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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 42, Issue 12 - Dec 2013
Volume 42, Issue 11 - Nov 2013
Volume 42, Issue 10 - Oct 2013
Volume 42, Issue 9 - Sep 2013
Volume 42, Issue 8 - Aug 2013
Volume 42, Issue 7 - Jul 2013
Volume 42, Issue 6 - Jun 2013
Volume 42, Issue 5 - May 2013
Volume 42, Issue 4 - Apr 2013
Volume 42, Issue 3 - Mar 2013
Volume 42, Issue 2 - Feb 2013
Volume 42, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
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Antioxidant Activity and Nutrient Content of Ethanol and Hot-Water Extracts of Citrus unshiu Pomace
Song, Yeonwoo ; Moon, Keun Sik ; Kim Cho, Somi ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1345~1350
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.9.1345
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extraction methods on the antioxidant activity of Citrus unshiu pomace. For this purpose, two kinds of citrus pomace (CP)s, whole fruit CP and pulp CP, were used for preparing the extracts with hot water or 70% ethanol. It is well-known fact that whole fruit CP has more calories and carbohydrates, although moisture content is higher in pulp CP. Further, whole fruit CP extracts have higher levels of total phenolic contents compared to CP extracts. In addition, DPPH and alkyl radical scavenging activities were also higher in whole fruit CP, especially in ethanolic extracts. Our results based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer showed that 70% ethanolic extract of whole fruit CP has the maximum levels of nobiletin and tangeretin contents. The levels of naringin, which is known as an antioxidant flavonoid, was determined only in the 70% ethanolic extract of whole fruit CP. This result, however, is consistent with the observed DPPH and alkyl radical scavenging activities. We had also performed a gas chromatography analysis that showed all the four extracts contained the compound hydroxymethyl furfural. Significantly, this compound has been reported to have antioxidant activity. Taken together, findings of this study indicate that ethanolic extraction of whole fruit CP is a good source of antioxidant compounds and hence the same could be utilized as an important method to obtain such beneficial compounds on an industrial scale.
Chemical Components, DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity and Inhibitory Effects on Nitric Oxide Production in Allium hookeri Cultivated under Open Field and Greenhouse Conditions
Won, Jun-Yeon ; Yoo, Young-Choon ; Kang, Eun-Ju ; Yang, Hye ; Kim, Gwan-Hou ; Seong, Bong-Jae ; Kim, Sun-Ick ; Han, Seung-Ho ; Lee, Sox-Su ; Lee, Ka-Soon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1351~1356
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.9.1351
To enhance the utilization of Allium hookeri (AH) as a food, characteristics of AH roots and leaves cultivated under open field and greenhouse conditions were investigated. The moisture content of the roots and leaves were 81.05 to 84.18% and 88.85 to 90.12%, respectively. The moisture content of AH cultivated in the open field was 2 to 3% lower than the moisture content of AH cultivated in the greenhouse for both roots and leaves. The content of nitrogen-free extract, carbohydrates, was 13.49 to 16.20% in the roots and 7.08 to 7.79% in the leaves. The main mineral generated from both open field and greenhouse cultivation was potassium, at 503.98 to 512.08 mg% in leaves. The free sugar content of roots cultivated in the open field was four times higher than the content in the leaves, and roots cultivated in the greenhouse contained three times lower free sugar than the leaves. In particular, the fructose content of roots cultivated in the open field was about 12 times higher than roots cultivated in the greenhouse. The crude saponin and total polyphenol content was higher in leaves than roots, and was higher in the open field than the greenhouse. The
for DPPH radical scavenging activity was highest, 2.74 mg/mL, in 70% MeOH extracts of AH leaves cultivated in the greenhouse. Water and 70% MeOH extracts of AH leaves cultivated in the greenhouse showed no cytotoxicity to RAW 264.7 cells. Water extracts of AH leaves cultivated in the open field markedly inhibited the production of the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide. These results suggest that AH may be used as the material of health functional food.
Effects of Far-Infrared Irradiation on the Antioxidant and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activities of Extracts from Schizonepeta tenuifolia
Yang, Han-Yeol ; Baek, Sang-Min ; Lim, Young-Taek ; Park, Seon-Hyeong ; Lee, Jong-Hwa ; Lee, Seung-Cheol ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1357~1362
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.9.1357
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of far-infrared (FIR) irradiation on the antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of Schizonepeta (S.) tenuifolia. After FIR irradiation of S. tenuifolia for 30 min at 70, 90, or
, water extracts (2 g/100 mL) were prepared at
for 1, 3, or 5 h. Total phenol content (TPC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities (RSAs), and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the extracts were determined. TPC, antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of the extracts increased significantly with increasing FIR irradiation temperature of S. tenuifolia. For example, irradiation at
for 5 h increased TPC, DPPH RSA, ABTS RSA, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the extract from 204.64 to
gallic acid equivalents/mL, from 30.15 to 80.84%, from 24.43 to 55.33%, and from 7.05 to 33.65%, respectively, compared to the extract of untreated S. tenuifolia. These results indicate that FIR irradiation may be useful as a processing method for enhancing the quality of S. tenuifolia.
Induction of Apoptosis by Combination Treatment with Luteolin and TRAIL in T24 Human Bladder Cancer Cells
Park, Hyun Soo ; Choi, Yung Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1363~1369
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.9.1363
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can selectively induce apoptosis by targeting cancer cells. However, some cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity. One method of overcoming TRAIL resistance is combination treatment with reagents to sensitize cells to TRAIL. Luteolin, a flavonoid, has been shown to have anti-cancer effects by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in various cancer cell lines in vitro. In this study, we investigated the effects of combination treatment with non-toxic concentration of TRAIL and luteolin in T24 human bladder cancer cells. Combined treatment with luteolin and TRAIL significantly inhibits cell proliferation via activation of caspases by inducing Bid truncation, up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). However, the apoptotic effects of combination treatment with luteolin and TRAIL were significantly inhibited by specific caspases inhibitors. Taken together, these results indicate that combination treatment with TRAIL and luteolin can induce apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant cancer cells through down-regulation of XIAP and modulation of tBid and Bax expression.
The Impact of Cooking on the Antioxidative and Antigenotoxic Effects of Rice
Kim, So-Yun ; Seo, Bo-Young ; Park, Eunju ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1370~1377
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.9.1370
Rice is widely grown in Asia and is one of the major dietary staples in the world. Also, rice contains antioxidants which can prevent from oxidative stress related diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Because the rice is consumed cooked, the effect of the cooking process on the antioxidative and antigenotoxic properties of rice is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of cooking on the antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of white rice (WR), brown rice (BR), and germinated brown rice (GBR). The antioxidant activities were measured for total phenolic content (TPC), DPPH radical scavenging activity (DPPH RSA), total antioxidant capacity (TRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The highest TPC was found in uncooked BR (18.4 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g). After cooking, the TPC of WR significantly increased, while the TPC of BR and GBR were reduced by 47.7% and 36.7%, respectively. The
for DPPH RSA was not significantly different in uncooked rice, while the DPPH RSA of WR and GBR decreased after cooking and the DPPH RSA of BR significantly increased. TRAP values in BR and GBR increased after cooking, while the value of WR decreased. The ORAC values of uncooked WR, BR, and GBR were 5.3, 4.3, and
trolox equivalent at the concentration of
. After cooking, the ORAC value of BR remained unchanged, while the value of GBR increased and the value of WR decreased. The antigenotoxic activities of WR, BR, and GBR were determined by measuring the inhibitory effects of
-induced DNA damage on human leukocytes using the comet assay. The results showed that all rice tested showed a significant antigenotoxic effect against oxidative stress, except for the cooked white rice. Overall, our results indicate the addition of brown rice and/or germinated brown rice to cooked white rice is a good option for improving the benefits of rice.
Anti-atopic Effects of Castanea crenata Inner Shell Extracts Fermented by Lactobacillus bifermentans
Kim, Bae Jin ; Son, Woo Rim ; Choi, Mi Ok ; Jo, Seung Kyeung ; Jung, Hee Kyoung ; Lee, Jin Tae ; Kim, Hak Yoon ; Kwoen, Dae Jun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1378~1386
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.9.1378
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease characterized by chronic and relapsing inflammatory dermatitis with immunological disturbances. In spite of the continuous increase in the incidence of AD, it is regrettable that till date there is no effective treatment to treat the same. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the possible anti-atopic effects of Castanea crenata inner shell extracts fermented by Lactobacillus bifermentans (FCS) in 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) induced AD in NC/Nga mice. Based on the results of HPLC analysis, we found that FCS contains anti-inflammatory factors such as gallic acid (10.18 mg/g) and ellagic acid (2.14 mg/g). The groups that we have used in this study included 0.1%, 1%, 5% fermented Castanea crenata inner shell extracts (FCS 0.1, FCS 1, FCS 5), 1,3-butylene glycol treated control (AD), and normal mice. After topical FCS treatment, we observed that the clinical severity score for AD was lower in both the FCS 1 and FCS 5 groups than the AD group. We also proved beyond doubt that there was improvement of melanin, erythema and skin moisture indices in the FCS 5 group. Spleen index and gene expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-
were significantly decreased in the FCS 5 group compared to the AD group (P<0.05). Further, we also found that the level of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the FCS-treated group was decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. The results of our study suggest that FCS can be effectively used as a cosmeceutical ingredient for both the prevention and improvement of AD.
Risk Factors for Allergic Diseases in School-Aged Children
Min, Seonae ; Cho, Mijin ; Park, Kyong ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1387~1394
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.9.1387
Allergies are one of the most common chronic diseases during childhood. While the prevalence of allergic disease in children is increasing dramatically, few studies have evaluated the risk and preventive factors related to this health condition, especially in South Korea. The purpose of this case-control study was to evaluate independent determinants of allergic disease, and to examine whether it is associated with growth and other health conditions in childhood. The current study included 209 cases and 311 age and sex-matched controls (fifth and sixth graders) residing in Daegu, South Korea. Environmental data was collected, including child and family histories of allergies, birth information, and reaction to weaning foods during infancy. In addition, current dietary habits (assessed by 2 day-24 hr food records), health conditions, and anthropometric data were obtained through questionnaires and student health check-ups at the school. Based on chi-square tests, cases had a significantly higher prevalence of having a disease at birth, an allergic reaction to weaning foods, frequent hospital visits, and frequent experiences of the common cold and digestive diseases. In addition, significantly more mothers had a higher education in the cases compared to controls. Based on multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis, factors significantly associated with greater odds for having allergies were parental (OR=21.42) and fraternal (OR=14.40) histories of allergies. The anthropometric measures showed that cases tended to be shorter in height and lighter in weight than the controls, but these differences were not statistically significant. These findings may indicate that current nutrient intakes may not be the only critical factor associated with delayed growth delay in the allergic group. A well-planned, large cohort study is warranted to confirm our findings in the future.
Evaluation of Diet Quality according to Self-Rated Health Status of Korean Middle-Aged Women -Based on 2008~2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-
Lee, Hye-Jin ; Lee, Kyung-Hea ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1395~1404
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.9.1395
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diet quality in Korean middle-aged women based on their self-rated health status (SRH) as well as to investigate the relationship between SRH and the diet quality. For the study, we obtained data for analysis from the combined 2008~2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). The study subjects were divided into two groups-'Good' group (
, n=622) and 'Bad' group (<3.06, n=1,092)- on the basis of the average SRH value (3.06). The women in the 'Good' group had achieved a higher education level and had a significantly high monthly average income (P<0.05), whereas women in the 'Bad' group had a larger waist circumference (P<0.05). In addition, women in the 'Good' group engaged in more physical activities (P<0.01). In comparison with the women in 'Bad' group, women in the 'Good' group were found to have a superior nutritional status, with a nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) of protein (P<0.05), calcium (P<0.05), iron (P<0.05), vitamin A (P<0.05), vitamin
(P<0.05), and niacin (P<0.01). The mean adequacy ratio (MAR) of women in the 'Good' group was also significantly higher than that of the women in the 'Bad' group. The index of nutritional quality (INQ) of protein (P<0.05), iron (P<0.05), vitamin
(P<0.05), and niacin (P<0.05) in women belonging to the 'Good' group were also significantly higher than that in the women assigned the 'Bad' group. The results of regression analysis on the relevance between the diet quality and SRH, MAR, and INQ showed a significantly positive relevance (P<0.001), even after adjusting for disturbance factors. The results of this study show that diet quality seems to be the important factor for improving SRH of women. Therefore, we suggest that developing dietary guidelines and educating women about the guidelines would improve health of middle-aged women in Korea.
Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of Doragi (Platycodon grandiflorum) at Different Aging Temperatures and for Various Durations
Lee, Sang Hoon ; Song, Eun Mi ; Jang, Gwi Yeong ; Li, Meishan ; Kim, Min Young ; Park, Hye Jin ; Kang, Tae Su ; Jeong, Heon Sang ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1405~1411
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.9.1405
We investigated the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of Doragi (Platycodon grandiflorum) at different aging temperatures (60, 70 and
) and for various periods of duration (5, 10, 15, 30 and 50 days). As the temperature and duration were increased, the pH of Doragi water extracts decreased from 5.22 to 4.17, whereas total acidity increased from 0.265 to 0.998 lactic acid eq.%. In addition, browning index went up from 0.092 to 1.002 and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content steeply rose to 50.40 mg/g from its initial zero value with an increase in temperature and duration. The radical scavenging activity of ethanol extracts was enhanced with a rise in temperature and duration as evident from the value of total polyphenol content (0.589 to 2.358 mg/g), DPPH (0.149 to 1.244 mg Trolox eq/g) and ABTS (0.354 to 1.509 mg Trolox eq/g). The correlation between physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities was high; the correlation between pH and total acidity showed a r value of -0.910 (P<0.01), whereas between browning index and 5-HMF content, the r value was 0.880 (P<0.01). Total polyphenol content and DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity were highly correlated with the r value of 0.885 (P<0.01) and 0.745 (P<0.01), respectively.
Nutritional Evaluation and Comparison of New Pak Choi Cultivars from China with Chinese Cabbage Cultivars Popular in Korea
Gantumar, Ganchimeg ; Jo, Man Hyun ; Igori, Davaajargal ; Ham, In Ki ; Lee, Eun Mo ; Lee, Wang-Hee ; Lim, Yongpyo ; An, Gilhwan ; Park, Jong-Tae ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1412~1418
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.9.1412
The nutritional components of 14 new cultivars of pak choi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) from China were analyzed and compared with 4 cultivars of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) popular in Korea. Leaves were separated into green parts (GP) and white parts (WP) for the analyses. The moisture and ash content in the 14 new cultivars of pak choi were not significantly different from the currently popular cultivars of Chinese cabbage. In addition, the levels of vitamin C and E were very similar between the two kinds of Brassica rapa. In contrast, the overall mineral content was higher in the new pak choi cultivars. Specifically, minerals important for human health, calcium and magnesium, were significantly greater in pak choi cultivars (calcium GP 2.57, WP 2.04; magnesium GP 0.422, WP 0.301 mg/g fresh weight) compared to currently popular cultivars (calcium GP 0.805, WP 0.477; magnesium GP 0.244, WP 0.101 mg/g fresh weight). Although the content of reducing sugars was similar, cellulose content (which correlates with the hardness of plant tissue) was four times higher in the new pak choi cultivars compared to currently popular cultivars. These results demonstrate that the new pak choi cultivars have superb nutritional benefits for human health and could be a good food source as a daily staple vegetable.
Method Validation for the Determination of Eleutherosides and β-Glucan in Acanthopanax koreanum
Kim, Young-Hyun ; Bae, Da-Bin ; Park, Sun-Ok ; Lee, Sang-Jong ; Cho, Ok-Hyun ; Lee, Ok-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1419~1425
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.9.1419
The aim of this study was to investigate the method validation for the determination of eleutherosides (B and E) and
-glucan in Acanthopanax (A.) koreanum. This medicinal plant reportedly mainly included eleutherosides which exhibit the pharmacological effects, and
-glucan substantially enhances the function of the immune system by activating macrophages. The specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD, S/N=3), and limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N=10) were measured by HPLC and enzymatic methods. Our results showed that the coefficient of calibration correlation (
) for eleutheroside B and E were 0.9997 and 0.9999, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) for eleutheroside B and E were
, respectively. The recovery rate of eleutheroside B and E were revealed in the high range of 100.66~110.04% and 94.26~111.62%, respectively. The inter-day precision of eleutheroside B and E in the root and stem in A. koreanum were 1.4~5.0% and 1.1~2.5%, respectively. The intra-day precision of eleutheroside B and E in the root and stem in A. koreanum were 2.8~2.9% and 0.4~1.1%, respectively. Furthermore, the inter-day and intra-day precision of
-glucan in the stem, leaf, and fruit of A. koreanum were 1.32~5.67% and 8.01~11.76%, respectively. In conclusion, the methods were validated for the detection of eleutherosides and
-glucan in A. koreanum.
Effects of Roasted Soybean Flour on Textural Properties of Rice Cookies
Lee, Joon-Kyoung ; Lim, Jae Kag ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1426~1432
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.9.1426
Changes in the textural properties of rice cookies as a result of using roasted soybean flour (RSF) as an additive were investigated in this study. RSF was replaced as 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 20% of 100 g of rice flour. The addition of RSF increased the hardness of dough and cookies as measured by texture analyzer (TA), whereas moisture content of dough and cookies decreased upon addition of RSF. Further, the addition of RSF led to an increase in the L value of dough and cookies, but to a decrease in the a and b values. In addition, the bulk density of cookies decreased upon addition of RSF, whereas bulk density of dough also declined when compared to control. The spreadability of cookies was found to be lower in comparison to control. The values of
densities (BD) and
of cookies also increased upon addition of RSF. From the point of view of sensory evaluation, addition of 9% RSF to rice cookies showed the highest score in terms of overall acceptability and softness. A 12% RSF addition to rice cookies led to the highest score in sandiness. As a result, we conclude that the crispy texture of the rice cookie can be improved by adding RSF.
Effects of Addition of Mugwort Powder on the Quality Characteristics of Korean Rice Cake Tteokgukdduk
Kim, Mi-Seon ; Park, Jong Dae ; Lee, Hyun Yu ; Park, Sung Soo ; Kum, Jun Seok ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1433~1438
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.9.1433
In this study, we have investigated the quality characteristics of Tteokgukdduk, a traditional Korean rice cake, containing different amounts of mugwort powder (0, 1, 3, 5, 7 w/w %). We observed that the moisture content in Tteokgukdduk containing mugwort powder ranged at 41.79 to 42.50% was not significant when compared with Tteokgukdduk that is devoid of mugwort powder. We also noted that the Hunter color L value decreased in proportion to the added mugwort powder. Further, the weight of Tteokgukdduk was found to be increased with increasing levels of added mugwort powder. However, the volume of Tteokgukdduk did not varied significantly at the different mugwort powder concentrations (P>0.05). We also observed that the hardness of uncooked Tteokgukdduk containing 3% mugwort powder showed the lowest value among Tteokgukdduk containing mugwort powder. However, it did not varied significantly at the different mugwort powder concentrations (P>0.05). In cooked Tteokgukdduk, however, we found that the nature and quality of springiness and gumminess increased with corresponding increase in the amount of added mugwort powder. Further, with regard to the sensory evaluation, the intensity (of both color and flavor) of Tteokgukdduk was found to be increased with proportionate increase in the amount of added mugwort powder. The results of this study suggest that the acceptability qualities such as color, flavor, taste, texture, and overall acceptability were of the highest order for Tteokgukdduk containing 3% mugwort powder.
Effect of Rice Flour Prepared with Enzyme Treatment on Quality Characteristics of Rice Cookies
Kim, Mi-Seon ; Park, Jong Dae ; Lee, Hyun Yu ; Kum, Jun Seok ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1439~1445
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.9.1439
The aim of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics of rice cookies specifically prepared with rice flour following enzyme treatment. In this study, three types of specific enzyme treatments, that is,
-amylase, and cellulose+
-glucanase were applied on the effect of rice flour with respect to desired quality characteristics of the rice cookies. Based on our study results, we have found that the density of dough in the rice cookies was not significantly different between that of the non-enzyme treated (control) and the enzyme treated group. However, we found that the spread factor of rice cookies, prepared with rice flour treated with
-amylase, was higher than that of the control. It was also found that the moisture content of rice cookies (with added enzyme-treated rice flour) was 3.20 to 3.90%; however, this range is much lower than that observed in the control. Further, we observed that Hunter color's L-values were significantly higher for the control than those of the enzyme-treated cookies. We also found that hardness of enzyme-treated cookies was comparatively better than that of the control. In addition, the sensory acceptability scores of the enzyme-treated cookies were found to be significantly higher than the control in decisive parameters such as aroma, appearance, flavor, taste, texture, and overall acceptability. Based on our findings, we suggest that
-amylase treated rice flour is an effective ingredient for improving the overall quality of rice cookies.
Effects of Preservative Containing Chitosan on the Shelf Life of Pork Patty
Park, La-Young ; Jeong, Eun-Ju ; Lee, Shin-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1446~1451
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.9.1446
The quality characteristics of pork patty prepared with chitosan containing preservatives during storage at
were investigated to improve its functional property and shelf life using food preservatives of natural origin (PI; 0.1% chitosan, 2.5% citric acid, 100 ppm grapefruit seed extract, 0.2% adipic acid, 0.1% Cinnamomum extract, D.W. 97.09% and PII; 0.1% chitosan, 2.5% citric acid, 100 ppm grapefruit seed extract, 0.2% adipic acid, 0.1% Lysimachia christinae Hance extract, D.W. 97.09%). The sensory qualities (taste, appearance, texture and overall acceptability) of patties preserved with PI (1, 3 and 5%) and PII (1, 3 and 5%) were also investigated. The taste and overall acceptability of patties prepared with 1% PI and 1% PII were higher than those of the control. The DPPH radical scavenging activities of the control, 1% PI and 1% PII treated patties were 13.54%, 21.78% and 14.07%, respectively. The total aerobes and coliform count of patties preserved with 1% PI were
CFU/g, respectively, after 10 days storage at
. Cooking loss from 1% PI and 1% PII treated patties was lower than that of from the control. Water holding capacity was the highest for 1% PI (65.84%), followed by 1% PII and then the control. The shelf life of patties prepared with 1% PI and 1% PII was extended by about 5 days relative to the control at
Secondary Drying Effects on Garlic Quality after Low Temperature Storage
Ning, Xiao Feng ; Kang, Tae Hwan ; Park, Jong Won ; Han, Chung Su ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1452~1460
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.9.1452
The purpose of this study was to investigate secondary drying effects on garlic quality, and to define the optimal secondary drying conditions for garlic preservation. The secondary drying tests used garlic that was naturally dried once and stored at low temperature. After secondary drying, the garlic was stored in a warehouse at room temperature. Tests were performed at different low-temperature storage periods (60, 105, 150, 195, and 240 days), secondary drying temperatures (35 and
), drying times (1, 2, 3 days), and room temperature storage periods (15, 30, and 45 days). The results were compared with a non-secondary drying condition control. In general, the
-2 days dry conditions showed the lowest weight-loss rate (5%) and rotting rate during room temperature storage. The sprouting rate increased by 20% during the initial 15 day-room temperature storage, along with a small increase after 30 days of room temperature storage. Increases in drying temperature and the period of secondary drying conditions caused a decrease in firmness. In addition, the sprouting rate was 10% higher, and rotting rate 5~10% higher, for the non-drying condition, compared to drying conditions. Based on our results, the
-2 days drying condition is the optimal secondary drying condition for garlic storage.
Characteristics of Crude Protease from Fruits and Traditional Korean Fermentation Starters
Yoo, Seon-A ; Seo, Seung-Ho ; Hyun, Seo-Yeon ; Son, Hong-Seok ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1461~1466
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.9.1461
In this study, we ascertained the characteristics of crude protease extracted from fruits (fig, kiwifruit and pineapple) as well as traditional Korean fermentation starters (bio nuruk, traditional nuruk, meju and rice koji) to determine their suitability for industrial application. Crude protease extracted from traditional Korean fermentation starters was found to have a higher optimum temperature (
) and salt concentration (1~3%) but a lower optimum pH (3~6) value compared to the corresponding values for the protease extracted from fruits. On comparison, the total activities of protease per gram unit follow the order: bio nuruk> rice koji> traditional nuruk> fig> pineapple> meju> kiwifruit. Based on our results, we conclude that protease extracted from traditional Korean fermentation starters has potential for application in food industry, for example, as a meat tenderizer for sausage manufacturing and as a protease for cheese production.
Production and Fermentation Characteristics of Mukeunji with a Mixed Starter
Kim, Hyo Ju ; Shin, Hyun-Kyung ; Yang, Eun Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1467~1474
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.9.1467
To develop a starter culture system for the fermentation of mukeunji, we introduced lactic acid bacteria and yeast isolated from mukeunji into kimchi fermentation as a single or a mixed culture. On evaluating mukeunji flavor, we found that the mixed starter kimchi prepared with two strains, ML17 and MY7, gave the best sensory score. These strains were identified as Lactobacillus (Lb.) curvatus ML17 and Saccharomyces (S.) servazzii MY7 by molecular identification method. The fermentative characteristics of starter kimchi were investigated by measuring changes in the physicochemical and microfloral characteristics during the fermentation. The decrease in pH and increase in acidity in the starter kimchi were faster compared to respective values of control kimchi. There was a gradual decrease in hardness of starter kimchi, which was still slow compared to hardness decrease in control kimchi. Microbial analysis of starter kimchi revealed that Lb. curvatus ML17 and S. servazzii MY7 were the dominant organisms during the entire fermentation period. The lactic acid and citric acid contents of starter kimchi were higher than those of the control kimchi after 90 days of fermentation. By sensory evaluation, the starter kimchi scored higher in appearance, mukeunji flavor, sourness, carbonated flavor, savory taste, texture, and overall acceptability, but lower in off-flavor than the control kimchi.
Safety Evaluation of 30 kGy-Irradiated Dakgalbi
Jeon, Young Eun ; Yin, Xing Fu ; Kim, Tae-Keun ; Kang, Il-Jun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1475~1481
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.9.1475
The aim of this study was to determine the potential toxicity of gamma-irradiated Dakgalbi keeping in mind its future use as a space food. Dakgalbi was irradiated at a dose of 30 kGy at
. AIN-93G was used as a control diet in the animal study. Both irradiated and non-irradiated Dakgalbi diets were administered to two groups of ICR mice (ten male and ten female mice per group) for 3 months. During the experimental period, we observed that the mice fed the 30 kGy-irradiated Dakgalbi did not show any changes in appearance, behavior, mortality, body weight, organ weight, or food consumption compared to the control mice group. In addition, all biochemical parameters of these mice, including hematology profiles, erythrocyte counts, and serum biochemical values, remained in the normal range. The histopathological examinations of liver and kidney tissues showed no significant differences between the control group and the group fed the 30 kGy-irradiated Dakgalbi. These results indicate that Dakgalbi irradiated at 30 kGy did not cause any toxic effects in mice and therefore it can be considered as safe and hygienic space food.
Safety Accidents and Physical Fatigue of School Foodservice Employees
Cho, Yeon-Jung ; Kim, Hyun-Ah ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1482~1491
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.9.1482
The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety accidents and physical fatigues of school foodservice employees. Out of 300 questionnaires distributed from December 1~20, 2011, 276 responded. After excluding 54 incomplete questionnaires, 222 (usage rate: 74%) were examined in the final analysis. First, our results showed that in terms of safety accidents, most received bruises (92.8%), followed by burns (73.0%), cuts and lacerated wounds (69.4%), sprains (47.7%), falls (42.8%), fractures/dislocations (31.5%) and electric shock (2.7%). Second, we found that the average degree of physical fatigue of school foodservice employees was 3.65 based on the 5-point Likert scale. Specifically, pain in the arms and wrist was rated the highest, at 4.18. Third, results showed that the factors affecting physical fatigue were 'class of school' (P<0.05), 'frequency of meal serving per day' (P<0.05), 'no. of meals served per day' (P<0.001), 'no. of meals per employee' (P<0.05) and 'warm-up exercise before starting work' (P<0.05). This means that foodservice employees serving middle schools, serving meals three times per day, serving more than 1,000 meals per day, and serving more than 111 meals per employee perceive higher levels of physical fatigue. In addition, the physical fatigue of those who perform warm-up exercises before starting work was significantly lower than those who do not perform warm-up exercises before work (P<0.05). In conclusion, the frequently occurring major safety accidents of school foodservice employees were bruises and burns. An increase in workload also leads to the increasing physical fatigue of school foodservice employees. Thus, to lower the physical fatigue of school foodservice employees, school foodservice employees should be encouraged to perform warm-up exercises before staring work and new staffing guidelines for school foodservice employees should be developed.
A Study on the Intake and Satisfaction Levels of Busan Foods among Chinese Tourists
Lim, Yaung-Iee ; Lee, Jong-Hyeon ; Kim, Young-Joo ; Jeong, Ji-Kang ; Kim, Sin-Jeong ; Park, Kun-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1492~1498
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.9.1492
This study was conducted to evaluate the intake of food and degree of satisfaction of services among Chinese tourists in the restaurants in Busan. The choice of what these tourists would eat after touring Busan was also determined. We chose 100 independent Chinese tourists visiting Busan for this study. Students, housewives, highly educated people, and people who visited once or twice were predominant among our study subjects. The Chinese tourists chose the following Busan local foods during their visit: Saengseonhoe (19%), Haemultang (19%), Oribulgogi (17%), Dwaejigukbap (12%), and Dongrae Pajeon (11%). The tourists responded that they would like to eat Bulgogi, Samgyeopsal, Bibimbap, Doenjangjjigae, and Dwaejigalbi again if they revisit Busan, indicating that they prefer general Korean food rather than Busan local food. The degree of satisfaction of Chinese tourists with Busan food was low and their response showed they were not satisfied with the prices and the amount of food served. Services (kindness, cleanliness) in Busan restaurants ranked high in the opinion of Chinese tourists. Of all the courses included in their tour of Busan, shopping for items received the highest score of satisfaction (44%), while food in Busan earned the lowest (10%). As regards intention to revisit Busan, 38% of the Chinese tourists answered yes, and 61% were unsure, and 1% was no. Our survey results indicate that restaurants in Busan city need to prepare food of choice for Chinese tourists and also make an effort to raise satisfaction on the cost and amounts of Busan foods.
Importance-Performance Analysis of Quality Attributes of Coffee Shops and a Comparison of Coffee Shop Visits between Koreans and Mongolians
Jo, Mi-Na ; Purevsuren, Bolorerdene ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1499~1512
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.9.1499
The purpose of this study was to compare the coffee shop visits of Koreans and Mongolians, and to determine the quality attributes that should be managed by Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA). The survey was conducted in Seoul and the Gyeonggi Province of Korea, and at Ulaanbaatar in Mongolia from April to May 2012. The questionnaire was distributed to 380 Koreans and 380 Mongolians, with 253 and 250 responses from the Koreans and Mongolians, respectively, used for statistical analyses. From the results, Koreans visited coffee shops more frequently than Mongolians, with both groups mainly visiting a coffee shop with friends. Koreans also spent more time in a coffee shop than Mongolians. In addition, they generally used a coffee shop, regardless of time. In terms of coffee preference, Koreans preferred Americano and Mongolians preferred Espresso. The most frequently stated purpose of Koreans for visiting a coffee shop was to rest, while Mongolians typically visited to drink coffee. The general price range respondents spent on coffee was less than 4~8 thousand won for the Koreans and 2~4 thousand won for the Mongolians. Both Koreans and Mongolians obtained information about coffee shops from recommendations. According to the IPA results of 20 quality attributes of coffee shops, the selection attributes with high importance but low satisfaction were quality, price, and kindness for Koreans, but none of the attributes was found for Mongolians.
Immunomodulatory Activities of Apple Seed Extracts on Macrophage
Byun, Myung-Woo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1513~1517
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.9.1513
This study examined the immunomodulatory activities of apple seed extracts (ASE). The immunomodulatory effects were estimated through nitric oxide production, cytokine induction, protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the phosphylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and inhibitory kappa
) in the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. In the cytotoxicity asay, ASE (31 to
) did not induce cytotoxicity; thus, the optimal concentration of ASE was confirmed to be less than
. Nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-
and interleukin (IL)-6) production significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, the protein expression of iNOS and the phosphorylation of MAPKs and
were also increased by ASE treatment. Overall, our results suggest that extracts from apple seeds potentially have immunomodulatory activities on macrophages.
Predicting and Extending the Shelf Life of Red Cabbage Sprouts
Chun, Ho Hyun ; Park, Seung Jong ; Jung, Seung Hun ; Song, Kyung Bin ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 42, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1518~1523
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.9.1518
To estimate the shelf life of red cabbage sprouts (stored at 4 and
), the numbers of total aerobic bacteria were determined during storage. Parameters for the Gompertz model were determined and the shelf life was predicted using a modified Gompertz equation. The estimated shelf lives of red cabbage sprouts packed with polyolefin film and polyamide/polyamide/polyethylene (PA/PA/PE) film at
were 49.4 and 52.3 h, respectively, whereas those of red cabbage sprouts packed with polyolefin film and PA/PA/PE film at
were 19.7 and 22.6, respectively. The shelf life prediction equation was appropriate, based on the statistical analysis of the accuracy factor, bias factor, and mean square error. On the other hand, for red cabbage sprouts treated with aqueous
/fumaric acid and UV-C then packed with polyolefin film or PA/PA/PE film, the shelf life was predicted to be longer than 168 h. These results suggest that the combined treatment of aqueous
/fumaric acid and UV-C can be useful for improving microbial safety and extending the shelf life of red cabbage sprouts during storage.