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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Food Preservation
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Preservation
Editor in Chief :
Kwang Duk Moon
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 15, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
Selecting the target year
Study of Quality Change in Chonggak-kimchi during Storage, for Development of a Freshness Indicator
Kim, Yun-Jung ; Jin, You-Young ; Song, Kyung-Bin ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 15, issue 4, 2008, Pages 491~496
To develop a freshness indicator of Chonggak-kimchi for marketing purposes, Chonggak-kimchi was prepared and pH, total acidity, total aerobic bacterial load, lactic acid bacterial levels, and reducing sugar content were measured. Sensory evaluation tests on product stored at
, were performed. The pH increased slightly early in storage, and then decreased to pH 4.2-4.3 for all samples. The rate of decrease of pH rose with increasing storage temperature. Total acidity values rapidly increased after 1, 5, and 7 days of storage at
, respectively. Populations of total aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria increased slightly until 4 days, 10 days, and 30 days of storage at
, respectively, and then decreased drastically. Sensory evaluation data showed that Chonggak-kimchi was edible until 4 days(pH 4.5), 10 days(pH 4.4), and 30 days(pH 4.3) of storage at
, respectively. These results clearly suggest that the shelf-life of Chonggak-kimchi depends on storage temperature, and the pH limit for marketing is 4.3; this is a freshness indicator for Chonggak-kimchi.
Quality Characteristics of White Pan Bread by Angelica gigas nakai Powder
Shin, Gil-Man ; Kim, Dong-Young ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 15, issue 4, 2008, Pages 497~504
The effects of Angelica gigas nakai powder on bread quality during storage period were evaluated. Breads were prepared by the addition of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10% of Angelica gigas nakai powder to flour of the basic formulation. The moisture, crude protein, crude fat and crude ash contents of the bread decreased by increasing amounts of the Angelica gigas nakai powder were the lowest in the control group. There were no significant difference in pH of the bread among each experiment groups. The weight of bread increased with increasing Angelica gigas nakai powder concentration, while the volume of dough decreased. In color values, with increase of Angelica gigas nakai powder concentration, L value decreased in the crust and crumb, but a and b values increased. As the results of texture, hardness, gumminess and chewiness were increased with increase of Angelica gigas nakai powder concentration, but adhesiveness, springiness and cohesiveness were decreased. Softness in the crumb stored for 1 or 7 days was the highest for the bread made with 2% Angelica gigas nakai powder, and chewiness was the lowest for the bread made with 5% Angelica gigas nakai powder. The water activity in the bread stored for 3 days was the highest for the breads made with 2% and 3% Angelica gigas nakai powders. After 7 days, the water activity tended gradually to decrease. In the results of sensory evaluation, the quality of the 0.5% or 1% Angelica gigas nakai powder bread showed the highest in taste and flavor. The color, taste, flavor, appearance, texture, and overall acceptability of the bread decreased with the increasing Angelica gigas nakai powder content. Considering the able outcome, the addition of Angelica gigas nakai powder by 0.5% and 1% is thought to play a role as a functional breads, along with the improvement of quality.
The Characteristics of Cookie and Muffin Made with Soybean Paste Powder and Sun-Dried Salt
Jung, Hae-Ok ; Lee, Jae-Joon ; Lee, Myung-Yul ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 15, issue 4, 2008, Pages 505~511
Recipes for cookies and muffins made with soybean paste and sun-dried salt were established and characteristics of the foods were investigated. On Hunter's color scale, 'L' values decreased and brightness was lowered as additive levels increased, whereas the 'a' value(redness) increased and the 'b' value(yellowness) decreased. The hardness of a control muffin was 1843 g and this increased as additive levels rose. Cookies showed the same tendency. Elasticity was not proportional to paste content whereas crispness increased as additive levels increased. Sensory evaluations of cookies and muffins with different soybean paste contents(0-8%, w/v) showed that additive at 1% (w/v) was best and additive at 8%(w/v) was unacceptable. All products scored poorly 48 h after preparation; freshness needs to be investigated further.
Fermentation and Quality Characteristics of Yakju with Addition of Chestnuts : Analysis of Raw Materials and Saccharification
Huh, Chang-Ki ; Seo, Jae-Sin ; Kim, Yong-Doo ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 15, issue 4, 2008, Pages 512~517
Fermentation characteristics of chestnut-added yakju prepared using various proportions of raw materials such as rice koji, rice flour, cornflour koji and cornflour were investigated. The pH of chestnut-added yakju prepared with cornflour koji and saccharified cornflour showed a higher value than that of chestnut-yakju prepared with rice koji and saccharified rice flour. The total acid content of chestnut-added yakju prepared with rice koji and saccharified rice flour was higher than that of chestnut-added yakju prepared using cornflour koji and sacharified cornflour. The reducing of sugar in chestnut-added yakju prepared with saccharified rice flour or saccharified cornflour was rapid at the first brewing stage, decreased dramatically after 2 days, and then decreased slowly after 5 days of fermentation. The value of L and a, the Hunter values, were high in chestnut-added yakju prepared with cornflour koji, and value b was high in chestnut-added yakju with rice koji. The content of iso-amyl alcohol was the highest of seven kinds of fusel oil found in chestnut-added yakju. Ethanol content increased to
(v/v) after 8 days of fermentation. The content of lactic acid was the highest of all organic acids in the chestnut-added yakju. Sensory test results on chestnut-added yakju prepared with saccharifed corn flour showed that if rice flour is used as a sugar supplement for chestnut, the yakju prepared using koji had better flavor and taste. If cornflour was used in the preparation of chestnut-added yakju, the used of saccharified cornflour offered superior flavor and taste.
Characterization of Soybean Paste Doenjang with added Ulmi cortex
Son, Dae-Yeul ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 15, issue 4, 2008, Pages 518~523
This study sought to prepare Doenjang with added Ulmi cortex, to improve functionality and flavor, while retaining the original Doenjang scent. Ulmi cortex powders were added during fermentation. The Ulmi cortex-containing Doenjang showed lower pH and less salinity than did the Doenjang prepared without Ulmi cortex. Sensory evaluation data showed that Doenjang with Ulmi cortex tasted sweeter, and less salty, and was preferred over Doenjang without Ulmi cortex. In the DPPH assay, Doenjang with Ulmi cortex showed much higher free-radical scavenging ability (IC50 of 29.16 g/mL)did Doenjang without Ulmi cortex(IC50 of 155.67 g/mL), indicating that Ulmi cortex Doenjang has higher antioxidant levels. Doenjang prepared with 1%(w/v) Ulmi cortex powder was best in terms of consumer preference and functionality.
Quality Characteristics of Tea Thermally Processed from Dried Ixeris dentata Root
Lee, Ka-Soon ; Kim, Gwan-Hou ; Kim, Hyun-Ho ; Kim, Eun-Soo ; Park, Hae-Min ; Oh, Man-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 15, issue 4, 2008, Pages 524~531
To investigate tea prepared from Ixeris dentata root, color, and levels of free sugars, organic acids, cynaroside, total polyphenolics, and free amino acids were investigated using various thermal processing methods. These included natural drying(ND), hot-air drying(HAD,
), hot-air drying after steam(HADS, steaming at
for 30 min) and roasting after hot-air drying(RHAD, roasting at
min). Total free sugars, organic acids, cynaroside, and free amino acids contents were highest after ND treatment. Total polyphenolics was highest after RHAD processing. The level of cynaroside, a principal component of Ixeris dentata root, was significantly decreased by HADS. The major free sugars were fructose, glucose and sucrose. Succinic acid was prominent among organic acids, and was present at 2.25%(v/v) after ND treatment. The lightness(L), redness(a), and yellowness(b) of all dried Ixeris dentata root powders were best after RHAD treatment, but analysis of the leaching liquids after hot water treatment yielded variable results. Lightness and redness were the highest after RHAD and yellowness was the highest after ND treatment. Overall, the RHAD drying method was found to be superior to other methods, in sensory evaluation tests.
The optimization of extraction process on hemicellulose from rice bran
Jung, Ji-Eun ; Choi, Yong-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 15, issue 4, 2008, Pages 532~541
A central composite design was applied to investigate the effects of the independent variables of NaOH concentration(X1) and extraction time(X2) on dependent variables such as Yield(Y1), Xyl/Ara ratio(Y2), uronic acid(Y3),
-glucan(Y4) and total sugars(Y5) of hemicelluloses separated from rice bran. The Coefficients of determination(R2) in various models ranged from 0.8626 to 0.9319. Yield increased with increased NaOH concentration and extraction time. The optimum extraction conditions were NaOH concentration at 2.45M and extraction time of 24.2 h. Predicted values at the optimized conditions were acceptable, compared with experimental values. The structural characteristics of an optimum hemicellulose extract were explored. As a result, it showed that the surfaces of hemicellulose had a highly irregular reticulated structure. And also it was both small and large molecular particle in the hemicelluloses. Their average molecular weights were in the ranges
Rheological Properties of White Pan Bread Dough Prepared with Angelica gigas nakai Powder
Shin, Gil-Man ; Kim, Dong-Young ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 15, issue 4, 2008, Pages 542~549
The effects of Angelica gigas nakai powder(AP) addition on bread dough were investigated by preparing dough with 0-10%(w/v) powder. Dough raising power, gluten levels, rapid visco properties, and falling number, were investigated. The rheological properties of dough as measured by mixography, farinography, alveography, color assessment, and with scanning electron microscopy, were examined. Increase in AP concentration resulted in a linear decrease in gluten content. Dough raising power and extensibility were decreased by water absorption rate, and resistance increased. Dough stability and rose when AP was present at 1-2%(w/v). Water absorption, dough stability, and dough valorimeter values also rose when AP was present at 1-2%(w/v), but AP induced weakness in the dough, as revealed through farinography, and also resulted in a lowering of initial pasting temperature and the temperature at peak viscosity. A decrease in viscosity at the peak point, and(as revealed by RVA), a decrease in extensibility, an increased resistance to extension, and a rise in the energy required for extension, were also seen when AP powder was added, as was an increase in the R/E ratio. Overall, the addition of AP to dough to levels of 1% or 2%(both w/v) is thought to be useful in the preparation of a functional white pan bread, and results in quality improvements.
Monitoring of Patulin Content in Domestic Apples of Processing and Market Products
Park, Nan-Young ; Baek, Chang-Ho ; Yim, Ga-Young ; Oh, Hyun-Sook ; Kim, Seung-Hwan ; Yoo, Soon-Young ; Jeong, Yong-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 15, issue 4, 2008, Pages 550~555
This study analyzed 102 samples from 24 local areas to monitor patulin contamination of apples for processing by the areas. According to the analysis, patulin was detected in 47 samples among totally 92 ones and those of 15 samples from 12 areas were found to be 50 or more ppb so measures to deal with the patulin contamination were necessary. As ways to reduce residues of patulin, when 200 ppm ascorbic acid were treated with they was decreased by 93.4% to 12.89 ppb, and when 100 ppm activated carbon was added they were declined by 95.8% to 2.68 ppb. Treatment with pectinase did not show any significant difference and effects of temperature was not considerable under established sterilizing conditions(90, 105, 120, 135 and
/25 sec). In conclusion, treatment with ascorbic acid and activated carbon on apple juice was found to decrease residues of patulin but more systemic researches were needed to determine it in the future.
Minimizing Benzo(a)pyrene Content in the Manufacturing of Sesame Oil and Perilla Oil
Kim, Hyong-Yol ; Song, Dae-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 15, issue 4, 2008, Pages 556~561
This study was carried out to identify the cause of benzo(a)pyrene[B(a)P] production during the manufacture of sesame oil and perilla oil, and to minimize such B(a)P synthesis. The distribution of B(a)P in sesame seed and perilla seed differed with seed-growing district, the range was
in domestic seed and
in imported seed. B(a)P contents after roasting at
for 20 min in sesame seed and perilla seed were
, respectively, and levels in oils obtained from the roasted seeds were
, respectively. These data refer to seeds subjected to codsed roasting. With open roasting, the levels were
, respectively. Closed roasting resulted in absorption of B(a)P, with consequent high levels in oils. We introduced forced ventilation during closed roasting. We tested various methods to remove B(a)P from sesame oil and perilla oil. Neither centrifugation nor filtering with diatomite and diatomiteactive carbon removed B(a)P. A filtering method using active carbon was effective. But this method adversely affected the color and flavor of sesame oil and perilla oil.
Analysis of Housekeeping Genes in Mice Feeding on GM and non-GM Potatoes
Kweon, Mi-Ae ; Heo, Jin-Chul ; Cho, Hyun-Seok ; Lee, Sang-Han ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 15, issue 4, 2008, Pages 562~567
To develop human risk assessment protocols, we explored housekeeping gene and cytokine expression in mouse spleen cells using Rt-PCR. We normalized housekeeping gene expression by RT-PCR; gene expression was highly uniform in potato leafs and mouse spleen cells. We measured the expression of frequently used housekeeping genes, such as those encoding APRT,
-tubulin, Actin, Hsp 20.2, Cyclophilin, 18S RNA, Efla, Tbp, GAPDH,
-actin, Tuba2, Hprt, Cyclophlin A, Tfrc, and RPL13A in mice fed GM or non-GM potatoes. Housekeeping gene expression did not show any significant differences between GM and non-GM potato-fed mice. The murine model of potato-fed mice did not express IL-4 and IL-13 at a significant levels.
Effect of Heating Temperature on Antimicrobial Activities of Garlic Juice
Ko, Myung-Soo ; Yang, Jong-Beom ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 15, issue 4, 2008, Pages 568~575
The antimicrobial activities of raw garlic and garlic juice heated for 30 min at
were investigated. Activities against food poisoning bacteria were measured. Raw garlic and garlic juice heated at
showed strong antimicrobial activities, but the antimicrobial activity of garlic juice heated at
was much less, and no antimicrobial activity was seen in garlic juice heated at
. Raw garlic and garlic juice heated at
completely inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhymurium, and Salmonella enteritidis at levels below 0.2%(w/v) of garlic solids. The inhibitory effects of garlic juice heated at
were much lower, against all bacteria tested.
Chemical Components of Solidago virgaurea spp. gigantea, Aster glehni var. hondoensis and Aruncus dioicus var. kamtschaticus Grown on Ulleung Island, Korea
Choi, Mal-Gum ; Chung, Hun-Sik ; Moon, Kwang-Deog ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 15, issue 4, 2008, Pages 576~581
The chemical components of the wild vegetables Solidago virgaurea spp. gigantea, Aster glehni var. hondoensis, and Aruncus dioicus var. kamtschaticus grown on Ulleung island, Korea were investigated. In dried powders of these three wild vegetables, the contents of moisture, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fiber, and crude ash were 3.77-5.72%, 15-29%, 3.50-6.68%, 4.00-6.01%, and 8.70-10.54%, respectively. There were differences in the levels and nature of organic acids in the vegetables; the major organic acids were succinic acid, citric acid, and malonic acid. The major free amino acids in the vegetables were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, arginine, and phenylalanine. Riboflavin contents were 90 mg% in Aruncus dioicus var. kamtschaticus and
mg% in the other vegetables. The thiamin contents were 113 mg% in Aster glehni var. hondoensis, 85 mg% in Aruncus dioicus var. kamtschaticus, and 71 mg% in Solidago virgaurea spp. gigantea. The major fatty acids in the three vegetables were linolenic acid, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid; 60% of total fatty acid was linolenic acid. Catechins were present at 5.37 mg% in Aruncus dioicus var. kamtschaticus, 2.46 mg% in Solidago virgaurea spp. gigantea, 1.29 mg% in Aster glehni var. hondoensis.(-) ECC was detected in only Aruncus dioicus var. kamtschaticus. The contents of Ca, P, and Na in the three vegetables were higher than the contents of other minerals.
Antioxidative Activity of Rooibos Tea(Aspalathus linearis) Extracts
Lee, Cho-Rong ; Lee, Jeung-Hee ; Park, Sang-Hyun ; Lee, Ki-Teak ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 15, issue 4, 2008, Pages 582~586
Total phenolic compounds and antioxidative activities of rooibos tea(Aspalathus linearis) fractions were studied. Three extracts, using hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol, were prepared. Total phenolic compounds were 3069.3 mg/100 g extract in the hexane fraction, 18604.4 mg/100 g extract in the ethyl acetate fraction, and 13458.8 mg/100 g extract in the ethanol fraction. Levels of vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, 4-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid were analyzed by RP-HPLC, and totals of 3452.6 and 3156.1 mg/100 g of extract were found in the ethanol and ethyl acetate fraction, respectively. In the DPPH assay, the ethanol fraction(82.2% of contol) and the ethyl acetate fraction(78.9%) showed the highest free radical scavenging capacities. The induction period of each tea fraction in the fish oil rancimat assay was measured. When 500 ppm of the ethanol fraction was applied, a 1.19 h induction period was observed. This was 2-fold greater than the induction period of the control.
Biological Activities of Extracts from Omija(Schizandra chinensis Baillon)
Kwon, Hoo-Ja ; Park, Chan-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 15, issue 4, 2008, Pages 587~592
We research the development of natural preservatives or functional foods. Here Omija(Schijandra chinensis Baillon) was extracted with distilled water and 70%(v/v) ethanol, and extracts were tested for biological(antibacterial, antioxidative, and fibrino lytic) activities. The polyphenol contents of water and ethanol extracts were 511.5 and 696.6 mg/100 g of Omija, respectively. The water and ethanol extracts from Omija demonstrated antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. The electron-donating abilities(EDAs) of the water and ethanol extracts were 88.6% and 94.5% at 1,000 ppm. The superoxide dismutase(SOD)-like activities of the water and ethanol extracts were 51.2% and 53.6% at 1,000 ppm. The nitrite scavenging abilities(NSAs) of the water and ethanol extract were 70.2% and 76.2% at 1,000 ppm, and were the highest at pH 1.2. The higher antibacterial and antioxidative activities were seen in the ethanol extract, which also had a higher polyphenol content than did the water extract. However, fibrinolytic activities of the water extract were higher than those of the ethanol extract, at all dilutions in the range
(v/v). We conclude that extracts of Omija can be used for health food development or natural preservatives in processed foods.
Optimum Extraction Condition of Peach Liqueur Containing Chitosan
Woo, Seung-Mi ; Baek, Chang-Ho ; Jang, Se-Young ; Seo, Ji-Hyung ; Jeong, Yong-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 15, issue 4, 2008, Pages 593~597
This study was performed for obtaining optimal extraction conditions to produce peach liqueur containing chitosan. Alcohol content of unsliced fruits was the largest recording 30% after extracting for 8 weeks and those of fruits sliced into four pieces were high recording around 28% after extracting for
weeks. Sugar content was
, total acidity was around 0.2% and pH was about 4.8. While soluble solids content was around 2.8% in unsliced fruits with a little change of the content, those of fruits sliced into four pieces were ranged from 2.8% to 3.1% and showing a tendency that longer extraction time increased the content. Brownness of unsliced fruits and fruits sliced into four pieces were
respectively. Total phenol content showed a similar tendency with brownness and the total phenol content of sliced fruits was higher than that of unsliced fruits by only around 0.2 mg%. When peach liqueur was made by extracting unsliced fruits massively by following conditions set above, methanol content grew with longer extraction time but the difference was not significant and the content was detected to be extremely small recording about 50 ppb. Among organic acids, oxalic, malic and citric acids were found, and fructose, glucose, sucrose and maltose were detected as free sugars. In conclusion, extracting unsliced fruits for 8 weeks as extraction conditions showed an excellent quality in overall for peach liqueur containing chitosan.
Effects of Inoculation of Bacillus subtilis Cells on the Fermentation of Korean Traditional Soy Paste(Doenjang)
Rhee, Chang-Ho ; Kim, Won-Chan ; Rhee, In-Koo ; Park, Heui-Dong ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 15, issue 4, 2008, Pages 598~605
Korean traditional soy paste(Doenjang) was fermented for 90 days using, as a starter, a Meju prepared by inoculation of Bacillus subtilis cells. Changes in physiochemical and functional properties were investigated during fermentation. Amylase and protease activities increased and showed maximal levels(4.11 and 7.75 units/mL, respectively) after 60 days of fermentation. Both enzyme activities then fell. Inhibitory activities of the soy paste against tyrosinase and angiotensin converting enzyme(ACE) increased during the fermentation period. Antimutagenic activities during fermentation were determined using the S. enterica serovar Typhimurium TA100 and TA98 analysis system. No significant differences in activity were observed in soy pastes prepared with or without B. subtilis. Antimutagenic activities against the activities of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine(MNNG) and 4-nitro-O-phenylenediamine (NPD) increased and reached 70.33% and 60.22%, respectively, after 90 days of fermentation, as assessed using the tester strain TA100. Against the actions of NPD and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide(NQO), antimutagenic activities also increased during fermentation and reached 50.84% and 47.01%, respectively, as assessed using the tester strain TA98. The genistin content was much higher(187.48 g/g) in soy paste prepared using B. subtilis inoculation than the level(31.30 g/g) seen in soy paste prepared without bacterial inoculation, although the contents of daidzein and genistein were slightly reduced under such circumstances.
Microbiological Quality of Myungran Jeotkal and Its Ingredients and Improvement of Shelf-stability by Gamma Irradiation
Kim, Bin-Na ; Jang, Ae-Ra ; Song, Hyun-Pa ; Kim, Yun-Ji ; Ko, Byung-Ho ; Jo, Cheorun ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 15, issue 4, 2008, Pages 606~611
Myungran Jeotkal, Korean fermented seafood, and its ingredients(hot red pepper powder, ginger, garlic, and seasoning mix) were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 kGy of gamma rays and stored at 4C for 4 weeks to determine changes in microbiological and sensory characteristics. Water activities of Myungran Jeotkal, hot red pepper powder, ginger, garlic, and seasoning mix were 0.89 0.56, 0.98, 0.99, and 0.07, respectively. Myungran Jeotkal was observed to be initially contaminated. Total aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold, and coliform levels were 6.7, 4.3, and 3.6 log CFU/g, respectively. Irradiation at 2 kGy afforded approximately a 4 log reduction in total aerobic bacteria, and a 3 log drop in both yeast and mold levels and coliform bacteria(P<0.05). No viable microbial cells were detected in Myungran Jeotkal after 5 kGy of irradiation(at a detection limit of 101 CFU/g). The total aerobic bacterial level in red pepper powder was 6.3 log CFU/g and this component, of the tested ingredients, contributed most to the microbial contamination of Myungran Jeotkal. The initial count of total aerobic bacteria, 6.3 log CFU/g, was significantly reduced to 4.5 log CFU/g after irradiation(P<0.05). Sensory evaluation showed that gamma irradiation of up to 5.0 kGy did not adversely affect overall acceptability of Myungran Jeotkal or its ingredients during cold storage. Therefore, gamma irradiationwas effective to extend the shelf-life of Myungran Jeotkal.
Product Attributes and New Product Strategies Affecting Consumer Purchases of Lycium Chinense
Kwon, Ki-Dae ; Park, Won-Jong ; Kim, Shin-Ae ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 15, issue 4, 2008, Pages 612~616
We studied new product presentation strategies for cheongyang Lycium chinense, and the attributes of consumers purchasing cheongyang; this is a popular herbal medicine. Attributes are characteristics or properties of a product, and generally refer to features regarded as evaluative criteria during decision-making. The key phrases found on data analysis were "free from disease" and "health". Makers or producers must conduct research and development to promote consumer demand for Lycium chinense, and they must overcome any consumer-held negative images of Lycium chinense attributes.