for food and nutrition professionals in the multicultural age.
A Study on Life Styles, Dietary Attitudes and Dietary Behaviors According to Extracurricular Activities of Elementary Students in Sejong
Oh, Keun-Jeong ; Kim, Mi-Hyun ; Kim, Myung-Hee ; Choi, Mi-Kyeong ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 8, 2013, Pages 1335~1343
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.8.1335
Parents in South Korea are known for their high level of educational zeal for their children. As a result, their children usually take extra classes in institutions as well as participate in other extracurricular activities such as sports and music. The purpose of this study was to examine the lifestyle and dietary behaviors of Korean elementary students involved in such activities. The total number of subjects was 550 fourth to sixth graders in elementary schools in Sejong, Korea. Of the total subjects, 88.0% were involved in extracurricular classes or other activities for an average of 7.34 hours/week. The subjects were assigned to one of four groups based on the degree of extracurricular activities: No extra-class (n=66), Low extra-class (1
taking time<5 hours/week, n=118), Medium extra-class (5
taking time<10 hours/week, n=184), and High extra-class (taking time
10 hours/week, n=182). More subjects in the High extra-class group went to bed late (P<0.01), were under stress (P<0.01), and skipped breakfast, compared with those in the other groups. The ratio of students who answered 'I go to an institute without a meal' (P<0.01), 'I prepare a meal for myself' (P=0.053), or 'I eat out before going to an institute' (P<0.01) was higher in the High extra-class group than in the Low extra-class group. The frequency of eating fast food was higher in the High extra-class group, compared with the other groups. These results indicate that a high amount of extracurricular studies may have a negative effect on the children's lifestyles and dietary behaviors. Therefore, this study alerts parents to the potential harm of excessive extracurricular activities to their children's health.