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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 44, Issue 12 - Dec 2015
Volume 44, Issue 11 - Nov 2015
Volume 44, Issue 10 - Oct 2015
Volume 44, Issue 9 - Sep 2015
Volume 44, Issue 8 - Aug 2015
Volume 44, Issue 7 - Jul 2015
Volume 44, Issue 6 - Jun 2015
Volume 44, Issue 5 - May 2015
Volume 44, Issue 4 - Apr 2015
Volume 44, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 44, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 44, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
Selecting the target year
Effects of Puffed Red Ginseng Power and Drink on Blood Glucose and Serum Lipid Profile in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Shim, Gun-Sub ; Seong, Ki-Seung ; Lee, Kyoung-Won ; Cho, Chang-Won ; Lee, Ok-Hwan ; Lee, Jin-Ha ; Han, Chan-Kyu ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1415~1421
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.10.1415
This study was performed to investigate the effects of puffed-red ginseng (PRG) powder and drink on blood glucose level and serum lipid profile in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. For the experimental design, STZ-induced diabetic rats were fed PRG powder-supplemented diets (0.3%, 0.6%) and diluted drinks (0.14%, 0.28%) for 6 weeks. Concentrations of blood glucose during the experimental period decreased to 18.3 mg/dL in the 0.6% PRG diet group and 15.1 mg/dL in the 0.14% PRG drink group. Average reduction rate of blood glucose in the last week compared to reference blood glucose concentration decreased by 19.2% (A group), 37.4% (B group), 18.7% (C group), and 17.3% (D group) in the PRG treatment groups, respectively. These results indicate that PRG affects blood glucose via ginseng saponins administered in diet or drinking water, thereby suggesting that PRG has the ability to prevent increasing blood glucose in mild-induced diabetic rats.
Effect of Fermented Water Extracts from Ligularia fischeri on Hepatotoxicity Induced by D-Galactosamine in Rats
Yu, Keun-Hyung ; Lee, Sun-Yeop ; Yang, Hyun-Mo ; Ham, Young-Ahn ; Lee, Soo-Ung ; Chae, Seoung-Wan ; Lee, Yong-Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1422~1430
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.10.1422
This study was conducted to determine the effect of fermented water extracts from Ligularia fischeri (LAF) on reduction of hepatotoxicity induced by D-galactosamine (D-GalN) in rats. In this experiment, male Sprague-Dawley rats were used as experimental animals, which were divided into eight groups: normal group, D-GalN-treated group (control), D-GalN and non-fermented water extracts from Ligularia fischeri (LA)-treated groups [100, 200, and 400 mg/kg BW (body weight)], and D-GalN and LAF-treated groups (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg BW).
-Glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase activities in serum of the D-GalN and LAF-treated groups decreased significantly compared to those of the control group (P<0.05). The high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels of the D-GalN and LAF-treated groups increased significantly compared to those of the control group (P<0.05). The low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglyceride levels of the D-GalN and LAF-treated groups decreased significantly compared to those of the control group (P<0.05). The atherogenic index values of the D-GalN and LAF-treated groups decreased significantly compared to those of the control group (P<0.05), and their high density lipoprotein cholesterol by total cholesterol ratio increased significantly in these groups (P<0.05). Superoxide dismutase activity of liver tissues were enhanced significantly (P<0.05) in the D-GalN and LAF-treated groups compared to that of the control group (P<0.05), whereas their malondialdehyde content decreased significantly in these groups (P<0.05). The histopathological observations revealed apoptotic cells and mild portal inflammation in liver tissues of the D-GalN and LAF-treated groups. Taken together, these results demonstrate that LAF may improve plasma lipid profile and alleviate hepatic damage.
Effects of Fermented Water Extracts from Ligularia fischeri on Hepatotoxicity in Ethanol-Induced Rats
Yu, Keun-Hyung ; Lee, Sun-Yeop ; Yang, Hyun-Mo ; Ham, Young-Ahn ; Lee, Soo-Ung ; Chae, Seoung-Wan ; Lee, Yong-Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1431~1438
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.10.1431
This study was conducted to determine the effects of fermented water extracts from Ligularia fischeri (LAF) on reduction of hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol in rats. Ethanol-treated Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following eight groups: ethanol-treated group (control), ethanol and ursodeoxycholic acid-treated group (positive control), ethanol and non-fermented water extracts from Ligularia fischeri (LA)-treated groups [100, 200, and 400 mg/kg BW (body weight)], ethanol and LAF-treated groups (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg BW).
-Glutamyl transferase activities of the ethanol+LA-treated (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg BW) groups and ethanol+LAF-treated (400 mg/kg BW) group decreased significantly compared to those in the control group (P<0.05). Aspartate aminotransferase activities of the ethanol+LAF-treated (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg BW) groups and ethanol+LA-treated (200 and 400 mg/kg BW) groups decreased significantly compared to those in the control group (P<0.05). Alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities of all groups significantly decreased compared to those in the control group (P<0.05). The total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of all groups tended to decrease compared to those in the control group, but the differences were not significant. Superoxide dismutase activity of liver tissues was enhanced in the ethanol+LAF-treated (400 mg/kg BW) group (P<0.05). The contents of malondialdehyde in liver tissues decreased in the ethanol+LAF-treated groups (P<0.05). All treated groups showed well preserved lobular architectures with no evidence of steatosis or liver damage compared to the control group. As the results of this study, LAF may improve the plasma lipid profile and alleviate hepatic damage by ethanol.
In vitro Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Ethanol Extract and Sequential Fractions of Flowers of Prunus persica in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages
Kwak, Chung Shil ; Choi, Hye-In ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1439~1449
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.10.1439
Prunus persica Flos (PPF) were investigated for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities to find a natural functional food resource preventing degenerative diseases associated with excessive oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. PPF was extracted using ethanol (EtOH) and then sequentially fractioned by hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DM), ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (BtOH), and water (DW). Contents of total phenolics and flavonoids, as well as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities were measured. Anti-inflammatory effects in terms of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG) E2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-
production were also measured using LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. EtOH extract showed relatively high antioxidant activity with high total phenolic (78.1 mg tannic acid/g) and flavonoid contents (55.3 mg rutin/g). EA fraction contained the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents (394.6 mg tannic acid/g, 253.7 mg rutin/g), followed by BtOH (128.3 mg tannic acid/g, 93.1 mg rutin/g). EA and BtOH fractions and EtOH extract showed higher DPPH radical and ABTS radical scavenging activities than the others (P<0.05). In LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages, EtOH extract (
) showed significantly reduced (P<0.05) NO, PGE2, and TNF-
production levels to 38.5%, 32.3%, and 48.9% of the control, respectively, as well as reduced iNOS and COX-2 protein expression. DM fraction (
) showed significantly reduced (P<0.05) NO, PGE2, IL-6, and TNF-
production levels to 43.5%, 13.3%, 38.7%, and 41.3% of the control, respectively, and EA fraction (
) showed significantly reduced NO, PGE2, IL-6, and TNF-
production levels to 44.8%, 22.4%, 45.7%, and 62.0% of the control, respectively. Taken together, EtOH extract of PPF showed potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and EA and BtOH fractions showed comparatively stronger antioxidant activities while DM and EA fractions showed stronger anti-inflammatory activities. It can be concluded that EtOH extract of PPF and its fractions are good candidates as natural resources for the development of anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory functional food products.
Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethanol Extracts from Hizikia fusiformis Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria in LPS-Stimulated RAW264.7 Macrophages
Kwon, Myeong Sook ; Mun, Ok-Ju ; Bae, Min Joo ; Lee, Seul-Gi ; Kim, Mihyang ; Lee, Sang-Hyeon ; Yu, Ki Hwan ; Kim, Yuck Yong ; Kong, Chang-Suk ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1450~1457
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.10.1450
The anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol extracts from Hizikia fusiformis fermented with and without lactic acid bacteria was compared in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. The fermentation was done using Weissella sp. SH-1 and Lactobacillus casei in a mixture of glucose and lactate source at
for 30 days. As a result, we confirmed that the fermentation of H. fusiformis with lactic acid bacteria inhibited LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor
, and IL-
as important inflammatory factors. During a comparison analysis, we found that L. casei fermented groups significantly suppressed NO production by regulating iNOS and COX-2 expression. Also, the effective suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine and LPS-induced activation of mitogen- activated protein kinase indicated that the fermentation using Weissella sp. SH-1 and L. casei may provide an increment towards the extraction of active components, which are effective anti-inflammatory agents.
Antioxidant Activity and Inhibitory Effect against Oxidative Neuronal Cell Death of Kimchi Containing a Mixture of Wild Vegetables with Nitrite Scavenging Activity
Kang, Kyung Hun ; Park, Si Young ; Kwon, Ki Han ; Lim, Heekyung ; Kim, Sung Hyun ; Kim, Jeong Gyun ; Chung, Mi Ja ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1458~1469
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.10.1458
This study was carried out to investigate the nitrite scavenging activities (NSA) of nine kinds of wild vegetables in a
model system and nitrite of Chinese cabbage as well as the inhibitory effect of kimchi containing a mixture of wild vegetables (MWV) with nitrite scavenging activity on brain neuronal cell death. NSA was higher at pH 1.2 than pH 4.2 in all samples. NSA of extracts from sprouts of Oenothera laciniata and Aster scaber (AS) was above 90% at pH 1.2. AS, Codonopsis lanceolate (CL), Adenophora triphylla (AT), Platycodon grandiflorum (PG), and Taraxacum officinale (TO) extracts showed significantly higher levels of NSA than those from other extracts at pH 4.2. CL, AT, PG, and TO extracts showed high NSA on nitrite of Chinese cabbage. In addition, the effects of MWV on antioxidant and brain neuronal cell death induced by oxidative stress were investigated in human brain neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. MWV extract attenuated
-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in SK-N-SH cells. MWV extract showed significantly higher DPPH radical scavenger activity when compared to normal kimchi extract. MWV extract showed an inhibitory effect on brain neuronal cell death against oxidative stress by antioxidant activities.
Whitening Effect of Green Tea Seed Shell Ethanol Extracts
Song, Ha-Yeon ; Sung, Nak-Yun ; Jung, Pil-Mun ; Kang, Min-Soo ; Park, Won-Jong ; Byun, Eui-Hong ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1470~1475
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.10.1470
The objective of this study was to evaluate the whitening effect of green tea seed shell as an industrial byproduct. Green tea seed shell extract (GTSE) was obtained by ethanol extraction, and the yield was 1.24%. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of GTSE increased dose-dependently. To estimate inhibition of melanin synthesis, viability was tested in B16BL6 melanoma cells. GTSE treatment induced cytotoxicity at a concentration higher than
but did not induce cytoxicity lower than
. Thus, we fixed the optimal concentration at
. Using this optimal concentration, melanin synthesis inhibition was measured, and GTSE treatment significantly reduced melanin synthesis induced by
-melanin stimulating hormone. Therefore, the results indicate that green tea seed shell extracts may have potential melanin synthesis inhibitory activity and may be useful for development of whitening material as a natural ingredient.
Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of Mulberries by Greenhouse and Open Field Cultivation in Maturation Degrees
Lee, Ji Young ; Hwang, In Guk ; Park, Bo Ram ; Han, Hye Min ; Yoo, Seon Mi ; Han, Gui Jung ; Park, Jong Tae ; Kim, Ha Yun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1476~1483
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.10.1476
This study was conducted in order to compare changes in the quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of mulberries depending on the degree of ripeness between greenhouse (GH) and open field (OF) cultivation. The mulberries were divided into five degrees of ripeness. Quality characteristics such as pH, acidity, antioxidant activity, and contents of free sugar, organic acid, polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins were investigated. pH level increased slightly while acidity decreased depending on the degree of ripeness. Fructose and glucose were detected in mulberries as the major free sugar. Fructose and glucose increased rapidly during ripening. Citric acid was major acid and decreased considerably during ripening. Contents of total polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins increased considerably in the last stage of ripening. Contents of polyphenols, and flavonoids in mulberry from OF were higher than from GH. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities increased rapidly in mulberries of the last degree. Contents of functional components were not greatly different between GH and OF, whereas content of free sugar in GH was higher than that in OF.
Comparison of Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activities between Lentinula edodes and New Cultivar Lentinula edodes GNA01
Jang, Hye-Lim ; Lee, Jong-Hun ; Hwang, Myung-Jin ; Choi, Youngmin ; Kim, Haengran ; Hwang, Jinbong ; Nam, Jin-Sik ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1484~1491
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.10.1484
The new cultivar Lentinula edodes, which is named 'Lentinula edodes GNA01', was bred by mating strains isolated from 'L26' and 'Kyoungwon9015' obtained from Sammyungjin Research Institute, Fujian, China. L. edodes GNA01 does not have stipes like L. edodes, although it generally has a similar spherical shape. Moisture and crude protein contents of L. edodes GNA01 were lower than those of L. edodes. Meanwhile, L. edodes GNA01 contained higher levels of crude ash, crude lipid, crude fiber, and carbohydrates than L. edodes. The
-carotene content (
) of L. edodes GNA01 was about three times higher than that of L. edodes. In addition, vitamin D content (
) of L. edodes GNA01 was more than twice that of L. edodes. L. edodes GNA01 was a good source of mineral elements, with K and Mg contents of 2,277.50 mg/100 g and 203.15 mg/100 g, respectively. The major fatty acids of L. edodes GNA01 were C16:0 and C18:2, and L. edodes GNA01 had the highest linoleic acid (C18:2) content of 1,087.66 mg/100 g. Total phenol content of L. edodes GNA01 was 12.52 mg GAE/g, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values of L. edodes GNA01 were lower than those of L. edodes at all concentrations. However, DPPH radical scavenging activities and FRAP values of L. edodes GNA01 were above 80% and 0.9 at a concentration of 10 mg/mL, respectively.
Combination Effect of Various Freezing and Thawing Techniques on Quality and Nutritional Attributes of Onions
Jung, You-Kyoung ; Jang, Min-Young ; Hwang, In-Guk ; Yoo, Seon-Mi ; Min, Sang-Gi ; Jo, Yeon-Ji ; Chun, Ji-Yeon ; Choi, Mi-Jung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1492~1503
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.10.1492
This study evaluated the combination effect of various freezing and thawing techniques on the quality and nutritional aspects of onions. Onions were frozen by natural air convection freezing (NCF), air blast freezing (ABF), and liquid nitrogen freezing (LNF). Onions were frozen for 76 min by NCF, 9 min by ABF, and 9 min by LNF. The freezing treatment was stopped when the core temperature reached
for NCF and ABF, and
for LNF. Frozen samples were thawed through natural air convection thawing, running water thawing, sonication thawing (ST), or microwave thawing. The quality and nutritional aspects of frozen-thawed onions were evaluated by measuring thawing loss, pH, texture, water content, color, and SEM image. ST was found to cause the least loss in onion sample among the tested thawing methods, whereas the freezing methods did not cause any significant loss. In our experiment, thawing is found to be a more critical technique when compared to that of freezing. There were no clear quantifications or trends of pH and water content among different freezing and thawing techniques. The highest total color difference (
) was observed in the NCF sample. For morphological observation, ABF gave the smallest ice crystal size, as well as minimum cell collapse. Loss of vitamin C, free sugar, and organic acid content was lower in the ABF and ST sample, when compared to other trials. In our study, we found that combination of ABF and ST could preserve the quality and nutritional aspects of frozen-thawed onions better than other methods.
Development and Validation of Analytical Method for Pectolinarin and Pectolinarigenin in Fermented Cirsium setidens Nakai by Bioconversion
Oh, Ji-Won ; Lee, Jin-Ha ; Cho, Myoung-Lae ; Shin, Gi-Hae ; Kim, Jae-Min ; Choi, Sun-Il ; Jung, Tae-Dong ; Kim, Young-Hyun ; Lee, Sang-Jong ; Lee, Bong Jin ; Park, Seon Ju ; Lee, Ok-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1504~1509
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.10.1504
The aim of this study was to investigate a validation method for determination of pectolinarin and pectolinarigenin in fermented Cirsium setidens Nakai. For validation, the specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, detection limits, and quantification limits of pectolinarin and pectolinarigenin were measured by HPLC. The results show that the detection limits of pectolinarin and pectolinarigenin were
, respectively. The recovery rates of pectolinarin and pectolinarigenin were high in the ranges of 99.7~104.0% and 99.7~102.4%, respectively. Inter-day and intra-day precisions of pectolinarin and pectolinarigenin in fermented Cirsium setidens Nakai were 0.9%, 0.5% and 0.5%, 0.2%, respectively. Therefore, application of pectolinarin and pectolinarigenin was validated by an analytical method as a marker compound in Cirsium setidens Nakai.
Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweet Persimmon Distilled Spirits
Ti, JingJing ; Kwak, HanSub ; Kim, Misook ; Lee, Youngseung ; Li, Chunmei ; Yu, Sungryul ; Yoon, Seongjun ; Shin, Sam Chul ; Choi, Geun Pyo ; Yim, Seoung Been ; Jeong, Yoonhwa ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1510~1516
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.10.1510
The objective of this study was to investigate the quality and sensory characteristics of sweet persimmon mashes and spirits fermented by three different yeasts [Saccharomyces species, labeled as LB (Lalvin BM
), LD (Lalvin DV10), and UC (Uvaferm CM)]. In the production of sweet persimmon wines, UC had the highest alcohol content of 10.20% (v/v) after 9 days of fermentation (P<0.05). The range of pH after fermentation was 3.63~3.75. The total aerobic bacteria and yeast contents increased until day 3 and then continuously decreased to approximately 8.60 log CFU/mL and 8.20 log CFU/mL, respectively. Reducing sugar contents were 3.37% in UC, 3.91% in LD, and 4.05% in LB after fermentation. Total sugar contents were 4.89% in UC, 6.24% in LD, and 5.47% in LB after fermentation. Two-stage single-pot distillation was conducted to produce sweet persimmon spirits. While conducting second distillation, spirits were collected every 100 mL fraction. The alcohol contents gradually decreased as more fractions were collected. The amounts of acetaldehyde were 226 mg/L for LD, 225 mg/L for LB, and 310 mg/L for UC in the first fraction. LD produced the highest volume (677.8 mL) of alcohol in its body part in comparison with LB (408.0 mL) and UC (445.4 mL). In the descriptive analysis, UC had stronger intensities of sweet aroma, sour aroma and taste, and persimmon flavor (P<0.05). Persimmon characteristics seemed to be well characterized by UC. In conclusion, LD was the most efficient in terms of production cost, whereas UC would be used to produce a more flavorful sweet persimmon spirit.
Storage Characteristics and Retrogradation Properties of Sulgidduk Added with Portulaca oleracea L.
Lee, Su Jin ; Lee, Bo Dam ; Jeon, Mi Ra ; Kim, Yu Jeong ; Kim, Mee Ree ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1517~1524
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.10.1517
The purpose of this study was to determine the storage characteristics of Sulgidduk, a kind of rice cake, added with Portulaca oleracea L. The effect of P. oleracea L. paste (0, 1, 3, or 5%) on the storage qualities of Sulgidduk was evaluated during storage period at
for 3 days. As the amount of P. oleracea L. paste increased, loss of water in P. oleracea L. Sulgidduk decreased. Textural properties by texture profile analysis showed that hardness of Sulgidduk added with 5% P. oleracea L. paste was the lowest among treated samples. However, the hardness of all Sulgidduks increased during storage, regardless of the addition amount of P. oleracea L. paste. In accordance with the texture results, differential scanning calorimetry exhibited that the enthalpy of Sulgidduk with 5% P. oleracea L. addition was the lowest, indicating the delaying effect of P. oleracea L. paste on retrogradation of rice cake. From these results, the addition of P. oleracea L. to Sulgidduk extended shelf-life by delaying retrogradation.
Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Doenjang Made with Various Concentrations of Salt Solution
Byun, Myung-Woo ; Nam, Tan-Gong ; Lee, Gyu-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1525~1530
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.10.1525
Doenjang made with various concentrations of salt solution such as 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18% for making low-salt Doenjang. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of Doenjang made with various concentrations of salt solution were analyzed. As a result, salt contents of Doenjang made with various concentrations of salt solution were 6.09~13.47%. Amino-type nitrogen showed a higher value when prepared with lower salt solution. The pH value increased with lower concentration of salt solution, whereas total acidity decreased with lower concentration of salt solution. The pH values and total acidity of Doenjang made with more than 16% salt solution were not statistically different. The reducing sugar content ranged from 1.39~6.30 mg/g, and higher salt content was associated with higher reducing sugar content. In the sensory descriptive analysis, Doenjang had the most salty taste at a salt concentration of 18%, whereas Doenjang at concentrations of 15%, 16%, and 17% did not show any statistical differences. In the consumer acceptance test, Doenjang made with 17% and 18% salt solution showed the highest score, followed by Doenjang made with 15% and 16% salt solution. In conclusion, the salty taste of Doenjang made with 16% salt solution might be used to make low-salt Doenjang. However, consumer acceptance of these Doenjangs was lower than that of Doenjang made with 17% and 18% salt solution.
Effects of Temperature and Alcohol Contents on Quality of Takju during Storage Period
Seo, Seung-Ho ; Park, Seong-Eun ; Yoo, Seon-A ; Son, Hong-Seok ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1531~1537
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.10.1531
This study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics of Takju under different storage temperatures (
) and alcohol contents (6%, 8%, 10%, and 12%) during 90 days of storage. The counts of yeast were lower in Takju samples stored at
than in those stored at
after 90 days of storage. No significant differences were observed for total acidity and free amino acid contents in Takju stored at
during 90 days of storage. Lactic acid contents in Takju stored at
changed little after 90 days of storage from 1,883.5 mg/L to 1,914.6 mg/L, whereas those in Takju stored at
increased to 4,736.1 mg/L after storage. Free amino acid contents in Takju stored at
increased after 90 days of storage regardless of alcohol content. Thus, we concluded that the shelf-life of Takju could be extended more than 30 days, currently the most common shelf-life of Takju, when stored at
Preparation of Fermented Sauces with Increased ACE Inhibitory and Antioxidative Activities
Shin, Yu-Jin ; Kim, Min Hwa ; Lee, Chang-Kwon ; Kim, Hyun-Jin ; Kim, Hyoun-Sung ; Seo, Han-Geuk ; Lee, Seung-Cheol ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1538~1542
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.10.1538
For development of premium sauce, fermented sauces containing ferment (with wheat flour and soybean) and extract(s) of Styela clava (Korean name: miduduk) tunic and/or mulberry leaves and/or onion were prepared, and their angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities were evaluated. All sauces containing extract(s) showed increased ACE inhibitory and DPPH radical scavenging activities. Especially, sauces containing extracts of mulberry leaves and onion showed superior activities, with 26.92% and 40.66% relatively increased ACE inhibitory and DPPH radical scavenging activities, respectively, compared to control (no extract was added). These results suggest that extracts of mulberry leaves and onion could improve antihypertensive and antioxidant activities of fermented sauce.
Optimal Conditions for Anthocyanin Extraction from Black Rice Bran and Storage Stability of Anthocyanin Extract
Kim, Hyo Ju ; Wee, Ji-Hyang ; Yang, Eun Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1543~1549
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.10.1543
Black rice bran, a by-product from rice milling process, is a good natural source of anthocyanin pigment. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum conditions for anthocyanin extraction from black rice bran as well as the stability of anthocyanin extract according to different storage temperatures. The main anthocyanin in 'Heugkwang' rice bran was identified as cyanidine-3-glucoside (C3G) by HPLC and LC-MS/MS. The yield and C3G content of black rice bran extract were investigated with various extraction solvents, temperatures, and times. The results indicate that the optimum extraction solvent, temperature, and time were 50% ethanol,
, and 2 h, respectively. The stability of anthocyanin extract was studied during a storage period of 168 days at various temperatures (
, and room temperature). Hunter's values (L, a, and b) of anthocyanin extract increased, whereas C3G content continuously decreased up to 168 days. Variations in Hunter's values and C3G content become larger as storage temperature increased. Anthocyanin extract from black rice bran was very stable, as C3G content after storage at all temperatures was maintained at more than 90% of initial content. These results suggest that anthocyanin extract from black rice bran may be useful as a natural food colorant.
Development Process for Decreasing Bitterness of Doraji (Platycodon grandiflorum)
Chang, Yoon-Je ; Kim, Eunmi ; Choi, Yun-Sang ; Jeon, Ki-Hong ; Kim, Young-Boong ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1550~1557
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.10.1550
This study was conducted to evaluate the improvement effects of bitter taste of doraji (Platycodon grandiflorum) with different freezing temperature conditions (
). After freezing for 4 h, frozen doraji was thawed and dehydrated. Doraji frozen at
showed higher contents of crude fat, crude protein, crude ash, crude fiber, and nitrogen free extract. Moisture, crude saponin, and total polyphenol contents of doraji frozen at
were higher than in other samples. Weight loss of doraji was significantly different as freezing temperature decreased and the process repeated. Doraji frozen at
showed higher contents of saponin and phenol than the control. Hardness of doraji increased as freezing temperature decreased. According to the preference test, Doraji frozen at
showed higher preference and less bitter taste intensity than other samples. These results mean that doraji frozen at
with less bitter taste could be utilized widely as a food material.
Dietitians' Perception of Importance about Standards of Foodservice Management Associated with Long-Term Care Hospital Accreditation
Lee, Joo-eun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1558~1566
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.10.1558
The purpose of this study was to examine dietitians' perception of importance about standards of foodservice management associated with long-term care hospital accreditation. This study was carried out through a postal survey consisting of 500 questionnaires, and 157 returned questionnaires were used in the statistical analysis. The results were summarized as follows. Average scores of perception of importance were 4.54/5 points in foodservice production management domain, 4.56/5 points in foodservice facilities management domain, and 4.70/5 points in foodservice sanitation domain. The average scores of importance of long-term care hospitals without accreditation were significantly (P<0.05) lower than those of hospitals with accreditation in items of 'establishment of ventilation equipment in kitchen', 'establishment of hand-washstand in toilet (warm-water, soap)', 'setup of sterilizing foothold in entrance of kitchen and toilet', 'division and use of knife, chopping board, gloves, and utensils before and after cook', 'establishment of cleaning plan and cyclic practice', and 'recording of receiving diary'. Results indicate that there is a need to supplement a casebook of regulations by suggesting detailed and critical limits in the case of below average points of importance. A manual, including HACCP standards for foodservice management of long-term care hospitals, is needed, along with education and webpage for comparing notes on accreditation of long-term care hospitals.
Use and Perception of Environmentally-Friendly Ingredients by Dietitians in Chungbuk
Jung, Sang Hee ; Lee, Young Eun ; Park, Eun Hye ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1567~1582
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.10.1567
The purpose of this study was to examine the status of environmentally-friendly ingredients and dietitians' perceptions toward them in order to find for improvement. Data was collected from questionnaires completed by 202 school dietitians and nutrition teachers in Chungbuk, and this data was analyzed utilizing the SPSS 20.0 program. The results obtained from this study were as follows: 'mixed grains (58.9%)' and 'eggs (36.6%)' were found to be the most used environmentally-friendly ingredients. 81.7% of the respondents said they 'never used' marine products, whereas 'fruits (43.6%)', 'pork (40.8%)', and 'fish (54.5%)' were the most preferred ingredients. Dietitians and nutrition teachers used environmentally-friendly marine products less than other ingredients, had a poor understanding about environmentally-friendly marine products, and demonstrated low reliability and belief in the necessity of the system. In order to verify the environmentally-friendly status of the ingredients, marks on the product and documents of certification were mostly used. In order to improve the supply system, a more strict tracking system in the distribution process by securing more reliable suppliers is required.
Comparison of Protective Effects of Young and Ripened Persimmon Extracts against Inflammatory Stress Induced by Deoxycholic Acid in Small Intestinal Cells
Kim, Leeseon ; Kwon, Oran ; Kim, Ji Yeon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1583~1587
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.10.1583
Bile acids are endogenous metabolites that aid in the digestion and absorption of ingested fat and fat-soluble vitamins. However, high concentrations of deoxycholic acid (DCA) in the colon are associated with high incidence of colorectal cancer. In the present study, the binding of persimmon extracts to DCA in order to decrease inflammatory stress induced by DCA in a small intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2, was investigated. Young and ripened persimmons were extracted with distilled water (DW), ethanol, and acidic ethanol. Further, DW extract residue was re-extracted with acidic ethanol. Of the obtained extracts, acidic ethanol extract of young persimmon showed the highest bile-acid binding capacity. Moreover, acidic ethanol extract of young persimmon significantly inhibited nitric oxide production in Caco-2 cells stimulated with DCA and prevented significant reduction of trans-epithelial electric resistance. Based on these results, acidic ethanol extract of young persimmon can be used as a functional ingredient to enhance gastrointestinal health.
Analysis of Functional Constituents of Mulberries (Morus alba L.) Cultivated in a Greenhouse and Open Field during Maturation
Kim, Ha Yun ; Lee, Ji Young ; Hwang, In Guk ; Han, Hye Min ; Park, Bo Ram ; Han, Gui Jung ; Park, Jong Tae ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1588~1593
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.10.1588
Contents of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and anthocyanins of mulberries (Morus alba L.) cultivated in a greenhouse (GH) and open field (OF) were evaluated by HPLC during maturation. In the case of phenolic acids, caffeic acid (
), coumaric acid (
), ferulic acid (
), and sinapic acid (
) were detected. The major phenolic acid was caffeic acid, and its content increased in the initial stage and decreased in the last stage. The phenolic acid content of OF mulberries was higher than that of GH mulberries. Contents of two major flavonoids, quercetin, and kaempferol, were
, respectively. Quercetin content decreased with maturation stage, whereas kaempferol content remained constant in GH mulberries but increased in OF mulberries. In the case of cultivation methods, quercetin content of OF mulberries was higher than that of GH mulberries. Contents of cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, and pelargonidin were
, respectively. Anthocyanin content increased with maturation stage, and anthocyanin content of OF mulberries was higher than that of GH mulberries. OF mulberries in the last stage of maturation had higher contents of functional substances than other conditions.
Effects of Acidic Treatments for Anthocyanin and Proanthocyanidin Extraction on Black Bean (Glycine max Merrill.)
Ji, Yeong Mi ; Kim, Min Young ; Lee, Sang Hoon ; Jang, Gwi Yeong ; Li, Meishan ; Yoon, Nara ; Kim, Kyung Mi ; Lee, Junsoo ; Jeong, Heon Sang ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1594~1598
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.10.1594
This study was performed to investigate the effects of various acidic treatment for anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin extraction from black bean. Extracts were prepared with 80% methanol solutions containing HCl, acetic, formic, phosphoric, and citric acids of different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7%). Total anthocyanin content ranged from 0.74 mg/g in 0.7% citric acid to 1.74 mg/g in 0.3% HCl, depending on acid type and concentration. The major anthocyanins were delphinidin-3-glucoside (D3G), cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), and petunidin-3-glucoside (Pt3G). The highest C3G content was 1.12 mg/g in 0.3% HCl. Proanthocyanidin content ranged from 2.01 mg/g in 0.5% acetic acid to 5.29 mg/g in 0.3% HCl. Thus, acidic condition is a significant factor affecting anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin extraction from black bean, and the optimum extraction conditions were determined as 80% methanol containing 0.3% HCl.