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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 43, Issue 12 - Dec 2014
Volume 43, Issue 11 - Nov 2014
Volume 43, Issue 10 - Oct 2014
Volume 43, Issue 9 - Sep 2014
Volume 43, Issue 8 - Aug 2014
Volume 43, Issue 7 - Jul 2014
Volume 43, Issue 6 - Jun 2014
Volume 43, Issue 5 - May 2014
Volume 43, Issue 4 - Apr 2014
Volume 43, Issue 3 - Mar 2014
Volume 43, Issue 2 - Feb 2014
Volume 43, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
Selecting the target year
Effects of Exercise Intensity on PGC-1α, PPAR-γ, and Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle of High Fat Diet-fed Sprague-Dawley Rats
Jung, Hyun-Lyung ; Kang, Ho-Youl ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 43, issue 7, 2014, Pages 963~971
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.7.963
This study investigated the effects of exercise intensity on PGC-
, and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of high fat diet-fed Sprague-Dawley rats. Forty rats were randomly divided into five groups: sedentary control group (SED), high fat diet group (HF), high fat diet+low-intensity exercise group (HFLE, 22 m/min, 60 min, 6 days/week), high fat diet+moderate-intensity exercise group (HFME, 26 m/min, 51 min), and high fat diet+high-intensity exercise group (HFHE, 30 m/min, 46 min). After 4 weeks of high fat diet and endurance exercise training, the lipid profiles, insulin, and glucose concentrations were determined in plasma. PGC-
, and GLUT-4 contents were measured in plantaris muscle. The rate of glucose transport in soleus muscle was determined under submaximal insulin concentration (
insulin, 20 min) during muscle incubation. Plasma glucose during oral glucose tolerance test in HF was significantly greater than that in SED, and plasma glucose levels in the three exercise (EX) groups were significantly lower that those in SED and HF at 30 and 60 min, respectively (P<0.05). Plasma insulin levels in the EX groups were significantly reduced by 60 min compared to that in HF (P<0.05). The protein expression level of PGC-
as well as muscle glucose uptake were significantly higher in SED and HF than those in the three EX groups (P<0.05), and HFHE showed significantly higher levels than HFLE and HFME. Expression levels of GLUT-4 and PPAR-
were significantly higher in the HFLE, HFME, and HFHE groups compared to the SED and HF (P<0.05). Therefore, the results of this study indicate that 4 weeks of high fat diet significantly developed whole body insulin resistance but did not affect PGC-
, or the glucose transport rate in skeletal muscle, and exercise training was able to attenuate deteriorated whole body insulin resistance due to high fat diet. In addition, high intensity training significantly affected PGC-
expression and the glucose transport rate of skeletal muscle in comparison with low and middle training intensities.
Antioxidant Activities of Extracts from Leaves and Stems of Achyranthes japonica
Seo, Soo Jung ; Kim, Nam Woo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 43, issue 7, 2014, Pages 972~979
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.7.972
This study was conducted to investigate the physiological characteristics of water and ethanol extracts from leaves and stems of Achyranthes japonica. The highest contents of total polyphenol and flavonoid compounds were 58.27 and 42.22 mg/g in water extract from leaves, respectively. The protein content was the highest at 16.42 mg/g in water extract from leaves. Ethanol extract from stems showed the highest content of reducing sugars at 11.35 mg/g. In the measurement of electron donating ability (EDA), ethanol extract from stems showed the highest EDA at 93.41% at a concentration of 1.0 mg/mL. Superoxide dismutase-like activity of ethanol extract from leaves was the highest at 8.13% at a concentration of 1.0 mg/mL. In the analysis of nitrate scavenging activity, water extract from leaves showed the highest activity at 94.90% at pH 1.2, and the activity increased as concentration increased and pH decreased. In the measurement of xanthine oxidase inhibition, ethanol extract from stems showed the highest inhibitory activity at 66.67% at a concentration of 1.0 mg/mL. Especially, nitrate scavenging activities of water extract from leaves were the highest under all pH conditions. These results verify that extracts from leaves of A. japonica have strong antioxidant activity and can be used as an effective antioxidant source for nutraceutical foods, medicines, and cosmetic stuffs.
Antioxidative, Antimicrobial and Anticytotoxic Activities of Seungmagalgeuntang and Fermented Seungmagalgeuntang
In, Jae Pyung ; Shin, Jung Mi ; Hur, Sun Jin ; Lee, Si Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 43, issue 7, 2014, Pages 980~988
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.7.980
Seungmagalgeuntang (SG) is broadly used in traditional Oriental medicine especially in Korea, China, and Japan, for its many pharmacological effects. This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidative, antimicrobial, and anticytotoxic activities of SG and fermented seungmagalgeuntang (FSG). DPPH radical scavenging activities of SG and FSG were 70% and 74%, respectively, which increased slightly by fermentation. Nitrite scavenging activities were strongly altered at pH 1.2, (36.4% in SG and 38.3% in FSG) by addition of
. Superoxide dismutase-like activities were from 21.5% to 23.3% at a concentration of 0.4 mg/mL, and the highest value were observed in FSG. Total flavonoid contents of SG and FSG were 47.1 and
, respectively which shows an increase upon fermentation. In the antimicrobial activity test,
values of SG and FSG were
for Candida albicans and 3,200 and
for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Antibacterial effects were higher in FSG compared to SG. Anticytotoxic cadmium toxicities ranged from 63.5% to 76.1% at
of SG and FSG, and the highest value was observed in FSG. In the sensory evaluation, color, flavor, and overall preference values were higher in FSG.
Quality Characteristics and Biological Activities of Vinegars Added with Young Leaves of Akebia quinata
Kwon, Woo-Young ; Lee, Eun-Kyoung ; Yoon, Jin-A ; Chung, Kang-Hyun ; Lee, Kwon-Jai ; Song, Byeong Chun ; An, Jeung Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 43, issue 7, 2014, Pages 989~998
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.7.989
We investigated the characteristics and biological activities of vinegars added with different levels (0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 3%) of young leaves of Akebia quinata. During alcohol fermentation, alcohol and total acidity contents of vinegars increased. During acid fermentation, total acidity and amino acid contents increased. Vinegar added with 3% A. quinata leaf showed the highest total sensory score. The contents of total polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannin significantly increased during fermentation according to the amount of A. quinata leaf. After 22 days of fermentation, total polyphenol, total flavonoid, and tannin contents of vinegar added with 3% A. quinata were 4,079.08 mg GAE/100 g, 2,927.08 mg CE/100 g, and 3,618.00 mg TAE/100 g, respectively. ABTS radical scavenging activity of vinegar added with 3% A. quinata was 79.63%. Anti-cancer activities of vinegar added with 3% A. quinata were 48.65% and 52.90% against MCF-7 and HepG2 cells, respectively. Vinegar added with 3% A. quinata showed anti-bacterial activities against Bacillus cereus, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus subtilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Our results demonstrate that the biological activities of vinegar added with 3% A. quinata leaf (22 days of fermentation) were excellent, and their enhanced total polyphenol, flavonoid, and tannin contents were associated with antioxidant, anti-cancer and anti-microbial activities. Thus, A. quinata can be used as a functional material in vinegar and other foods.
Comparison of Quality Characteristics and Antioxidative Activities of Cookies Containing Blueberry Powder and Different Types of Egg Yolk
Kim, Kyoungok ; Liu, Yanan ; Yoon, Leena ; Park, Hyunjin ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 43, issue 7, 2014, Pages 999~1008
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.7.999
We evaluated the quality characteristics and antioxidative activities of cookies containing different types of egg yolk (LEY, Liquid Egg Yolk; FEY, Fresh Egg Yolk) and percentages of blueberry powder (5, 10, and 15%). As the amount of blueberry powder increased, the levels of antioxidants based on ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities increased in general. Within the 15% group, contents of polyphenols and flavonoids were higher in the FEY group, whereas content of anthocyanins was higher in the LEY group. Measurement of ABTS radical scavenging activity showed that the FEY group had a higher value within the 10% group, whereas the LEY group scored higher within the 15% group. Comparison of sensory properties showed no significant difference between the two egg yolk types. If commercialized, manufacturing cookies with FEY or LEY will not make a significant difference. Regardless, 15% blueberry powder would be the most appropriate, as it scored the highest in terms of antioxidant activity and sensory characteristics.
Characterization of Probiotic and Functional Properties of Lactobacillus curvatus ML17, a Mukeunji Starter
Kim, Hyo Ju ; Sung, Hea Mi ; Shin, Hyun-Kyung ; Kim, Ki Myong ; Yang, Eun Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 43, issue 7, 2014, Pages 1009~1016
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.7.1009
This study investigated the probiotic and functional characteristics of Mukeunji starter, Lactobacillus curvatus ML17, isolated from Mukeunji. Lb. curvatus ML17 was confirmed as a safe microorganism due to its non-hemolytic activity and non-production of harmful
-glucosidase. Tolerance to artificial gastric and bile juice of Lb. curvatus ML17 was investigated. After incubation in artificial gastric and bile juice, the number of surviving cells was
CFU/mL. According to the results of adhesion assay, this strain also exhibited good adhesion to Caco-2 cells. Lb. curvatus ML17 showed good antimicrobial activity against food borne pathogens, especially Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cell-free extract of Lb. curvatus ML17 exhibited high levels of DPPH scavenging capacity and inhibitory effects on growth of AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells. These results suggest that Lb. curvatus ML17 has potential for application in functional foods.
Antioxidant Activity and Main Volatile Flavor Components of Mulberry Wine Fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae B-8
Chae, Kyu Seo ; Jung, Ji Hye ; Yoon, Hae Hoon ; Son, Rak Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 43, issue 7, 2014, Pages 1017~1024
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.7.1017
This study was carried out to develop mulberry wines fermented with traditional microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae B-8). S. cerevisiae B-8 is a traditional fermentation microorganism isolated from domestically grown Rubus occidentalis. Each S. cerevisiae B-8 and Fermivin was inoculated into mulberry up to
CFU/kg, followed by incubation at
for 10 days. Mulberry fermented with S. cerevisiae B-8 (MBB) had a high alcohol content (16.47%), and the fermentation rate of MBB was faster than that of mulberry fermented with Fermivin (MBF). The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of MBB were higher than those of MBF. DPPH radical scavenging activity of MBB was as high as that of MBF. ABTS radical scavenging activity of MBF was higher than those of MBB and mulberry juice (MBJ). In addition, reducing power of MBB was much higher than other samples. Flavor constituents of the two fermented wines were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Twenty-three compounds from the sample were separated and identified as fifteen esters, six alcohols, an aldehyde, and an acetate. Particularly, tetradecanoic acid, ethyl ester of orris and violet flavor were ten times more abundant in MBB than in MBF. Several ester components were two times more abundant in MBB than in MBF. In conclusion, current findings indicate that MBB might have better antioxidant activities with flavor, which contributes to improved wine production with high quality and function.
Immobilization of Burkholderia cepacia Lipase on Weak Base Styrene Resin Using Polyethyleneimine with Cross-linking
Lee, Chi Woo ; Lee, Ki Teak ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 43, issue 7, 2014, Pages 1025~1035
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.7.1025
This study assessed the effect of immobilized lipase on weak base styrene resin using polyethyleneimine (PEI) with cross-linking. Two procedures were used in this study. The first one, "mono-layer" lipase immobilization, involves washing PEI after adsorption. The second procedure, "multi-layer" lipase immobilization, has no washing before the cross-linking step. Treverlite XS-100200 (weak base styrene resin) was immersed with PEI solution (2.2 mg/mL). Lipase AH (from Burkholderia cepacia) was adsorbed onto the support coated with PEI before cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. Structured lipid was synthesized by immobilized lipase-catalyzed interesterification using canola oil, palmitic ethyl ester (PEE), and stearic ethyl ester (StEE). Total fatty acid contents of triacylglycerol (TAG) in structured lipids were analyzed to investigate activity, properties, and reusability of immobilized lipases. Activities of immobilized lipases on the multi-layer and mono-layer increased at a high concentration (8 mg/mL) of lipase solution used for immobilization. The results show that immobilized lipase with the mono-layer method at pH 8.0 on resin had the highest total saturated fatty acid content (26.17 area%). Activity of immobilized lipase with the multi-layer method at pH 7.5 on support was lower than that of the mono-layer, but total saturated fatty acid content was 16.79 area% higher than that of lipase AH (15.01 area%).
Comparison of Quality Properties of Brined Baechu Cabbage Manufactured by Different Salting Methods and with Different Salts
Choi, Geum-Hye ; Lee, Ga-Yeung ; Bong, Yeon-Ju ; Jeong, Ji-Kang ; Moon, Suk-Hee ; Park, Kun-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 43, issue 7, 2014, Pages 1036~1041
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.7.1036
This study compared quality changes among brined baechu cabbages manufactured by various salting methods and types of salt. Brine, brine and dry salting, and dry salting were used as salting methods. When baechu cabbages were salted by dry salting method, the salinity of brined baechu cabbage increased compared to salting by other methods, even though the quantity of salt used was small. In addition, salinities of leaf and stem were relatively equal among brined baechu cabbages using dry salting method compared to those of other methods. When baechu cabbages were salted using dry method at different salt concentrations (3%, 5%, and 10% of weight of baechu), brined baechu cabbage showed suitable salinity (1.41~1.42%) at 5% salt concentration. Among brined baechu cabbages prepared using dry salting method with different types of salt (purified salt, solar salt, and bamboo salt), bamboo salt produced the highest salinity. Brined baechu cabbages with solar salt and bamboo salt showed significantly lower counts of total aerobic bacteria and higher counts of lactic acid bacteria than others. These results indicate that baechu cabbage can be salted equally, and the amount of salt used can be reduced when baechu cabbage is salted using dry salting method. In addition, using solar salt and bamboo salt can increase the quality of brined baechu cabbage.
Quality Characteristics of Yanggaeng Added with Tomato Powder
Kim, Kyoung-Hee ; Kim, Young Shik ; Koh, Jong-Ho ; Hong, Min-Seo ; Yook, Hong-Sun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 43, issue 7, 2014, Pages 1042~1047
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.7.1042
This study examined the quality characteristics of Yanggaeng added with tomato powder (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%) and oligosaccharides instead of red beans and sugar. The moisture content of tomato Yanggaeng was 45.89~33.64% and was highest in the control group. The pH ranged 3.96~6.24 and significant decreased with the addition of tomato powder. Hunter's color value, lightness (L value) were the highest in Yanggaeng added with 20% tomato powder. Redness (a value) increased with tomato powder content, except for 20% tomato powder. Yellowness (b value) significantly increased with tomato powder content (P<0.05) but decreased with 20% tomato powder. In the texture profile analysis, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness significantly decreased (P<0.05) with the addition of tomato powder. Total soluble solid content (
) was the highest (5.16) in the control group, whereas that of tomato Yanggaeng ranged 4.46~4.92 and significantly decreased (P<0.05) with the addition of tomato powder. The antioxidative activity based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity of Yanggaeng increased with the concentration of tomato powder, although those of Yanggaeng added with 15% and 20% tomato powder were not significantly different (P<0.05). Yanggaeng added with 5 and 10% tomato powder showed acceptable sensory properties, including color, flavor, sweet taste, sour taste, and overall quality. In terms of sensory evaluation and antioxidant activity, the results show that Yanggaeng added with 10% tomato powder was the best, but more research should be conducted in order to improve sensory acceptability.
Physicochemical Quality Properties of Mudflat Solar Salt and Roasted Salt
Lee, Jung-Hee ; Kim, Hag-Lyeol ; Kim, In-Cheol ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 43, issue 7, 2014, Pages 1048~1054
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.7.1048
The purpose of this study was carried out to investigate the cause of sulfur dioxide occurrence, general element composition, sulfur compounds, heavy metals, macro- & micro-minerals, and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) following baking time course of RS (RS1, RS2, RS3, and RS4) and mudflat solar salts (MSS). Sulfur dioxide (
) and sulfite (
) were not detected in MSS or RS. However, sulfate (
) content significantly decreased in RS (29,878.15~36,097.45 ppm) compared to that in MSS (35,601.65 ppm). ORP was 181.15 mV in MSS, and 58.55 mV in RS1. Moisture content was 9.34% in MSS and 0.00% in RS with increased NaCl (94.77~95.77%). Moisture and NaCl contents showed no significant difference in RS. Insoluble and sandy residues were higher in RS than in MSS, whereas Ca and K showed no significant difference. Mg and Cl contents were higher in RS than in MSS. Br level was higher in MSS (628.1 ppm) than in RS (512.72~586.62 ppm), but there was no significant difference in
. Heavy metals (Pb, As, and Hg) were more abundant in RS than in MSS, but levels were still safe. These results suggest that MSS and RS may increase protection against from
Physicochemical Characterization and Changes in Nutritional Composition of Onions Depending on Type of Freezing Process
Jang, Min-Young ; Jo, Yeon-Ji ; Hwang, In-Guk ; Yoo, Seon-Mi ; Choi, Mi-Jung ; Min, Sang-Gi ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 43, issue 7, 2014, Pages 1055~1061
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.7.1055
Innovative freezing technology is currently applied to preserve foodstuffs for long-term storage. Generally, the quality of frozen food is closely related to the types of freezing and thawing processes. In this study, we characterized the physicochemical properties of onions depending on freezing rate. When onions were frozen at
, freezing rates were 0.1, 0.5, and
depending on air-blast quick freezer mode. Onions were thawed by microwave irradiation at 400 W. Hardness of onion dramatically decreased after freezing and thawing compared with blanched onion. However, the fastest freezing rate did not affect hardness. Thawing loss of onion decreased with a faster freezing rate. For morphological observation, onion frozen at a faster rate showed a smaller ice-crystal size. Vitamin C content decreased upon blanching or freezing, but there was no significant difference according to freezing rate. Although free sugar content also decreased upon blanching and freezing, its highest content was at
freezing. Among organic acids, malic acid content was highest at
freezing. Based on this study, it could be suggested that a faster freezing rate is effective to improve frozen food quality in accordance with preventing tissue damage or minimizing destruction of nutrients.
Determination of Soluble Carbohydrates in Soybean Seeds Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Evaporative Light Scattering Detection
Kim, Gyeong-Ha ; Hwang, Young-Sun ; Ahn, Kyung-Geun ; Kim, Gi-Ppeum ; Kim, Min-Ji ; Hong, Seung-Beom ; Moon, Jung-Kyeong ; Choung, Myoung-Gun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 43, issue 7, 2014, Pages 1062~1067
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.7.1062
In the present study, a new analytical method was devised for the simultaneous determination of soluble carbohydrates in soybean seeds using high performance liquid chromatography/evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC/ELSD). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for soybean soluble carbohydrates ranged from 5.6~7.6 mg/kg using the HPLC/ELSD method and from 16.2~33.9 mg/kg using the high performance liquid chromatography/refractive index detection (HPLC/RID) method. Therefore, the HPLC/ELSD method was more sensitive than HPLC/RID. The precision values for retention time and peak area of the HPLC/ELSD method were evaluated by inter-day (n=5) and intra-day (n=10) assays using a standard solution. All precision values (CV<2.5%) for soybean soluble carbohydrates were acceptable and fulfilled international acceptance criteria. All linear calibration curves were obtained with a correlation coefficient of
>0.999. The contents of soluble carbohydrates for the "Shingikong" (yellow soybean) and "Cheongjakong 3" (black soybean) samples were analyzed using the HPLC/RID and HPLC/ELSD methods. The difference in carbohydrate contents between the two detection methods was significant. Carbohydrate contents in the HPLC/ELSD method were higher than those in the HPLC/RID method. Overall, the HPLC/ELSD method showed satisfactory resolution with a favorable LOQ and reproducibility. Therefore, these results indicate that the HPLC/ELSD method may be applied to determine the contents of soluble carbohydrates in soybean seeds and related food stuffs.
Quality Characteristics of Baked Rice Cake Added with Maltitol
Kim, Hee-Jung ; Yoo, Seon-Mi ; Han, Hye-Min ; Park, Bo-Ram ; Han, Gui-Jung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 43, issue 7, 2014, Pages 1068~1074
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.7.1068
This study investigated the quality characteristics of baked rice cake added with maltitol syrup. The hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness of baked rice cake significantly decreased (P<0.05) according to the level of added maltitol syrup. Hunter's color values of baked rice cake did not differ significantly according to the level of added maltitol syrup. Sensory evaluation indicated that appearance, moistness, chewiness, hardness, and overall acceptance of baked rice cake prepared with added maltitol syrup were improved compared to those of baked control rice cake. Hunter's color values and texture properties of baked rice cake added with 10% maltitol syrup were compared with those of baked control rice cake during storage at room temperature for 3 days. Hunter's color L values of baked rice cake decreased during storage, whereas a and b values increased. The rate of hardness increase in baked rice cake with maltitol syrup was lower than that in baked control rice cake during storage. The Avrami exponents (n) of baked control rice cake and baked rice cake added with 10% maltitol were 2.418 and 2.098, respectively. The time constants (1/k) of the former and latter were 43.860 and 60.976, respectively. Overall, addition of 10% maltitol syrup improved the texture, sensory properties, and retarding retrogradation of baked rice cake.
Quality Characteristics of Sulgidduk Added with Shinan Seomcho (Spinacia oleracea L.) Powder
Ko, Sang-Heui ; Choi, Kap-Seong ; Park, Jeong-Ro ; Bing, Dong-Joo ; Chun, Soon-Sil ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 43, issue 7, 2014, Pages 1075~1080
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.7.1075
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of Sulgidduk substituted with 2%, 4%, 6%, or 8% Shinan Seomcho (spinach, Spinacia oleracea L.) powder (SSP). The moisture content was lowest in the control (38.54%) and increased with greater SSP content, whereas water activity showed the opposite pattern. For color values, lightness significantly decreased with increasing SSP content. For texture analysis, hardness was lowest in Sulgidduk substituted with 4% SSP (154.97 g), and fracturability was lowest at a substitution level of 8%. Adhesiveness was not significantly different among the samples. Springiness significantly increased with greater SSP content. Gumminess and chewiness were highest at a substitution level of 2%. In the sensory evaluation, grass-flavor, bitterness, and off-flavor significantly increased with greater SSP content. Moisture was not significantly different among the samples. Sweetness, color, flavor, softness, and overall acceptability significantly decreased with greater SSP content. However, the overall acceptability scores of all samples substituted with SSP were higher than average. From the results, the optimum level of SSP substitution for production of Sulgidduk is be suggested to be 2~4%.
Effects of Brined Baechu Cabbage and Seasoning on Fermentation of Kimchi
Yun, Ja-Young ; Jeong, Ji-Kang ; Moon, Suk-Hee ; Park, Kun-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 43, issue 7, 2014, Pages 1081~1087
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.7.1081
This study investigated and compared the fermentation characteristics of intact kimchi and brined baechu cabbage and seasoning fermented separately. Fermentation characteristics of kimchi, brined baechu cabbage and seasoning, such as pH, acidity, microbial counts, and springiness were measured during the fermentation period (4 weeks at
). Changes in pH, acidity, and microbial counts of the seasoning fermented separately were slower than those of brined baechu cabbage and kimchi itself. The fermentation characteristics of brined baechu cabbage were very similar to those of kimchi during the fermentation period. Additionally, we manufactured and fermented kimchi, after which baechu cabbage and seasoning were separated shortly before the measurements. Baechu cabbage and seasoning separated instantly from kimchi showed similar fermentation characteristics to their separately fermented counterparts. Changes in springiness of kimchi itself and brined baechu cabbage fermented separately were similar during the fermentation period. These results indicate that kimchi fermentation is affected by brined baechu cabbage more than seasoning.
Analysis of Quality State for Gochujang Produced by Regional Rural Families
Lee, Seul ; Yoo, Seon Mi ; Park, Bo Ram ; Han, Hye Min ; Kim, Ha Yun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 43, issue 7, 2014, Pages 1088~1094
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.7.1088
This study investigated the quality properties of glutinous rice Gochujang produced by regional rural families in order to determine the present state of quality of traditional Gochujang. A total of 80 Gochujang samples were collected from nationwide rural families and their physicochemical characteristics were analyzed. Based on regional mean, ranges of moisture contents, pH, acidity, crude protein contents, and salinity of Gochujang were
, respectively. The mean contents of amino type N, reducing sugars, and capsaicinoids were
, respectively, and differences were significant among the Gochujang samples. Hunter color values (L, a, and b) of Gochujang were
, respectively, and the range of viscosity was
cP. The acidity, salinity, moisture, crude protein, and amino type N contents of Gochujang produced from the Gangwon-do and Gyeonggi-do areas were significantly higher than those of other regions. According to principal component analysis of the physicochemical characteristics of Gochujang produced by rural families, the salinity, acidity, moisture, crude protein, and amino type N contents were strong characteristics of Gochujang produced by Gangwon-do and Gyeonggi-do. These results indicate that traditional Gochujang produced by rural families shows various quality properties and regional differences in physicochemical characteristics.
Establishment of Distribution System by Individual Packaging of Live Todarodes pacificus
Kim, Myung Uk ; Cho, Young Je ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 43, issue 7, 2014, Pages 1095~1103
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.7.1095
A packaging and distribution system for transferring individual live squids at low temperature was developed and compared to a conventional bulk container system. Ten live squids in individual packages were stored in a large container at low temperature (
). Live squids in individual packages at
showed a survival rate of 84% up to 72 hours, after which the survival rate decreased. However, the survival rate remained at 60% up to 120 hours. Further, the squids survived up to a maximum of 7 days. Optimum temperature was
, and the survival rate of the packages was 70% when stored at
for 96 hours. A distribution test was carried out using a refrigerator truck at
, and the results showed a 100% survival rate up to 16 hours and over 90% survival rate after 20 hours. A rectangular container was the most favorable when loading the container into the refrigerator truck. In testing the required volume of supplied seawater, 100% survival rate was observed over 15 hours with 20 L of sea water or more. Therefore, a single squid needed 2 L of seawater. After refrigerator truck transportation, optimum temperature for fish tank storage was
, at which the survival rate was over 90% up to 72 hours. Using a refrigerator truck at
, live squids survived up to 7 days, maintaining marketability.
Comparison of Physicochemical Characteristics and Consumer Perception of Cheongkukjang
Kang, So Jin ; Kim, Sang Sook ; Chung, Hae Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 43, issue 7, 2014, Pages 1104~1111
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.7.1104
To investigate major characteristics affecting the consumer acceptability of Cheonggukjang, the physicochemical characteristics and consumer perception of 16 Cheonggukjang samples (seven commercial samples and nine samples prepared in the laboratory) were analyzed. Overall, consumer acceptability of Cheonggukjang increased with higher contents of amino nitrogen and volatile basic nitrogen, as well as at lower moisture contents. Cheonggukjang samples with higher consumer acceptability showed higher purchase intent (%) and willingness to pay (won/200 gram package), implying consistency in consumer evaluation. Ideal characteristics of Cheonggukjang were lighter color, less water in the soup, stronger characteristic Cheonggukjang taste, sweetness and nutty taste, as well as less off odors, saltiness, and bitterness. The result of this study demonstrates the needs to improve sensory quality by considering the relatively low consumer acceptability of Cheonggukjang samples.
Intake Status and Recognition of Health Functional Foods by Pre- and Post-Menopausal Women in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province
Park, Keun-Cheol ; Choi, Yoon-Hye ; Kim, Woo-Rim ; Choi, Ye-Ji ; Yoon, Ki Sun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 43, issue 7, 2014, Pages 1112~1121
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.7.1112
The purpose of this study was to investigate intake status and recognition of health functional foods by pre- and post-menopausal women in Seoul and Gyeonggi province. Survey questions were administered to 400 women around menopausal period, and data analysis was completed using the SPSS window program. Thirty-three percent of women recognized that they are healthy, and 47.1% of respondents are concerned with maintaining their health. However, respondents showed a low level of knowledge about the definition of menopause and health functional foods. Health concerns of respondents were significantly affected by marital status and level of education (P<0.05). Purchasing and intake of health functional foods was also significantly affected by health concerns and menopause symptoms (P<0.05). Twenty-nine percent of participants had taken health functional foods to prevent disease. However, most of them (85.9%) showed no knowledge of the main components of functional foods. In addition, knowledge associated with menopause and functional foods was affected by the level of education. The respondents' health concern, and thus purchase and intake frequencies of health functional foods, were affected by level of education. 'Effect of functional foods' was a top priority when respondents purchased health functional foods. The respondents answered black bean and pomegranate as foods that relieve menopause symptoms. However, they actually showed high intake frequency of black beans than pomegranate due to the high accessibility of black beans. The results of this study show that educational support for dietary guidelines is needed for middle-aged woman to be healthy after menopause.
Salt-related Dietary Behaviors of University Students in Gyeongbuk Area
Lee, Kyung-A ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 43, issue 7, 2014, Pages 1122~1131
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.7.1122
The purpose of this study was to investigate self-assessed preferences for saltiness as well as salt-related dietary behaviors of university students in Gyeongsangbuk-do. Data were collected from subjects, including 175 male and 225 female university students. This survey was conducted using self-boarding questionnaires. Exactly 29.5% of all students answered 'salty' for their self-assessed preference of saltiness, and 42.5% indicated 'salty' for their assessed saltiness of university foodservice operations. Salt-related dietary behavior scores were significantly different among monthly spending money (P<0.01), self-assessed preference of saltiness (P<0.001), frequency of using university foodservice operations (P<0.001), and assessed saltiness of university foodservice operations (P<0.001). Among the 15 items of salt-related dietary behaviors, 4 items scored over 3.00/5.00, including frequent eating-out or consumption of delivered foods, kimchi, soy paste soup or other broth soups, and ramyon (instant noodle). Males revealed higher preferences for ham or sausage (P<0.05), table salt (P<0.01), broths (P<0.01), and complete consumption of soups and stews (P<0.01), whereas females showed greater preferences for eating-out or delivered foods (P<0.01). Overweight students showed higher preferences for all broths and complete consumption of soups and stews (P<0.01).
Assessment of Need for Nutritional Education in Male Workers Living in Busan
Lee, Eun Jeong ; Choi, Hee Sun ; Lyu, Eun Soon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 43, issue 7, 2014, Pages 1132~1137
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.7.1132
The purpose of this study was to assess the need for nutritional education in male workers living in Busan, Korea. This study surveyed 310 industrial workers at five companies in Busan using a questionnaire. According to the results, need for nutritional education scored 3.60/5.00 points. The usage rate of mass media as a means of acquiring nutritional information was significantly higher (P<0.001) in subjects in their 50s compared to other age groups. Regarding scores on need for nutritional education according to theme, 'balanced eating habits' showed the highest score, followed by 'food safety', 'diet therapy related to a disease', and 'food hygiene and food poisoning prevention'. In terms of frequency of nutritional education, 29.0% of subjects considered 'biannually' to be desirable, whereas 25.8% and 21.0% considered 'annually' and 'quarterly' to be desirable, respectively. The results of this study suggest that nutritional education for industrial workers should be implemented in various ways in accordance with their characteristics. Furthermore, considering workers' low awareness levels of the need for nutritional education, employees are required to take the education in order to encouraged to improve their nutritional status and commit to a desirable diet.