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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 44, Issue 12 - Dec 2015
Volume 44, Issue 11 - Nov 2015
Volume 44, Issue 10 - Oct 2015
Volume 44, Issue 9 - Sep 2015
Volume 44, Issue 8 - Aug 2015
Volume 44, Issue 7 - Jul 2015
Volume 44, Issue 6 - Jun 2015
Volume 44, Issue 5 - May 2015
Volume 44, Issue 4 - Apr 2015
Volume 44, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 44, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 44, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
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Effects of Root of Taraxacum coreanum Nakai on the Inhibition of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Induced by Lipopolysaccharide in ICR Mice
Cho, Byung-Je ; Kim, Mijeong ; Song, Yeong Ok ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1763~1770
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.12.1763
The effects of root of Taraxacum coreanum Nakai (TC), on the suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in ICR mice were studied. LPS (10 mg/kg body weight) was injected into ICR mice in between two consecutive oral administrations. Hot water extract of fresh TC (HWETC) was administered to mice immediately before and 24 h after LPS injection. The animal groups used in this study were as follows: NOR group (PBS injection, DW administration), CON group (LPS injection, DW administration), and TC group (LPS injection, 1.4 g/kg bw of HWETC administration). Mice in the CON group lost weight due to inflammation induced by LPS, while the body weight of the TC group mice increased significantly, indicating that inflammation was inhibited by HWETC administration. Compare with the CON group, plasma and hepatic triglyceride, reactive oxygen species, peroxynitrite, and hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentrations of the TC group decreased significantly (P<0.05). The protein expression of a pro-inflammatory transcription factor, nuclear
) and its target enzyme, cyclooxygenase 2, increased in response to LPS injection, but was suppressed by HWETC administration (P<0.05). In conclusion, HWETC appears to ameliorate the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses induced by LPS via inhibition of
Anti-Obesity Effect of Fermented Detoxified Rhus verniciflua Vinegar Supplementation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats
Cheong, So Ra ; Kim, Ranseon ; Park, Yoo Kyoung ; Baek, SeongYeol ; Yeo, Soo-Hwan ; Lee, ChoongHwan ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1771~1778
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.12.1771
The study aimed to investigate the anti-obesity effects of 1% Rhus verniciflua vinegar (RV) supplementation in high-fat-diet (60% fat)-induced obese rats. A total of 50 4-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal chow diet or maintained on high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to induce obesity and were then randomized into five groups as follows: normal diet+ultra-pure water (CON), HFD+ultra-pure water (OB-DW), HFD+1% acetic acid (OBAA), HFD+1% RV (OB-RV), and HFD+0.1% caffeine (OB-CF). AA was used as a control for RV, and caffeine was used as a positive control due to its weight reducing effect. After 2 months, body weight, organ and adipose tissue weights, serum lipids, hepatic lipids, adipocyte size, and cell number per spot level were analyzed. As a result, food efficiency ratio, abdominal adipose tissue weight, serum levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, free fatty acids, coronary artery index, and fecal lipid were significantly reduced in the RV treatment group. In this study, we found that dietary RV improved obesity by increasing lipid excretion and reducing lipogenesis. These results suggest that RV has potential as a functional anti-obesity food.
Effects of Various Garlic (Allium sativum) Extracts on Cholesterol Synthesis in HepG2 Cells
Jung, Suhan ; Lee, Sang Hoon ; Ko, Kwang Suk ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1779~1784
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.12.1779
This study was performed to investigate the effects of various garlic extracts on cholesterol synthesis in HepG2 cells. Raw garlic, grilled garlic, and freeze dried garlic were subjected to cold water extraction, and extracts were incubated at room temperature for 1 min or 60 min. The extracts were treated to HepG2 cells for 4 h, and cholesterol synthesis and mRNA expression level of HMG-CoA reductase were investigated. The alliin contents were reduced when garlic was incubated at room temperature for 60 min. Raw garlic extracts showed lower intracellular cholesterol contents compared to that of the control group. However, raw garlic extracts incubated for 60 min showed no differences compared to the control group. Freeze-dried garlic extract showed minimum intracellular triglyceride and cholesterol contents. Relative mRNA expression level of HMG-CoA reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis, decreased in the garlic extracts. Compared with 60 min, garlic extracts incubated for 1 min showed a reduced level of HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expression. The freeze-dried garlic extract reduced mRNA expression level of HMG-CoA reductase in a dose-dependent manner in cells treated with 5% of 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/mL in medium, and the effect was maxed out at dose of 5% garlic extract at 1.0 mg/mL in medium.
Anti-Diabetic, Alcohol Metabolizing Enzyme, and Hepatoprotective Activity of Acer tegmentosum Maxim. Stem Extracts
Cho, Eun Kyung ; Jung, Kyung Im ; Choi, Young Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1785~1792
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.12.1785
This study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic, alcohol metabolism, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective effects of Acer tegmentosum extracts (ATE). A. tegmentosum has been traditionally used as a folk medicine to treat hepatic disorders. The antioxidative activities of ATE were measured by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and superoxide (SOD) assay. DPPH radical scavenging and SOD activities of ATE were about 89% and 82.9% at
, respectively. Alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activities were 118.0% and 177% at 2 mg/mL, respectively.
inhibitory activity of ATE was 75% higher at
and remarkably increased in a dose-dependent manner. Nitric oxide productions in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide was reduced to 16.7% by addition of ATE at 1 mg/mL. ATE showed significant protective effects against tacrine-induced cytotoxicity in Hep G2 cells at
. Based on our results, we conclude that ATE may be used as a major pharmacological agent and anti-diabetic, anti-hepatitis, and anti-inflammatory remedy.
Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Solvent Extracts from Coriolus versicolor
Han, So-Ra ; Noh, Min-Young ; Lee, Joo-Ho ; Oh, Tae-Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1793~1798
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.12.1793
Antioxidant activities of various solvent extracts from Coriolus versicolor were investigated for their total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) cation radical scavenging activity. C. versicolor extracts were produced by organic solvents such as ethanol, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents in the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts were higher than those in the methanol extract. DPPH radical scavenging activity of methanol extract showed the highest value of 80.3%, which was similar to that of ascorbic acid (85.5%). All extracts showed good (>90.0%) ABTS cation radical scavenging activity. The antimicrobial activities of these extracts from C. versicolor were evaluated against six strains of bacteria using the disc diffusion method. All extracts showed antimicrobial activities against all tested bacteria except Staphylococcus aureus. These results indicate that various extracts from C. versicolor could be useful as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.
Comparison of Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activities of Naturally-Fermented Commercial Rice Vinegars Produced in Korea, China, and Japan
Chung, Namhyeok ; Jo, Yunhee ; Gao, Yaping ; Gu, Song-Yi ; Jeong, Yong-Jin ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1799~1805
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.12.1799
Rice vinegar (RV) is primarily made from fermented rice or rice wine in Korea, China, and Japan. Ten commercially available naturally-fermented rice vinegars produced in Korea (KRV1~4), China (CRV1~2), and Japan (JRV1~4) were comparatively investigated for their physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities. KRV showed a significantly higher total acidity range (5.07~6.27) than both CRV (4.67~4.84) and JRV (4.64~4.84). These acidity ranges corresponded with respective standards of each country: Korea (Food Code), China (GB), and Japan (JAS). Six different organic acids were detected in RVs; acetic acid and succinic acid were the most prominent. Thirty different amino acids were detected in RVs, and main identified amino acids were alanine (KRV), phenylalanine and aspartic acid (CRV), and leucine and alanine (JRV).
acid was detected at high concentration in KRV1. KRV1 showed maximum total phenolic content, and DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of samples were also determined with significantly increasing tendency. KRV1 (produced from brown rice with aging period of >1 year) exhibited the highest free amino acid content and antioxidant activity as compared to CRV and JRV.
Comparison of Lipid Content and Monounsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Beef by Country of Origin and Marbling Score
Kwon, Ha Na ; Choi, Chang Bon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1806~1812
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.12.1806
This study was conducted to compare moisture, crude protein, ether extracts, fatty acid composition, and melting point of beef with different origins. Eighty (80) samples of domestic Hanwoo beef with different marbling scores (BMS) of 3, 5, 7, and 9, respectively (20 samples for each BMS) and 30 samples of imported beef (15 samples each of American and Australian beef) were used. Relationship of fatty acid composition with melting point of lipids was also analyzed. Percentages of ether extract of Hanwoo beef with BMS of 3, 5, 7, and 9 as well as American and Australian beef were 11.91, 13.23, 17.03, 23.92, 8.36, and 4.47%, respectively, with the highest value in Hanwoo with BMS of 9 and lowest value in Australian beef. Percentages of oleic acid (C18:1n9), the most abundant monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) in beef, were 44.92, 47.19, 46.23, 47.70, 43.70, and 38.28%. MUFA/saturated fatty acid (SFA) (M/S) ratios were 1.15, 1.25, 1.22, 1.27, 1.10, and 0.86, respectively. The melting point of lipids extracted from beef samples was the lowest (
) in Hanwoo with BMS of 9, whereas it was highest (
) in Australian beef. SFAs such as myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and total SFA in beef samples showed positive (+) correlations (r=0.203, 0.279, 0.807, and 0.880, respectively) with melting points, whereas MUFAs, palmitoleic acid (C16:1), oleic acid (C18:1n9), and total MUFA, showed negative (-) correlations (r=-0.541, -0.857, and -0.906, respectively). In conclusion, as the lipid contents of beef increased, composition of oleic acid (C18:1n9) increased. Furthermore, as BMS increased in Hanwoo beef, M/S was increased.
Oxidative Stability of Grape Seed Oil by Addition of Grape Seed Extract
Jang, Sungho ; Lee, Junsoo ; Choi, Won-Seok ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1813~1818
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.12.1813
Grape seed extract (GSE) was added to grape seed oil to improve the oxidative stability of the grape seed oil during storage. To measure the oxidative stability of grape seed oil, peroxide value, acid value, and conjugated diene value were measured, and changes in browning, vitamin E, fatty acid composition, and polyphenol content of oil were examined. In the case of grape seed oil with GSE, peroxide value, acid value, and conjugated diene value were lower than those of grape seed oil. The magnitude of increase in absorbance of grape seed oil with GSE was less than that of additive-free grape seed oil, whereas the magnitude of decrease in vitamin E isomers in grape seed oil with GSE was less than that of grape seed oil with no additive. Changes in fatty acid composition were also similar. However, polyphenol contents showed the greatest reduction in grape seed oil containing GSE. GSE contributes to the oxidation stability of grape seed oil, but the antioxidant capacity of GSE was lower than that of butylated hydroxytoluene.
Effect of Hydrocolloids on Physicochemical Properties of Bread Flour Dough with Rice Flour
Kim, Yang-Hoon ; Lee, Jeong-Hoon ; Chung, Koo Chun ; Lee, Si-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1819~1825
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.12.1819
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of hydrocolloids [hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), xanthan gum (XG), guar gum (GG), and glucomannan (GM)] on the physicochemical properties of bread flour dough containing rice flour. In amylograph analysis, the significantly lowest gelatinization temperature was obtained in dough with XG (P<0.05). XG revealed the highest maximum viscosity while GM revealed the lowest. In viscograph test, the lowest gelatinization temperature and maximum viscosity showed the same result as in the amylograph. Breakdown value was also highest in dough containing XG, but lowest in the control and dough containing HPMC. Setback value was highest in dough containing HPMC, but lowest in dough containing XG. In farinograph analysis, consistency was greatest in dough with HPMC and XG. Hydrocolloids affected water absorption, which was highest in dough containing GM. Development times of dough containing HPMC and XG were low. Stability was lowest in dough with XG. Degree of softening was reduced in dough containing HPMC and GG compared to the control but increased in dough containing XG and GM. Dough containing HPMC and GG showed the largest volume at 3 h of fermentation. Dough with HPMC showed the lowest pH value. Hydrocolloids in this study affected physicochemical properties of dough.
Quality Characteristics of Bread with Burdock (Arctium lappa L.) Powder
Tae, Mi Hwa ; Kim, Kyoung-Hee ; Yook, Hong-Sun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1826~1831
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.12.1826
The study investigated the quality characteristics of white breads prepared 0, 5, 10, and 15% burdock (Arctium lappa L.) powder. Density of the dough was reduced with increasing burdock powder content, whereas pH of the dough increased with increasing content of burdock powder. The baking loss rate of bread decreased as the amount of burdock powder increased. As powder concentration increased, L and a values of crust and L value of crumb decreased, whereas a and b values of crumb increased. The hardness and chewiness of breads increased upon addition of burdock powder, whereas fracturability, cohesiveness, and springiness decreased. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and total polyphenol contents were significantly elevated by addition of burdock powder (P<0.05). In a sensory evaluation, color and flavor were highest in the control group while sweet taste, savory taste, moistness, and chewiness were lowest. The overall acceptability of bread added with 5% burdock powder was higher than both the control and other samples.
Effect of Carrot Powder on Anti-Oxidative and Quality Characteristics of Perilla-Dasik
Han, Jung-Ah ; Jin, Ha-Kyung ; Bi, Hai Xiang ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1832~1838
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.12.1832
Carrot powder was added at different levels (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%) to Perilla-Dasik, and its effects on the physical and antioxidant properties of Dasik were measured. For texture characteristics, hardness, cohesiveness, and chewiness of Dasik slightly increased as carrot powder content increased. For color properties, both
(yellowness) values increased as carrot powder content increased. Anti-oxidative effects, as measured by acid value, peroxide value, and free radical scavenging activity, were greater in samples containing carrot powder compared to control. In the sensory test, Dasik with carrot powder was more preferred than control (without carrot powder). Based on these results, 20% addition of carrot powder in the formulation was the most acceptable for Dasik.
Effects of Different Cultivars and Milling Degrees on Quality Characteristics of Barley Makgeolli
Park, Hye-Young ; Choi, Induck ; Oh, Sea Kwan ; Woo, Koan Sik ; Yoon, Soon Duck ; Kim, Hyun-Joo ; Sim, Eun-Yeong ; Jeong, Seok Tae ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1839~1846
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.12.1839
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cultivar and milling degree of barley on quality characteristics of Makgeolli as well as compare differences between barley Makgeolli and rice Makgeolli. Saessal-bori groups (Ss-4, Ss-12, and Ss-18) showed dry lees contents of 92.3 g, 69.4 g, and 63.8 g, respectively, whereas Huinchalssal-bori groups (Hcs-6, Hcs-14, and Hcs-20) showed contents of 62.3 g, 42.2 g, and 32.2 g. There were significant differences in quality characteristics between milling degrees and cultivars (P<0.05). The moisture, ash, crude protein, and crude fat contents of raw materials decreased with elevated milling degree. Especially, ash content of raw materials had a direct effect on Makgeolli. The pH, total acidity, and amino acidity milling with elevated decreased degree. There were no differences in total sugar or alcohol content in Makgeolli according to milling degree of barley, whereas there were significant differences between cultivars. Barley Makgeolli showed total sugar and alcohol contents of
and 14.07~15.07%, respectively, which were significantly lower than
and 17.27~17.77% in rice Makgeolli (P<0.05). Differences in colors of raw barley according to milling degree had effects on chromaticity of Makgeolli; as milling degree increased, L and b values increased. Lactic acid bacteria counts were 7.21, 6.99, and 6.67 log CFU/mL in Ss-4, Ss-12, and Ss-18, respectively, as well as 6.14, 5.39, and 5.65 log CFU/mL in Hcs-6, Hcs-14, and Hcs-20, which suggests significant reductions with increased milling degree (P<0.05). The same trend was observed in yeast as a key quality of Makgeolli. Suspension stability differed depending on milling degree, so it is expected that suspension stability can be improved by adjusting milling degree.
Effect of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide on Physicochemical Properties and Microbial Reduction of Freeze-Dried Bovine Liver
Kim, Hye-Min ; Woo, Sung-Woon ; Kim, Ah-Na ; Heo, Ho-Jin ; Chun, Ji-Yeon ; Choi, Sung-Gil ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1847~1855
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.12.1847
Supercritical carbon dioxide (
) treatment has been becoming an important method for substituting the use of organic solvents for samples extraction prior to analysis due to its low toxicity, ease of handling, low cost of disposal etc. Freeze-dried bovine liver was treated with
under different pressures (200, 300, and 450 bar) in order to investigate effects on physicochemical properties and reduction of microbial load. The yield of lipid extraction from bovine liver by
treatment increased with increasing pressure, with values of 84, 86, and 90% in response to 200, 300, and 450 bar, respectively. Results of high performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that vitamin A and coenzyme
), which is soluble in lipid, were almost removed from bovine liver by
treatment. Saturated fatty acids ratio of bovine liver decreased with increasing pressure, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids increased with increasing pressure. Total content of amino acids in bovine liver treated by
was less than that of the control sample without treatment. The number of aerobic bacteria in bovine liver, which was stored at
for 5 days and freeze-dried, decreased from 6.2 to 4.2 log CFU/g by
treatment at 100 bar for 3 h. Interestingly, coliform bacteria were not found in the bovine liver sample by
at 100 bar for 3 h under all storage conditions. This indicates that
treatment can effectively reduce coliform bacteria in the food matrix even at low moisture. In conclusion, freeze-dried bovine liver by proper
treatment may be used as a potential high protein source, with increasing microbial safety and stability of lipid oxidation.
Nutrient Intake Status of Male and Female University Students in Chuncheon Area
Kim, Yoon-Sun ; Kim, Bok-Ran ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1856~1864
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.12.1856
The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutrient intake status of university students in Chuncheon area (175 males and 131 females). This study was conducted by employing a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary assessment was measured by a 24-h recall method. The average height and weight of male students were
, respectively. For female students, average values were
, respectively. The mean BMIs for both male and female students were 22.2 and 21.1, respectively. In both male and female students, the rate of skipping breakfast was high. Daily averages for energy, carbohydrates, protein, and fat intakes in male students were significantly higher than those of female students (P<0.001). For male students, protein, vitamin B1, P, Fe, and Na were above recommended nutrient intake and adequate intake, whereas for female students, they were protein, vitamin A, P, and Na. For male students, nutrient intakes for Ca, vitamin
, vitamin C, and vitamin
were below the estimated average requirement (EAR) by at least 50% or more, whereas for female students, they were vitamin C, Fe, vitamin
, niacin, folate, and Ca. Ca was alarmingly low, with more than 75% of both male and female students showing levels below the EAR. Therefore, it is important that nutritional education be facilitated for college students to take responsibility of their own health through learning about nutrient intake as well as developing positive eating habits.
Consumer Perceptions and Attitudes towards Reducing Sugar Intake
Kim, Eunmi ; Ahn, Jee Ahe ; Jang, Jong Keun ; Lee, Min A ; Seo, Sang Hee ; Lee, Eun-Jung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1865~1872
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.12.1865
This study attempted to investigate consumer perceptions and attitudes towards reducing sugar intake by providing data to develop guidelines for the government and food-related industries to encourage Korean consumers to maintain appropriate levels of sugar intake. A survey was conducted on 238 adult consumers regarding their purchasing power for products with high sugar content in Seoul and Bundang, Gyeonggi area from September 1~30, 2013. Nutritional information on sugary products had a greater impact than media and others' recommendations on consumer awareness regarding need to reduce sugar intake. External factors such as health and weight control were stronger reasons for consuming reduced amounts of sugar or sugar-free products than internal factors such as sweetness. However, internal factors-such as taste-did not have a greater effect on consuming reduced amounts of sugar or sugar-free products than environmental factors-such as absence of purchase channels. Consumers indicated higher acceptance for 50% reduction in sweetness of existing commercial products. Regarding methods of lowering sugar intake, sugar replacement and reducing sugar consumption both generally and at home were preferred. In addition, consumers were likely to pay 10~14% more for sugar-reduced products than for existing products. Overall, consumers expressed positive attitudes towards reducing sugar intake in the future, although those in their twenties tended to be more passive than other age groups.
Importance-Performance and Willingness to Purchase Analyses of Home Meal Replacement Using Eco-Friendly Food Ingredients in Undergraduates according to Gender
Jeong, Young-Gil ; Lee, In-Seon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1873~1880
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.12.1873
The purpose of this study was to survey intention to purchase home meal replacement (HMR) made with eco-friendly food ingredients as well as need for development while analyzing importance and performance of HMR made with eco-friendly ingredients for its commercialization. From September 2014 to March 2015, questionnaires were filled out by respondents. Of the 422 questionnaires that were returned, 412 were used with 10 discarded as incomplete. Regarding reasons behind purchasing HMR, the highest percentages of both males and females answered 'ready to eat'. Almost all respondents spent 'less than 10,000 won' each time they purchased HMR. Regarding place they bought HMR, a higher percentage of respondents answered 'convenience store' and 'discount retail chain store'. In terms of improvements needed for HMR, the highest percentage of males answered 'development of a variety of menus' while the highest percentage of females answered 'change in food ingredients' at 37.7%. For development of HMR made with eco-friendly ingredients, most respondents replied that there is a need for development. Regarding intention for purchasing HMR made with eco-friendly ingredients, 66.7% of males and 73.5% of females answered they have intention to buy. Important performance analysis showed a need to improve performance of 'safety of food ingredients', which was located close to the second quadrant. To improve performance for 'safety of food ingredients', safety must be ensured through use of eco-friendly ingredients, and a systematic process for managing hazardous materials that could arise during the manufacturing process has to be developed.
Task Satisfaction, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover Intension of Center for Children's Foodservice Management Employees
Park, Eun Hye ; Lee, Young Eun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1881~1894
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.12.1881
The objective of this study was to provide information on difficulty of performing tasks, degree of task satisfaction, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention as well as investigate correlations among these factors. Data were collected on employees working at Centers for Children's Foodservice Management, which had been operating for over 6 months until December 2013. The recruitment period was from December 16, 2013 to January 30, 2014. A total of 228 employees (79.7%) participated in the study, and 227 completed questionnaires were analyzed. Statistical analyses were performed on the data utilizing the SPSS V20.0 and AMOS V21.0 programs. The main results of this study were as follows: task satisfaction of employees in charge of 'visiting-teaching' for children was highest (4.24 points), whereas that of employees in charge of financial management was lowest (2.92 points). In terms of evaluation of job satisfaction factors, the score of 'co-worker' was highest (3.99 points) while that of 'payment' was lowest (2.45 points). Average scores of general job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention were 3.56 points, 3.54 points, and 3.07 points, respectively. Job achievement was the most significant influencing factor on general job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention. According to the path analysis results, the degree of task satisfaction affected job satisfaction. Organizational commitment had a more significant effect on turnover intention than job satisfaction and mediate both job satisfaction and turnover intention. Although employees of CCFSMs endeavor to improve the quality of child-care facility foodservice, some facilities do not. Controlling turnover intention of employees is especially critical for CCFSMs since it is important for each employees to form strong bonds with child-care facilities as well as to shorten the time required to train new employees. Thus, job satisfaction, which is related to organizational commitment and turnover intention, can be improved by considering poorly scored job satisfaction factors such as wage or workload.
Analysis of Foodborne Pathogens in Food and Environmental Samples from Foodservice Establishments at Schools in Gyeonggi Province
Oh, Tae Young ; Baek, Seung-Youb ; Koo, Minseon ; Lee, Jong-Kyung ; Kim, Seung Min ; Park, Kyung-Min ; Hwang, Daekeun ; Kim, Hyun Jung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1895~1904
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.12.1895
Foodborne illness associated with food service establishments is an important food safety issue in Korea. In this study, foodborne pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, pathogenic Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) and hygiene indicator organisms [total viable cell counts (TVC), coliforms] were analyzed for food and environmental samples from foodservice establishments at schools in Gyeonggi province. Virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance of detected foodborne pathogens were also characterized. A total of 179 samples, including food (n=66), utensil (n=68), and environmental samples (n=45), were collected from eight food service establishments at schools in Gyeonggi province. Average contamination levels of TVC for foods (including raw materials) and environmental samples were 4.7 and 4.0 log CFU/g, respectively. Average contamination levels of coliforms were 2.7 and 4.0 log CFU/g for foods and environmental swab samples, respectively. B. cereus contamination was detected in food samples with an average of 2.1 log CFU/g. E. coli was detected only in raw materials, and S. aureus was positive in raw materials as well as environmental swab samples. Other foodborne pathogens were not detected in all samples. The entire B. cereus isolates possessed at least one of the diarrheal toxin genes (hblACD, nheABC, entFM, and cytK enterotoxin gene). However, ces gene encoding emetic toxin was not detected in B. cereus isolates. S. aureus isolates (n=16) contained at least one or more of the tested enterotoxin genes, except for tst gene. For E. coli and S. aureus, 92.7% and 37.5% of the isolates were susceptible against 16 and 19 antimicrobials, respectively. The analyzed microbial hazards could provide useful information for quantitative microbial risk assessment and food safety management system to control foodborne illness outbreaks in food service establishments.
Antimelanogenic Effect of Purpurogallin in Murine Melanoma Cells
Kim, Han-Hyuk ; Kim, Tae Hoon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1905~1911
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.12.1905
Melanin is one of the most important factors affecting skin color. Melanogenesis is the bioprocess of melanin production by melanocytes in the skin and hair follicles and is mediated by several enzymes, such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein (TRP)-1, and TRP-2. Convenient enzymatic transformation of the simple phenol pyrogallol with polyphenol oxidase originating from pear to an oxidative product, purpurogallin, was efficient. The structure of the pyrogallol oxidation product was identified on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The biotransformation product purpurogallin showed significant inhibitory effects against both melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner in B16 melanoma cells. In addition, purpurogallin significantly attenuated melanin production by inhibiting TRP-1, and TRP-2 expression through modulation of their corresponding transcription factors, and microphthalamia- associated transcription factor in B16 cells. Consequently, purpurogallin derived from convenient enzymatic transformation of pyrogallol might be a beneficial material for reducing skin hyperpigmentation.
Secondary Metabolites from Enzymatic Oxidation of Caffeic Acid with Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity
Kim, Tae Hoon ; Kim, Myoung Kwon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1912~1917
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.12.1912
Pancreatic lipase is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of diet-induced obesity in humans. As part of our continuing search for novel bioactive compounds, the convenient enzymatic transformation of caffeic acid into neolignans as well as related oxidized-products enhanced pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity. Enzymatic transformation of caffeic acid (1) using polyphenol oxidase originating from Korean pear yielded four oxidized metabolites, which were identified by different spectroscopic techniques (
COSY, HMBC, HMQC, and NOESY). The anti-obesity efficacy of caffeic acid reactant was tested by in vitro porcine pancreatic lipase assay. All tested samples showed dose-dependent pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities. Four oxidative products including phellinsin A (2), caffeicinic acid (3), isocaffeicinic acid (4), and 7,8-erythro-caffeicin (5) were isolated and identified. The major metabolites (2~5) were evaluated for their pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity, and oxidized-products (2~3) improved potency against pancreatic lipase when compared to original caffeic acid. This result suggested that the neolignans isolated from oxidative transformation of caffeic acid might be beneficial in the treatment of obesity and relevant diseases, and the convenient enzymatic transformation by polyphenol oxidase may be a valuable method for structural modification and enhancement of activity.
Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Properties of Yanggaeng Supplemented with Hallabong Powder
Kim, Hyun Eun ; Lim, Jeong Ah ; Lee, Jun Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1918~1922
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.12.1918
The feasibility of incorporating Hallabong powder (HP) as a value-added food ingredient into convenient food products was investigated using yanggaeng as a model system. HP was incorporated into yanggaeng at amounts of 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% (w/w) based on total weight of cooked white beans and HP. pH level decreased while soluble solid content increased significantly with increasing levels of HP (P<0.05), whereas moisture content was not directly affected by level of HP incorporation. In terms of color, lightness decreased while redness and yellowness increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing levels of HP. Hardness increased significantly when HP content exceeded 4% in the formulation (P<0.05). ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities were significantly elevated by HP addition, and they increased significantly as HP concentration increased in the formulation (P<0.05). Finally, consumer acceptance test indicated that the highest levels of HP incorporation (8%) had an adverse effect on general consumer preferences. In contrast, yanggaeng with moderate levels of HP (2%) is recommended based on its overall scores to take advantage of the antioxidant properties of HP without sacrificing consumer acceptability.
Optimum Extraction of Tricin and Tricin 4'-O-(threo-β-guaiacylglyceryl) Ether (TTGE) from Rice Hull (Oryza sativa L.)
Yoon, Nara ; Lee, Sang Hoon ; Jang, Gwi Yeong ; Lee, Yoon Jeong ; Li, Meishan ; Kim, Min Young ; Lee, Junsoo ; Jeong, Heon Sang ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 44, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1923~1926
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.12.1923
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of extraction conditions on tricin and tricin 4'-O-(threo-
-guaiacylglyceryl) ether (TTGE) extracted from rice hull (Oryza sativa L.). Extraction conditions were an ethanol concentration of extraction solvent of 50~90%, extraction time of 0.5~48 h, and ultrasonic-assisted and agitated extraction as extraction methods. The total tricin and TTGE contents of rice hull were
, respectively. Recovery of tricin and TTGE increased to 76.11% and 71.42% with increasing ethanol concentration until 70% and then decreased above 80%, respectively. In ultrasonic-assisted extraction, highest recovery of tricin was 83.30% after 2 h of extraction and TTGE was 71.80% after 1 h of extraction. In agitated extraction, highest recovery of tricin was 92.34% after 48 h and TTGE was 76.89% after 24 h of extraction. Therefore, optimum extraction conditions for tricin and TTGE of rice hull were 70% ethanol concentration and ultrasonic-assisted extraction for 1 h.