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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Food Preservation
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Preservation
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Dec 2009
Volume 16, Issue 5 - Oct 2009
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Aug 2009
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Jun 2009
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
Selecting the target year
Quantitatation of Benzoic and Sorbic Acids in Some Processed Foods of Korea
Mitra, Sanika ; Han, Jang-Il ; Lee, Ki-Teak ; Kim, Seong-Ai ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 789~796
Benzoic acid (BA) and sorbic acid (SA) are the preservatives most commonly used in food. Although BA and SA are generally safe, some previous studies have shown that consumption of excessive amounts of these food additives can be a health hazard. The aim of this study was to determine the amounts of BA and SA in processed foods in Korea. Different brands of fruit juice, yogurt, cheese, dried fruits, jam, and margarine were purchased at a local market in Daejeon, Korea. Samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a UV detector. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a C18 column. Methanol acetate buffer (pH 4.4) at a 35:65 v/v ratio was used as the initial mobile phase to elute BA and SA. The detector wavelength was set at 254 nm. The average test results observed for BA concentrations in fruit juice, yogurt, cheese, dried fruits, jam, and margarine were
, respectively. Average concentrations of SA in these samples were
, respectively. Thus, the average levels of BA and SA in the studied food items were lower than the KFDA-permitted limits. Moreover, the estimated daily intake of both BA and SA by a typical consumer were below the maximum recommended daily values.
Browning and Moisture Sorption Characteristics of Rubus coreanus Prepared by Different Drying Methods
Chung, Hun-Sik ; Seong, Jong-Hwan ; Lee, Young-Guen ; Kim, Han-Soo ; Lee, Joo-Baek ; Youn, Kwang-Sup ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 797~803
The effects of drying methods on the browning and moisture sorption characteristics of Rubus coreanus were studied. Fruits were steamed for 5 min at
, dried by sun drying, infrared drying, or freeze drying, and powdered to a size of 20 mesh. Color values were measured and equilibrium moisture contents (EMC) were determined at
, over a range of water activity (
) from 0.11 to 0.90. The browning indices
values were higher and lower, respectively, in freeze-dried Rubus coreanus compared with other samples. The
value was greatest in freeze-dried Rubus coreanus. EMC tended to increase with increasing
values, and a particularly sharp increment was observed above 0.75
. The EMC of freeze-dried Rubus coreanus was significantly higher compared with the EMC of sun-dried and infrared-dried fruit at constant aw. The moisture sorption isotherms showed a typical sigmoid shape, and the Halsey, Kuhn, and Oswin models were the best fits for the sun-dried, infrared-dried, and freeze-dried powder isotherms, respectively. With respect to monolayer moisture content, the Guggenheim-Anderson-Boer (GAB) equation showed that the various drying methods yielded very different results, with monolayer moisture contents of 0.005 g
dry solid in infrared-dried and 0.019 g
dry solid in sun- and freeze-dried powders, respectively. These results indicate that the drying method affects the browning and moisture sorption characteristics of Rubus coreanus.
Effect of Low Temperature on the Qualities of Long-term Fermented Kimchi (Korean Pickled Cabbage)
Ji, Seol-Hee ; Han, Woo-Cheul ; Lee, Jae-Cheol ; Cheong, Chul ; Kang, Soon-Ah ; Lee, Je-Hyuk ; Jang, Ki-Hyo ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 804~809
Recently, many Koreans have started to consume aged kimchi fermented long-term at low temperatures. In the present study, the effect of low temperature (
) on pH, titratable acidity (TA), organic acid level, viable microbial cell count, amino acid concentration, and polygalacturonase activity (PG) during long-term fermentation (46 weeks) of kimchi, were evaluated. After 10 weeks of fermentation, kimchi had a pH of 4.1 and a TA of 1.0%, respectively after 46 weeks fermentation, these values were 3.9 and 1.3%, respectively. Lactic acid, the ratio of lactic acid to acetic acid, and the ratio of Lactobacillus species/Leuconostoc species in kimchi increased as fermentation progressed from 10 weeks to 46 weeks. However, total viable cell counts of aerobic bacteria, yeasts, Lactobacillus species, and Leuconostoc species, free amino acid levels, and PG decreased as the fermentation period was extended from 10 weeks to 46 weeks.
The Efficiency and Performance of Porous Film Containing Freshness Maintenance Ingredients
Kim, Kyeong-Yee ; Lee, Eun-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 810~816
To identify effective food packaging compounds that could significantly affect the freshness of stored food, the efficiency and performance of porous polypropylene film containing mustard oil as a freshness maintenance ingredient was studied by GC-MS analysis and storage testing of bread. AITC (allyl-isothiocyanate)-emitting properties of films impregnated with mustard oil were evaluated by GC-MS. AITC was extracted from mustard oil, and used as a vapor as an effective antimicrobial agent. Films were prepared under four different conditions (the film types were abbreviated 25SF1, 25SF2, 50LF, and IAF) and the amounts of AITC inside vinyl packs constructed using the four films were measured. The results showed that the 25SF2 film (width 25 mm, length 20 cm) yielded a greater amount of AITC than did the 50LF film (width 50 mm, length 20 cm). We confirmed that the amount of gas emission showed better between layer and layer of the film side than the internal film. In storage testing using various films at
for 25 days, 25SF2 film provided excellent preservation of bread compared with 50LF film. This was in line with the fact that 25SF2 film yielded the highest amount of AITC. Emission capacities AITC of 2 cm film were measured using bottles various volumes (43 mL, 500 mL, 1000 mL) and both closed and open systems. The AITC content of the film in 43 mL bottle was much higher than that yielded by other films in the closed system, and AITC was rapidly emitted, with relatively low residual gas emission after 4 days in an open system. Mustard oil is a useful freshness maintenance ingredient hence, analysis of AITC emission kinetics from various films were helpful to develop films with optimal antimicrobial effects, and will allow application of such films in food packaging systems.
Applications of Functional Tray Form Packaging to Extend the Freshness of High-Quality 'Fuji' Apples
Chung, Dae-Sung ; Lee, Youn-Suk ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 817~823
We investigated the effects of storage temperature and packaging treatment on the freshness of high-quality 'Fuji' apples to improve consumer confidence in the maintenance of high fruit quality during distribution. A 0.35 mm-deep PET tray form-sealed with a 0.05 mm LDPE film lid was developed and tested with the aim of optimizing gas composition within the package headspace to utilize potential modified atmosphere (MA) storage to maintain the freshness of apples. Weight loss, color difference, firmness, respiration rate, gas concentrations in packages, acidity, solid soluble content, and fruit decay rate were measured during storage at
. The results showed that respiration rate, weight loss, color difference, and firmness were lower and overall quality better during storage at
. Also, the fruits packed in the functional tray form showed a low level of quality changes compared with the control (no packaging). The accumulated gasconcentrations in the headspace of the packages decreased from 21% to 12%
and increased from 0% to 5%
(v/v) on day 7, and after remained at those levels thereafter. Soluble solid contents and total acidities of the packaged fruits were in the range of
and 0.2 0.3% during storage. Decay rates in the control and packaged fruits were more than 20% and less than 10% at 3 weeks, respectively. Based on the standard acceptable level (less than 10%) of total weight loss, it could be estimated that the shelf life of top-quality fruits packed in functional trays was 3 weeks at
and 16 weeks at
, whereas the shelf life of the control fruit was 1 week and 12 weeks, respectively. For the top-quality fruit "Fuji" apples, the best results were obtained with a functional tray form for packaging treatment and a storage temperature of
Shelf-Life Extension of Sing Sing Hoe (Fresh Sliced Raw Fish) by Frozen Storage
Park, Jin-Il ; Yoon, So-Mi ; Yoon, Ho-Dong ; Park, Hee-Yeon ; Byun, Han-Seok ; Jang, Mi-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 824~829
Changes in pH, viable microbial count, chemical freshness, texture, and sensory qualities of Sing Sing Hoe (SSH, fresh-sliced raw fish) were measured over 15 days at
. The initial pH of SSH was 6.25 at all three storage temperatures, and pH increased slightly after 12 days to pH 6.48 and pH 6.55 at
, respectively. The range in viable cell count was 104-106 CFU/g, regardless of storage temperature. The initial content of volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) was 5.8 mg/100 g and became 8.2 mg/100 g or less, and 7.9 mg/100 g or less after 15 days at
, respectively. However, pH and VBN values increased significantly after 3 days of storage at
. At this temperature, the K-value was 22.3% after 6 days and 40% or more after 15 days. At
, the K-value was 9.6% or less after 6 days and 21% or less after 15 days of storage. At
, the K-value was 8.5% or less after 9 days and 20% or less after 15 days of storage. Compared with the K-value of live fish muscle (10%), freshness similar to that of live fish was maintained for 6 days under both
storage conditions. There was no significant change in texture during storage of SSH at
, but SSH stored at
showed a decrease in texture quality during storage. Sensory scores were high for material stored for up to 3 days at
and 6 days at
. The overall freshness of SSH was maintained for up to 6 days, in comparison with fresh-sliced raw fish, under both frozen storage conditions.
Cooking and Pasting Properties of Split and Pressed Barley
Lee, Mi-Ja ; Lee, Na-Young ; Kim, Yang-Kil ; Kim, Jung-Gon ; Hyun, Jong-Nae ; Choi, Jae-Seong ; Kim, Kee-Jong ; Kim, Hyung-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 830~837
A total of 24 processed barley samples produced in Korea, 9 split and 15 pressed, were analyzed for protein,
-glucan, and amylose content whiteness cooking characteristics (water absorption and expansibility) and pasting properties, with respect to the areas in which they were grown. Split and pressed barley products from Japan were compared. Both forms of barley products had similar contents of protein and
-glucan. Whiteness was higher in pressed barley than in split barley. Split barley produced in Korea had a higher water absorption (342-436%) and expansibility (449-608%) than did pressed barley. Japanese processed barley products were much lower in protein (4.4-6.6%, w/w) and showed a higher whiteness grade than did Korean products. Whiteness of pressed barley ranged from 57.2-68.3 and was higher than that of split barley, but split barley product showed better cooking characteristics than did pressed barley. Japanese products were similar to Korean materials in this respect. A negative correlation was observed between protein content in and whiteness of processed barley products (r=-0.5112, p<0.01). Waxy barley products had a lower pasting temperature, and showed higher breakdown and lower setback than did non-waxy barley products. The pasting properties of Japanese products were different from those of Korean materials. The pasting temperatures of Japanese split and pressed barley were lower, and the setback much higher, than seen with Korean products. The results show that both splitting and pressing efficiently improve the cooking characteristics of barley. The processing of waxy barley was particularly effective.
Effect of Selenium Treatment on the Quality of 'Wonwhang' Pear Fruit
Kim, Hyun-Ji ; Kim, Wol-Soo ; Choi, Hyun-Sug ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 838~842
We explored how 'Wonwhang' pear fruit quality was affected by selenium (Se) application. The fruit skin color and fruit type differed between Se-treated trees and controls. Se-treated fruits had higher potassium and Se concentrations, more fruit soluble solids, and lower acidity, compared to the controls. All Se treatments improved fruit firmness during cold temperature storage compared to the controls. Also, Se-treated fruits had greater specific gravity and minuteness, which reduced fruit pithiness and rendered test fruits denser than the controls. Overall, Se foliar application improved fruits marketability compared to the Se fertilization or Se trunk injection.
Effect of Maltodextrin and Recycled Dehydration Liquid on the Quality Characteristics of Green Pepper
Lee, Hyun-Seok ; Kwon, Ki-Hyun ; Kim, Jong-Hoon ; Kim, Byeong-Sam ; Cha, Hwan-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 843~848
Green peppers were dried using maltodextrin and recycled dehydration liquid as dehydrating agents, and the quality of dried green pepper powders was compared with that of freeze-dried and hot air-dried samples in terms of moisture content, color, antioxidant activity, capsaicinoid level, and sensory acceptability. The moisture content of maltodextrin-treatedgreen pepper powder was higher than that of samples prepared using recycled dehydration liquid. The lightness (L) value rose with increasing concentrations of maltodextrin powder or liquid. The antioxidant activities of pepper powders prepared using the molecular press dehydration method were similar to that of alpha-tocopherol, and better than that offreeze-dried or hot air-dried samples. Capsaicinoid levels fell with increasing concentrations of maltodextrin powder and liquid. The sensory evaluation data on green pepper powders prepared using the molecular press dehydration method were better than those obtained when freeze-dried and hot air-dried samples were evaluated. These results indicate that drying of green pepper powders using maltodextrin and recycled dehydration liquid as dehydrating agents is very efficient.
Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of Meat and Viscera with Respect to the Age of Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)
Lee, Young-Jae ; Park, Jeong-Wook ; Park, In-Bae ; Shin, Gung-Won ; Jo, Yeong-Cheol ; Koh, So-Mi ; Kang, Seong-Gook ; Kim, Jeong-Mok ; Kim, Hae-Seop ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 849~860
We compared the physicochemical properties of meat and viscera with regard to the age of abalone (1-, 2-, 3- and 4-year-old abalone). With respect to total amino acids, the level was highest in 1-year-old abalone, at
, whereas 4-year-old abalone had the lowest value of
. In the viscera, 3-year-old abalone had the greatest level of total amino acids, at
, whereas 1-year-old abalone had the lowest, at
. The level of total free amino acids in meat tended to increase with age whereas that of the viscera fell. The level of polyunsaturated acids decreased with age in meat. The concentration of chondroitin sulfate in both meat and viscera tended to increase with age. This was especially noticeable in meat. The level in 1-year-old abalone,
(w/w), rose to
in 4-year-old abalone, with statistical significance. On the other hand, the collagen level in both meat and viscera decreased with age. Again, this was particularly noticeable in meat, where the concentration in 1-year-old abalone,
, fell remarkably to the value of
in 4-year-old abalone. We have thus provided basic data for research on abalone.
Effect of Mashed Red Pepper Admixed with Various Freezing Point Depression Agents on the Quality Characteristics of kimchi
Sung, Jung-Min ; Lim, Jeong-Ho ; Kim, Sun-Im ; Jeong, Jin-Woong ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 861~868
We investigated the use of mashed red pepper in the manufacture of kimchi using various freezing point depression agents (glucose, pectin, ascorbic acid or NaCl). In sensory evaluation results, overall acceptance seemed to be highly related to NaCl content. Kimchi was prepared using mashed red pepper with different levels of NaCl (3, 5, and 10% w/w), and quality characteristics were investigated during storage at
. Salt concentrations of kimchi prepared with addition of 3, 5, or 10% NaCl, and control kimchi, were 2.28, 2.47, 3.10 and 1.92%, respectively. pH values varied significantly among treatments but acidity levels did not differ significantly except during the early stages of production. With increasing NaCl addition, the acidity of kimchi was lower than that of control samples during later fermentation periods. At day 20, the reducing sugar level in control kimchi had decreased by 70% whereas NaCl treatment caused decreases of 45 - 55%. The vitamin C contents of kimchi prepared with addition of NaCl (125.88-145.23 mg/100 g) were higher than that of control (37.22 mg/100 g). In sensory evaluation tests, appearance and texture did not differ significantly with treatment or fermentation period. When taste and overall acceptance were scored, kimchi prepared with the addition of 3% NaCl attained the highest marks throughout the entire fermentation period.
Changes in Quality Characteristics of Shark Meat (Dombaegi) during Salting Using Vacuum and Conventional Salting Methods
Kim, Do-Hoon ; Lee, Shin-Ho ; Youn, Kwang-Sup ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 869~874
We aimed to develop a new salting method to improve the quality of Dombaegi. The changes in quality characteristics of Dombaegi during salting using different salting methods (dry and brine salting) and salting pressures (vacuum and atmospheric pressure) were investigated. Moisture content was highest in Dombaegi prepared by brine salting under atmospheric pressure. Salt content was greater when salting was conducted under vacuum compared with atmospheric pressure. Water-holding capacity and water activity were higher under vacuum pressure than at atmospheric pressure and after dry salting compared with brine salting. Color change varied greatly when Dombaegi samples salted at atmospheric pressure and under vacuum were compared, and was affected more by dry salting than brine salting. Springiness was higher after salting under vacuum, and in dry conditions. The results showed that dry salting under vacuum provided better quality characteristics compared with other methods. Therefore, salting under vacuum was the optimal salting process.
Effects of Drying Method and Medicinal Herb Extract Addition on the Microstructure of Beef Jerky
Park, Chu-Ja ; Kim, Mi-Lim ; Park, Chan-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 875~883
We investigated the effects of manufacturing method on the quality of beef jerky using electron micrography. Six types of beef jerky were prepared by the addition of sugar (A), licorice (B), one of three kinds of spice extract (clove: C, fennel fruit: D, and Chungyang green pepper extract: E), or a mixture of all spice extracts (F). Microstructural changes in beef jerky during preparation by drying, with respect to drying method and the nature of the added spice extract, were observed by scanning electron micrography (SEM) and transmission electron micrography (TEM). The latter technique showed that the microstructure of fresh meat showed actin and myosin in myofibril lines, and also mitochondria and inner membranes. Beef muscle structure was broken at many myofibril lines and decomposition of inner membrane material was evident after seasoning. SEM of air-blast dried beef jerky with added medicinal herb extracts showed both large spaces and regular myofibrils, whereas hot air-dried beef jerky had no spaces and the muscle myofibrils were still evident. After review of all available micrographs from SEM and TEM, we concluded that use of medicinal herb extracts could be helpful in preserving the muscle myofibril structure during drying, and the air-blast drying method is recommended to optimize the textural quality characteristics of beef jerky.
Influence of Thermal Treatment on Chemical Changes in Cold-Pressed Perilla Seed Oil
Cho, Young-Sim ; Kim, Bum-Keun ; Park, Jai-Kee ; Jeong, Jin-Woong ; Jeong, Seung-Weon ; Lim, Jeong-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 884~892
We determined the chemical changes occurring in oil after exposure to high temperatures for various periods of time. Alterations in the chemical parameters of oil after heating for 30, 60, 90, and 120 min at 120C were investigated. The study involved cold-pressed perilla oil (CPPO), virgin perilla oil (VPO), and commercial heat press-extracted perilla oil (CHPEPO), and we assessed quality properties such as Hunter's color values, browning color intensity, acid value, conjugated dienoic acid level, peroxide value, total phenolic content, electron-donating ability, and fatty acid concentration. Hunter L values were higher for CPPO than for VPO or CHPEPO, whereas browning color intensity was greatest for CHPEPO. Peroxide value data showed higher levels of oxidation products in CPPO than in VPO or CHPEPO, whereas conjugated dienoic acid level was most increased in CHPEPO. The content of total phenolics and electron-donating ability were higher in CHPEPO than in CPPO or VPO. After thermal treatment, fatty acid content was most altered in CPPO; in particular, the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids dropped significantly. Hunter L value, acid value, conjugated dienoic acid level, and peroxide concentration also increased whereas Hunter a and b values, browning color intensity, and total phenolic content were decreased in perilla seed oils after thermal oxidation treatment.
Quality Comparison of Commercial Brown Rice Vinegar Fermented with and without Ethanol
Kim, Gui-Ran ; Yoon, Sung-Ran ; Lee, Ji-Hyun ; Yeo, Soo-Hwan ; Kim, Tae-Young ; Jeong, Yong-Jin ; Yoon, Kyung-Young ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 893~899
We compared the physicochemical properties of commercial brown rice vinegar fermented with and without ethanol. The pH and total acidity did not significantly differ between the two types of vinegar. Sugar content, reducing sugar content, and free sugar concentration were higher in commercial brown rice vinegar fermented with ethanol, whereas browning, turbidity, and overall color darkness were higher in vinegar fermented without ethanol. The ratio of acetic acid to total organic acids was 0.94 - 0.96 and 0.97 - 1.00 in commercial brown rice vinegar fermented with or without ethanol, respectively. A higher content of total amino acids, 93.07 - 509.48 ppm, was found in vinegar fermented without ethanol. Fermentation conditions affected the physicochemical properties of brown rice vinegar, as shown by significantly higher
-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in brown rice vinegar fermented without versus with ethanol.
Effects of Aloe (Aloe vera Linne) on the Quality Attributes of Chiffon Cake
Kim, Hye-Young ; Shin, Doo-Ho ; Jung, Young-Nam ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 900~907
Chiffon cakes were prepared using various concentrations of aloe gel to develop functional baking procedures. The quality characteristics of chiffon cakes prepared after addition of 20%, 40%, or 60% (w/w) aloe gel, substituting for the same levels of wheat flour, were investigated. No significant weight difference between cakes was observed. The height of cakes containing aloe gel was significantly greater than that of control cakes. The baking loss rate (BLR) of aloe gel decreased as the amount of gel increased, and cakes prepared using 60% (w/w) aloe gel had the lowest BLR. Moisture contents of cakes prepared using aloe gel were higher than that of control cakes. Cakes with 60% (w/w) aloe gel had the highest moisture content. The pore size of cakes with 60% (w/w) aloe gel was the smallest of all groups. Crumb color became whiter as the proportion of aloe gel increased. Lightness (L value) of control cake was lower than that of cake containing aloe gel. Redness (a value) of aloe chiffon cakes increased as the proportion of aloe gel rose. Yellowness (b value) of cakes with 40% (w/w) aloe gel was significantly higher than that of the control group. Other cakes showed no difference in b value compared with control cake. Hardness in all cakes prepared with aloe gel was significantly lower than that of the control group. Adhesiveness of control cake was significantly lower than that of other cakes. No significant between-group difference in springiness was observed. The cohesiveness of cakes with 40% (w/w) aloe gel was significantly lower than that of the control group and that of cakes with 20% (w/w) aloe gel. The gumminess and chewiness of control cakes were significantly higher than those of other cakes. The yellowness of cake with 60% (w/w) aloe gel was significantly lower than that of the other groups. Pore size decreased after the addition of aloe gel. There was no significant difference in appearance among cakes thus, all cakes were acceptable to potential consumers. Although no perceptible difference in aloe odor was evident, cakes with 60% (w/w) aloe gel scored significantly lower in flavor acceptance compared with other cakes. No significant between-cake difference in taste acceptance, perceived moisture level, or texture acceptability was observed. Cakes with 40% and 60% (both w/w) aloe gel were of significantly higher density than other cakes. Overall, the acceptability of cakes with 60% (w/w) aloe gel was lower than that of other cakes. Ultimately, the results indicated that quality can be enhanced by adding less than 40% (w/w) aloe gel to chiffon cakes as a substitute for wheat flour.
Optimization of Ethanol Extraction Conditions from Propolis (a Bee Product) Using Response Surface Methodology
Kim, Seong-Ho ; Kim, In-Ho ; Kang, Bok-Hee ; Lee, Kyung-Hee ; Lee, Sang-Han ; Lee, Dong-Sun ; Cho, So-Mi K. ; Hur, Sang-Sun ; Kwon, Taeg-Kyu ; Lee, Jin-Man ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 908~914
A central composite design was used to optimize extraction of propolis materials using ethanol. The independent variables in extraction experiments were ethanol concentration (50, 60, 70, 80, 90%, v/v) and extraction time (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h). Higher ethanol concentration and shorter extraction time increased total polyphenol content, but total polyphenol concentration began to decrease when ethanol concentration was higher than 80% (v/v). Ethanol concentration was more important than extraction time in optimization of total polyphenol content in propolis extracts. Electron-donating ability increased with ethanol concentration and shorter extraction time, with ethanol concentration being of greater significance. Antioxidant ability in extracts was optimal at an ethanol concentration of 65 - 75% and with an extraction time of 2.2 - 3.6 h. Nitrite-scavenging ability was increased with use of higher ethanol concentration and shorter extraction time. Total flavonoid content was maximized with an ethanol concentration of 68 - 82% and an extraction time of 2.4 - 3.7 h. Total flavonoid content was affected by both ethanol concentration and extraction time. By superimposition of contour plots, an ethanol concentration of 72 - 82% and an extraction time of 2.2 - 3.3 h were optimal for preparation of propolis extracts.
Effect of Antioxidant Properties and Biogenic Amine Contents of Salted Mackerel by the Concentration of Enzymatic Hydrolysate from Ecklonia cava
Yoon, Min-Seok ; Kim, Hyung-Jun ; Park, Kwon-Hyun ; Shin, Joon-Ho ; Lee, Jeong-Suk ; Jeon, You-Jin ; Son, Hee-Jin ; Heu, Min-Soo ; Kim, Jin-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 915~923
For preparation of high-quality salted mackerel using enzymatic extracts from Ecklonia cava (EEC) to process fresh mackerel caught off Jeju Island, the optimal concentration of EEC was investigated. There were no differences in proximate composition, salinity, Escherichia coli level, pH, volatile basic nitrogen content, histamine level, or peroxide value between salted mackerel samples prepared with different concentrations of EEC. However, the antiradical properties of salted mackerel, assayed by scavenging of DPPH free radicals, hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and alkyl radicals, increased with increasing concentrations of EEC. The optimal concentration of EEC for preparation of high-quality salted mackerel was 2% (w/w). Salted mackerel soaked in 2% (w/w) EEC was superior to commercial salted mackerel in antiradical properties, biogenic amine content, and other relevant chemical properties.
Separation and Identification of Antimicrobial Substances from Green Tea Extracts
Shin, Young-Hee ; Lee, Seung-Cheol ; Choi, Sung-Gil ; Heo, Ho-Jin ; Cho, Sung-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 924~928
Green tea has been shown to have multifunctional health-promoting properties including cholesterol level control an antidiabetic effect and anticancer, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties, inboth in vivo and in vitro experiments.We earlier reported antifungal and antibacterial effects of green tea extract by investigating cell membrane functions. The purpose of the present study was to purify and identify antimicrobial substances from green tea extract. Such materials were extracted from green tea (Camellia sinensis. var. sinensis) and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antimicrobial substances in the extract were identified as epicatechin gallate and epigallocatechin gallate by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrophotometry.
Analysis of Volatile Organosulfur Compounds in Korean Allium Species
Song, Hyun-Pa ; Shim, Sung-Lye ; Jung, In-Sun ; Kim, Jun-Hyeong ; No, Gi-Mi ; Seo, Hye-Yeong ; Kim, Dong-Ho ; Kim, Kyong-Su ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 929~937
We identified volatile organic compounds in Korean Allium species. Volatile organic components in three Korean Allium species, dried garlic, dried onion, and dried Welsh onion, were extracted using a simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE) method and identified by GC/MS analysis. The numbers of volatile compounds were 48, 32, and 33 in the three species, respectively. In dried onion, the major compounds were dipropyl trisulfide, methyl propyl trisulfide, and propanethiol. (Z), (E)-propenyl propyl trisulfide, methyl propyl trisulfide, and dipropyl trisulfide were detected at high levels in Welsh onion. In dried garlic, presence of the allyl group identified characteristic volatile organosulfur compounds including diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile compounds in three Korean Allium species showed that sulfur-containing compounds were dominant, and allyl groups derived from (+)-S-(2-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (ALLYL CSO, alliin) were more abundant in dried garlic, than in other materials.
Effect of Low-Molecular-Weight Collagen Peptide Extract Isolated from Scales of the Flathead Mullet (Mugil cephalus) on Lipid Metabolism in Hyperlipidemic Rats
Kim, Han-Soo ; Seong, Jong-Hwan ; Lee, Young-Guen ; Xie, Cheng-Liang ; Choi, Woo-Seok ; Kim, Su-Ha ; Yoon, Ho-Dong ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 938~945
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of low-molecular-weight collagen peptides on lipid composition, blood glucose level, and enzyme activities in the serum of hyperlipidemic rats fed experimental diets for 5 weeks. Concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, free cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), phospholipid (PL), and blood glucose, the atherosclerotic index, and the cholesteryl ester ratio were higher in serum of the hyperlipidemic group (CW group), and the cholesterol-plus-collagen peptides extract group (CCP group) than in the control group (BG group basal diet plus water). However, the concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, free cholesterol, TG, PL, and blood glucose, the atherosclerotic index, and the cholesteryl ester ratio in serum were lower in the CCP group than in the CW group. By contrast, the ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total cholesterol and the absolute HDL-cholesterol level in the CCP group were higher than in the CW group. The activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aminotransferases (AST, ALT) in serum were lower in the CCP group than in the hyperlipidemic CW group. The results indicate that an extract of low-molecular-weight collagen peptides effectively inhibited increases in lipid elevation, blood glucose level, and enzyme activities, in the serum of hyperlipidemic rats.
Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activities of Green Tea with Reference to Extraction Conditions
Kang, Su-Tae ; Jeong, Chang-Ho ; Joo, Ok-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 946~952
We investigated the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of green tea with respect to extraction conditions. The values of pH, and the L, a, and b Hunter parameters of green tea beverage 1 (GTB 1), green tea beverage 2 (GTB 2), and commercial green tea beverage (CGTB) were 6.22, 96.91, -1.06, and 7.77 5.40, 96.39, -1.73, and 13.68 and 6.20, 95.40, -4.75, and 25.51, respectively. The total free amino acid content of GTB 1 and 2, and CGTB, were 253.21, 262.65, and 58.36 mg/100 mL, and the major free amino acids were aminoadipic acid (102.56, 136.29, and 27.02 mg/100 mL), arginine (23.32, 30.75, and 7.31 mg/100 mL), and serine (18.22, 17.96, and 5.94 mg/100 mL). The levels of total phenolics and caffeine were higher in GTB 2 (852.58 and
) than in GTB 1 (500.65 and
) or CGTB (387.14 and
). The catechin content of GTBs 1 and 2, and CGTB, were 294.8, 415.7, and
, respectively. The major catechins of GTB 1 and 2, and CGTB were epigallocatechin, catechin, and epigallocatechin gallate, in that order, and the epigallocatechin contents were 186.50 in GTB 1, 268.10 in GTB 2, and
in CGTB. GTB 1 and 2 and CGTB showed substantial dose-dependent antioxidative activities. The DPPH radical-scavenging activities of GTB 1 and 2, and CGTB, were 85.48, 87.09, and 87.03%, respectively at a concentration of
. The ferric reducing/antioxidant activities (FRAPs) of GTB 1 and 2 and CGTB were 2.66, 2.70 and 2.67 absorbance at a concentration of
. Sensory evaluation tests revealed no significant differences among the three green tea beverages.
Antimicrobial Activities, Antioxidant Effects, and Total Polyphenol Contents of Extracts of Prickly Pear, Opuntia ficus indica
Cho, In-Kyung ; Seo, Kyoung-Sun ; Kim, Yong-Doo ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 953~958
The antimicrobial activities, antioxidant effects, and total polyphenol contents of extracts of Prickly Pear Opuntia ficus indica, were investigated. In antimicrobial activity assays of solvent extract fractions, methanol and butanol extracts showed higher activities than did hexane and ether extracts. The stem showed a higher antimicrobial activity than did the fruit. When the antimicrobial activities of fruit and stem extracts was tested using 10 bacterial strains, strong activity was evident against Escherichia coli, with a lowest minimum inhibitory concentration of 100 mg/disk. However, no antimicrobial activities against lactic bacteria or yeasts were evident, even with disks containing more than 500 mg extract/disk. Antimicrobial substances in butanol extracts of fruit and stem maintained activity after heating at
for 30 min and were not affected by changes in pH. DPPH free radical-scavenging activities of solvent extracts were in the order of water, ethyl acetate, butanol, ether, and ethanol. The stem showed greater DPPH free radical-scavenging activity than did the fruit. The total polyphenol contents in fruit and stem were 520.57 and 203.26 mg%, respectively.
Contents of Resveratrol in Different Parts of Various Grape Cultivars
Lee, Na-Rae ; Choi, Seong-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 959~964
The resveratrol contents in grapes showed a great variation according to the cultivars. In spite of it, a high resveratrol content in fruit was found generally in cultivars of Shigyoku, Pione, Muscat of Alexandria (black colored cultivars) and Muscatel Ruso, Gold Finger, Niunai (green colored cultivars). But in case included fruit stem and rachis, some cultivars, i.e. Shigyoku, Muscat of Alexandria and Baby Finger, showed relatively higher resveratrol content, and these cultivars could be advantageous for cultivation without chemical fungicide, because resveratrol was known as a phytoalexin. While resveratrol was not detected in fruit flesh, fruit stem and rachis contained considerably high content of resveratrol; that shows resveratrol may be synthesized in these parts.
Comparison of a PCR Kit and a Selective Medium to Detect Pathogenic Bacteria in Eggs
Kim, Dong-Ho ; Yun, Hye-Jeong ; Song, Hyun-Pa ; Lim, Sang-Yong ; Jo, Min-Ho ; Jo, Cheo-Run ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 965~970
PCR technology has been widely used to detect and quantify microbial pathogens in foodstuffs, because the technique is rapid, sensitive, and selective. In this study, detection of contaminating pathogenic bacteria on shells of chicken eggs was performed using both a commercial multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kit and a viable count method employing a selective medium. The PCR kit was capable of detecting Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella species, and Shigella species. Using the PCR method, five bacterial species were detected from 30 samples (33.3%) of 90 batches of eggs commercially available in a market. PCR products from B. cereus, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, Y. enterocolitica, and E. coli O157:H7 were detected, and the numbers and frequencies of positive samples were 17 (18.8%), 12 (13.3%), 15 (16.6%), 16 (17.7%),and 4 (4.4%), respectively. None of any Salmonella species, C. jejuni, V. parahaemolyticus, or Shigella species was detected in this study. The results of PCR testing were confirmed using a typical viable count method employing a selective medium. We suggest that the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay is a rapid and reliable method for detection of pathogenic bacteria contaminating eggs.
Microbiological Evaluation in situ of Each Process in Seed Sprouting
Jun, So-Yun ; Kim, Tae-Hun ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ; Lee, Yeon-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 971~976
The consumption of raw sprouts has increased in popularity worldwide because the food is natural and healthy. However, in Korea, nothing is known on the safety standards of sprout producers or changes in the microbial populations of sprouts during sprouting. We evaluated the microbial safety and quality of sprouts during each step in the sprouting process. Bacteriological analysis showed that seeds had a Total Plate Count (TPC) ranging from 3.04 - 5.21 log CFU/g and coliform counts ranging from 1.80 - 3.86 log CFU/g. TPC and coliform counts increased rapidly during the sprouting process to attain values of 6.99 - 8.26 and 3.70 - 7.15 log CFU/g, respectively, regardless of decontamination of seeds with commercial sanitizer. TPC and coliform counts were on high level after sprouts were washed. Escherichia coli was detected in samples of domestic radish sprouts at all stages from seed to storage, rape sprouts in the stages from soaked seed to storage, and red radish sprouts during sprouting, and no sanitizer was used in any of these processes. Untreated red radish sprouts were also positive for Bacillus cereus at all processing steps and Listeria monocytogenes after germination. However, pathogens were not detected at any sprouting stage of seeds treated with sanitizer. It is necessary to carefully control commercial sprouting, and to develop HACCP guidelines applicable to all sprouting processes, commencing at the first step in raw seed production.
Characteristics of Red Wine Fermentation of Freeze-Concentrated Campbell Early Grape Juice using various Wine Yeasts
Hwang, Sung-Woo ; Park, Heui-Dong ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 977~984
Campbell Early grapes, the major grape variety in Korea, contain 13 - 15% (w/v) sugar, which is lower than that appropriate for fermentation of red wine. Therefore, chaptalization with sucrose is usually used to increase the sugar level to an extent adequate to produce a wine containing about 12% (v/v) alcohol. In the present study, fermentation of freeze-concentrated Campbell Early grape juice at
was investigated using several industrial wine yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae OC2, S. cerevisiae Fermivin, and S. cerevisiae W-3. During fermentation, changes in the levels of soluble solids, alcohol, total acid, and yeast viable counts were investigated. Alcohol content reached maximal levels after 9 days of fermentation, and was 12.6% (v/v) when the Fermivin strain was used and 13% (v/v) when each of the OC2 and W-3 strains was used. No significant between-strain difference was found, except for slightly slower alcohol production and sugar consumption, and a higher total acid content when strain OC2 was used. Changes in the yeast viable counts were similar during fermentation. The physicochemical characteristics of Campbell Early wine prepared using freeze-concentrated juice were investigated by measuring the levels of total phenolic compounds, organic acids, acetaldehyde, and minor alcohols and assessment of color values. Similar levels of soluble solids and total phenolic contents were observed in wines fermented by the three different strains, but a higher level of total acid was noted in OC2-fermented wine and a lower level of alcohol in Fermivin-fermented wine. The highest level of malic acid and the lowest level of lactic acid were detected in Fermivin-fermented wine. Although the wines showed variable levels of acetaldehyde and minor alcohols, the concentrations of these materials were much lower than those mandated by legal regulations promulgated by the Korean National Tax Service. Red and violet colors in OC2-fermented wine were darker than those of W-3-fermented wine. In sensory evaluation, W-3-fermented wine obtained the highest scores for color and flavor. However, the best taste score was reported for the OC2-fermented wine, whereas Fermivin-fermented wine was awarded the highest score in overall acceptance.
Effect of Treatment with an Ethanol Extract of Schizandra chinensis on Cell Composition of and Shape Change in Listeria monocytogenes
Lim, Yong-Suk ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 985~990
Fatty acid composition, protein content, and shape change of Listeria monocytogenes treated with ethanol extracts from Schizandra chinensis were examined. Transmission electron micrography of cells treated with ethanolic S. chinensis extracts showed development of morphological changes. Cell surfaces were irregular, swollen, or even disrupted after treatment with ethanol extracts, compared with the smooth surfaces of normal cells. Interestingly, cell protein content was decreased by ethanol extract treatment. Cell fatty acid composition was also changed after treatment with ethanol extracts. The levels of 13-methylpentadecanoic acid (i-15:0), 12-methylpentadecanoic acid (a-15:0) and 15-methylpentadecanoic acid (i-17:0) of L. monocytogenes Scott A and L. monocytogenes ATCC 19111 were decreased, but the concentrations of Cis-9,12 octadecanoic acid (
) and cis-9-octadecanoic acid (
) were increased. 13-methylpentadecanoic acid (i-15:0) and 12-methylpentadecanoic acid (a-15:0) levels in L. monocytogenes Brie I were decreased but the concentrations of Cis-9,12 octadecanoic acid (
) and cis-9-octadecanoic acid (
) were increased after treatment with ethanolic extracts. Notably, the levels of 12-methylpentadecanoic acid (a-15:0) significantly were decreased but those of cis-9,12 octadecanoic acid (
) significantly were increased in all tested microorganisms.
Changes of Chemical Components during Fermentation of Pear Wine
Lee, Ka-Soon ; Park, Hae-Min ; Hong, Jong-Sook ; Lee, Gyu-Hee ; Oh, Man-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 991~998
We used pears to manufacture wine, and analyzed changes in pH, acidity and ethanol and sugar content during fermentation. Pear wine with added ginger (to improve quality) did not differ from ginger-free wine in pH or acidity level. The ethanol content of pear wine was the highest (13.0%, v/v) inpear wine with 0.1% (w/v) added ginger compared to pear wine with no ginger, and sensory tests examining taste and color yielded the highest scores for pear wine with 0.2% (w/v) ginger. To assess storage stability, pear wine was treated for 30 minutes at
. Unheated pear wine showed rapid changes in pH and acidity level after 30 days of storage, whereas pear wine treated for 30 minutes at
did not show such changes. Total organic acid levels in pear wine increased by 0.71% and 0.89% (v/v), respectively. The free sugar level in pear wine decreased from 12.05% to 3.13% (w/v). Turning to phenolic compounds, caffeic acid, catechin, and epicatechin contents in pears were 1.64, 1.40, and 0.23 mg/100mL, respectively, with diverse compositions. Caffeic acid levels in pear wine decreased sharply to 0.12 mg/100 mL upon fermentation, whereas free catechin inpear wine increased to 1.16 mg/100 mL compared with 0.28 mg/100 mL in pears. Free arbutin increased from 8.34 mg/100 mL in pears to 10.39 mg/100 mL in pear wine. The free amino acid content of pear wine was 118.5 g/100 mL, but the levels of serine, alanine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid decreased sharply upon fermentation, with corresponding increases in tyrosine, GABA, lysine, and arginine.
A Study on the Perception of and Concern for Food Safety among Urban Housewives
Lee, Jeung-Yun ; Kim, Kyu-Dong ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 999~1007
We investigated consumer perception of and concern for food safety. The subjects of this study were 275 urban housewives aged more than 20years. The results showed that vegetables and fruit showed the highest purchase frequency of 29.2%, and meat was the highest with 17.2% in the food which feel concerned about safety. Respondents observed that 'domestic food was safer than imported food' (3.92 on a 5 point scale) and 'I always feel concerned about food safety' (3.37). The study also showed that respondents were aware of environmental hormones (3.57), natural toxins (3.51), mad cow disease (3.48), and avian influenza (3.43), in that order. Finally, respondents were deeply concerned about mad cow disease (4.43), heavy metals in food (4.05), environmental hormones (4.02), food poisoning bacteria (3.96), avian influenza (3.87), agrichemical residues (3.86), and food additives (3.84), in that order.
Screening of Biological Activities of Ethanol Extracts from Several Varieties of Endives
Lee, Kwang-Jae ; Park, Min-Hee ; Seo, Hyun-Taek ; Park, Yu-Hwa ; Kwon, Chang-Ju ; Lim, Sang-Hyun ; Kim, Kyung-Hee ; Jeon, Sin-Jae ; Won, Jae-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 1008~1012
We investigated the biological activities of ethanol extracts obtained from five endive cultivars. Free radical-scavenging activities of extracts from Redoria, Halifax, Vintor, Kibora, and Metafora cultivars were 94.2%, 60.8%, 66.6%, 70.0% and 67.4%, respectively. The extract from Redoria showed the highest activity among all the tested samples including BHT (Butylated hydroxyanisole) and vitamine C, known as antioxidant. Endive extracts slightly (17.5 - 38.6%) inhibited
-glucosidase activity. However, there is no inhibitory activity against
-amylase. In terms of proteolytic activity, all endive extracts showed strong activity than pancreatin (used as a positive control), and the extract of Redoria also exhibited stronger activity than other extracts as well as free radical scavenging activity. These results indicate that endive, especially the Redoria cultivar, can be used as a natural resource for development of antioxidants or materials aiding digestion.
Microbial Changes in Hot Peppers, Ginger, and Carrots Treated with Aqueous Chlorine Dioxide or Fumaric Acid
Kim, Min-Hee ; Kim, Yun-Jung ; Kim, Kwan-Su ; Song, Young-Bok ; Seo, Won-Joon ; Song, Kyung-Bin ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 16, issue 6, 2009, Pages 1013~1017
The effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide (
) or fumaric acid treatment on the reduction of microbial populations in hot pepper, ginger, and carrot, were investigated. Hot pepper, ginger, and carrot were treated with 5, 10, or 50 ppm of
, or 0.1, 0.3, or 0.5%(v/v) fumaric acid solution for 5 min. Aqueous
or fumaric acid treatment significantly decreased the populations of both total aerobic bacteria, and yeasts and molds. In particular, 50 ppm
treatment of hot pepper reduced total aerobic bacteria and yeast and mold levels, by 1.52 and 1.81 log CFU/g, respectively, whereas 0.5% (v/v) fumaric acid treatment eliminated all aerobic bacteria and all yeasts and molds. In addition, 50 ppm
treatment of ginger reduced the populations of total aerobic bacteria, and yeasts and molds, by 0.53 and 0.92 log CFU/g, respectively, and 0.5% (v/v) fumaric acid treatment also decreased total aerobic bacteria, and yeast and mold levels, by 1.44 and 1.28 log CFU/g, respectively. With carrots, 50 ppm
treatment decreased total aerobic bacteria, and yeasts and molds, by 1.76 and 2.22 log CFU/g, whereas 0.5% (v/v) fumaric acid treatment reduced the levels of these microorganisms by 1.94 and 1.73 log CFU/g, respectively. These results indicate that aqueous
or fumaric acid treatment is useful for reducing microbial populations in hot peppers, ginger, and carrots.