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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Food Preservation
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Preservation
Editor in Chief :
Kwang Duk Moon
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 17, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
Selecting the target year
Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects of Saponins from Akebia quinata on HepG2 Hepatocarcinoma Cells
Kang, Hye-Sook ; Kang, Jae-Seon ; Jeong, Woo-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 17, issue 3, 2010, Pages 311~319
Four saponins (1~4) were isolated from Akebia quinata pericarp through bioassay-guided fractionation. Pericarps of A. quinata were extracted with ethanol and sequentially fractionated with dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Compounds 1~4 from the butanol fraction were identified as 3-O-
-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin (
-L-arabinopyranoly oleanolic acid (
-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin (saponin C), and 3-O
-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin (
-hederin) based on the spectroscopic evidences, respectively. Oleanolic acid and hederagenin were identified as the corresponding sapogenins by acid-hydrolysis. These compounds exhibited strong cytotoxic activity in MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxy-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H- tetrazolium, inner salt] assay on HepG2 cells.
-Hederin obviously attenuated the expression of bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein. All of the compounds also induced the activity of caspase-3, an apoptotic enzyme, while
-hederin was the most potent activator of the enzyme. Our data demonstrate for the first time the apoptosis-inducing activity of A. quinata. These results suggest that A. quinata could be used as a potential source of natural cancer chemopreventive agents.
Quality Changes in Baik-Kimchi (Pickled Cabbage) Added Lotus Root Juice during Fermentation
Park, Bock-Hee ; Choi, Sun-Hee ; Cho, Hee-Sook ; Kim, Sung-Doo ; Jeon, Eun-Raye ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 17, issue 3, 2010, Pages 320~327
The physicochemical and sensory properties of Baik-Kimchi supplemented with Lotus root juice were periodically examined during fermentation at
over 4 weeks. The pH decreased and acidity gradually increased during fermentation. Turbidity also increased as the level of added Lotus root juice increased, with a gradual rise being evident over 2 weeks with a subsequent decrease to the 4-weekpoint of fermentation. The L- and a-values decreased as the amount of added Lotus root juice increased, whereas the b value increased. The reducing sugar content increased when Baik-Kimchi was supplemented with 3% or 6% (both w/v) Lotus root juice, but decreased when Baik-Kimchi was supplemented with 9% or 12% (both w/v) root juice. Reducing sugar content decreased as fermentation continued. The vitamin C content was higher in supplemented samples, than in the control during fermentation. The hardness of Baik-Kimchi supplemented with Lotus root juice decreased with increasing fermentation time. By sensory evaluation, addition of 6%(w/v) root juice yielded a product superior in color, smell, crispness, and overall acceptability compared with control. In conclusion, optimal Baik-Kimchi fermentation should include addition of 6% (w/v) Lotus root juice.
Effects of a Diet Containing Green Tea Powder on the Physicochemical Properties of Eggs
Jo, Kil-Suk ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 17, issue 3, 2010, Pages 328~333
The effects of green tea on the physicochemical properties of eggs were investigated. One-hundred-and-fifty Isa Brown hens (27 weeks of age) were studied over 10 weeks. Green tea was added to the diet at levels of 4% and 8% w/w. The contents of Ca, K, P, Fe and Mg in eggs increased upon dietary supplementation with green tea powder, and were higher in the yolk than in the white, with the exception of Mg. The increase was greatest for Ca, from 41.0 mg% to 119.8 mg%, in egg white. For Fe, an increase from 3.7 mg% to 12.6 mg% was apparent in egg yolk. When hens consumed the green tea-supplemented diets, average egg weight decreased from 68.8 g to 64.4 g, but the total cholesterol content of egg yolk did not significantly change (control value: 1,899.1 mg% test value: 2,011.3 mg%). In sensory evaluation tests, egg white was similar in terms of astringency and grayness regardless of diet, and egg yolk was yellow-to-orange in color, and rated as fishy or slightly fishy, when green tea diets were administered. Such diets reduced pH values in all of the white, yolk, and white/yolk combination groups. The major fatty acids of egg yolk, constituting more than 90% of total fatty acids, were palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acid. Green tea diets reduced the saturated fatty acid level from 32.0% to 27.4% of total fatty acids, and unsaturated fatty acid levels increased from 68.0% to 72.6% in egg yolk.
Effect of Soybean Peel on the Quality Characteristics of Instant Rice Cake (Baekseolgi) Prepared Using a Microwave Oven
Kim, Seung-Hee ; Kang, Ho-Jin ; Lim, Jae-Kag ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 17, issue 3, 2010, Pages 334~342
We evaluated the physicochemical and sensory properties of rice cake (Baekseolgi) admixed with various amounts of soybean peel and prepared using a microwave oven. Moisture content decreased gradually during storage but the decrease was less when soybean peel was present, compared with the control material p<0.05). Weight reduction was significantly inhibited as soybean peel level increased. The color lightness
values did not significantly change after addition of soybean peel. However, the yellowness
value increased uponaddition of soybean peel p<0.05). The RVA properties decreased significantly with the addition of soybean peel, but pasting temperature increased. In terms of texture, neither springiness nor cohesiveness changed upon addition of soybean peel. The hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of Baekseolgi tended to decrease in proportion to the amount of soybean peel added. Adhesiveness rose gradually during storage but the increase was less when soybean peel was added, compared with control. On sensory testing, neither color nor flavor changed upon addition of soybean peel. Baekseolgi with 5% (w/w) soybean peel scored lowest in terms of taste. Hardness score and moisture level were highest when soybean peel was added to 2% or 3% (both w/w). Overall acceptability was greatest when soybean peel was added to 2% (w/w). Thus, Baekseolgi with 2% (w/w) added soybean peal was satisfactory. We conclude that addition of soybean peel to Baekseolgi prepared using a microwave oven improves physicochemical and sensory properties, and delays deterioration during storage.
Properties of Cheongkukjang Prepared with Admixed Medicinal Herb Powder
Park, Jung-Suk ; Cho, Sang-Hyeok ; Na, Hwan-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 17, issue 3, 2010, Pages 343~350
Cheongkukjang was prepared by addition of medicinal herb powder (from Lentinus edodes, Codonopsis lanceolata BENTH et HOOK, or Houttuynia cordata THUNB) to improve Cheongkukjang quality and functional properties. Redness and yellowness (measured using Hunter’s color values) increased with increasing amounts of medicinal herb powder, whereas lightness (the third Hunter's color value) and pH decreased. Crude protein and lipid levels of Cheongkukjang decreased with increasing amounts of added medicinal herb powder, whereas powder addition did not affect either the moisture or crude ash content of Cheongkukjang. The major organic acids of Cheongkukjang were lactic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid, and citric acid, and acid levels increased as the proportion of medicinal herb powder in the Cheongkukjang preparation increased. The major amino acids of Cheongkukjang were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, leucine, arginine, and lysine and the principal fatty acids were linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and linolenic acid. Addition of medicinal herb powder to Cheongkukjang increased both crude saponin and quercetin contents. Sensory scores of Cheongkukjang containing 2% (w/v) medicinal herb powder were optimal in terms of both quality characteristics and sensory evaluation.
Physicochemical Changes in Pork Boston Butts by Different Cooking Methods
Yang, Jong-Beom ; Ko, Myung-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 17, issue 3, 2010, Pages 351~357
To decrease the intake of animal fat and cholesterol, changes in the physico-chemical characteristics of pork Boston butts cooked by different methods (boiling, steaming, baking, and frying) were investigated. Cooking weight loss and the drain rates of moisture, lipids, and cholesterol were highest during frying. The pH value increased during all cooking processes tested. The refractive index of meat fat increased markedly upon frying. The hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of meat were notably increased by frying. Springiness was not significantly affected by any cooking process, and cohesiveness was slightly increased by all cooking methods evaluated. The CIE
(lightness) value was markedly increased upon steaming, and the CIE
(redness) value decreased notably with boiling or steaming. The CIE
(yellowness) value decreased slightly with either boiling or steaming, and was slightly increased when baking or frying was used. The fatty acid composition did not significantly change after cooking, except when meat was fried.
Sensory Characteristics of Dehydrated Ginger Rhizomes Prepared using Recycled Dehydrating Liquid as an Alternative Dehydrating Agent
Lee, Hyun-Seok ; Kwon, Ki-Hyun ; Kim, Byeong-Sam ; Cha, Hwan-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 17, issue 3, 2010, Pages 358~364
Ginger was dried using maltodextrin or recycled dehydration liquid as dehydrating agents, and the quality of dried ginger was compared with that of freeze-dried and hot-air-dried samples in terms of color, moisture content, water activity, dehydration rate, rehydration rate, and sensory properties. Ginger prepared using molecular press dehydration (MPD) retained its original color. The dehydration rate increased when ginger was dried using a dehydrating agent. The rehydration rate was increased in ginger dried using such an agent. Both dehydration and rehydration rates were elevated with increasing concentrations of soluble solids in the dehydration liquid. The sensory qualities of ginger prepared using the MPD method were better than those of freeze-dried and hot air-dried samples. These results indicate that drying of ginger rhizomes using recycled dehydrating liquid is very efficient.
The Cultural Characteristics of Paecilomyces tenuipes
Kang, Bok-Hee ; Lee, Sang-Han ; Hur, Sang-Sun ; Shin, Yong-Kyu ; Lee, Dong-Sun ; Chang, Hung-Bae ; Song, Bong-Jun ; Lee, Jin-Man ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 17, issue 3, 2010, Pages 365~369
This study was conducted to investigate the cultural characteristics of Paecilomyces tenuipes PJ-1 separated from the nature. We investigated the effect of media, pH and temperature in growth of Paecilomyces tenuipes PJ-1 on solid culture media and the effect of inoculum size, glass beads in liquid culture condition. Paecilomyces tenuipes showed the most favorable growth on PDA among 5 different media. The optimum growth pH and temperature were at pH 6.0 and
on solid culture. Mycelial growth of P. tenuipes decreased rapidly above
. In liquid culture, the optimum inoculum size was 10.0% and the SED and PMV value were increased with adding glass bead and glass bead size in the range of glass bead 0~50 ea and size 3, 5 mm.
Correlation between Soluble Solid Content and Physicochemical Properties of ‘Bing’ Cherry at Different Stages of Ripening after Harvest
Hong, Yoon-Pyo ; Choi, Sun-Young ; Cho, Mi-Ae ; Choi, Sun-Tay ; Kim, Sung-Jong ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 17, issue 3, 2010, Pages 370~375
Cherries (Prunus avium L) were selected at the light red (LR) and dark red (DR) stages of maturation. Soluble solid content and the physicochemical properties of fresh 'Bing' cherries were analyzed to identify an instrumental nondestructive attribute reflecting changes in sweetness. Soluble solid content was significantly correlated with various physicochemical properties (firmness, color, and acid level) in LR-stage cherries. In DR-stage cherries, only firmness was positively correlated with soluble solid content. A positive correlation was found between soluble solid content and firmness of 200 randomly selected cherries. Thus, flesh firmness may be a useful quality factor indicating potential consumer acceptance of 'Bing' cherries.
Studies on the Content of Triacylglycerol Species, Tocopherols, and Phytosterols from the Selected Nuts
Sung, Min-Hye ; Lyu, Hyun-Kyeong ; Lee, Sun-Mo ; Lee, Ki-Teak ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 17, issue 3, 2010, Pages 376~383
Including crude fat content, triacylglycerol species, tocopherols and phytosterols were analyzed in 8 kinds of nuts (sunflower seed, cashew nut, walnut, pistachio, pumpkin seed, ginkgo, hazel nut and pecan). The extracted crude fats showed 0.63~39.60 wt%, among which hazel nut showed the highest amount of fat content. Oleic acid (C18:1) was major fatty acids at sn-2 position in cashew nut, pistachio, hazel nut, and pecan while sunflower seed, walnut, and pumpkin seed showed linoleic acid (C18:2) as a major fatty acids at sn-2 position. Especially, ginkgo contained 10.72 wt% of vaccenic acid (C18:1-n7) at sn-2 position. The TAG species of 8 kinds of nuts were analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC, from which PN value ranged 40~52. Among the analyzed nuts, higher content of tocopherols were observed in ginkgo (48.57 mg/100 g), sunflower seed (38.35 mg/100 g), and pumpkin seed(31.43 mg/100 g). Total phytosterols were observed with the range of 88.60~947.20 mg/100 g.
Resveratrol Content and Nutritional Components in Peanut Sprouts
Kang, Hye-In ; Kim, Jae-Yong ; Park, Kyung-Wuk ; Kang, Jum-Soon ; Choi, Myeong-Rak ; Moon, Kwang-Deong ; Seo, Kwon-Il ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 17, issue 3, 2010, Pages 384~390
To assess the potential of peanut sprouts as a functional food material, the germination rate, resveratrol content, and nutritional components of sprouts were analyzed. Of all samples tested, Gyeong-buk peanuts had the highest germination rate. The resveratrol content was higher in peanuts than in peanut sprouts. The resveratrol level in Gyeong-buk peanut sprout (
) was the greatest of all tested samples. The cotyledon of Gyeong-buk peanut sprout had the highest resveratrol content (
), followed by the roots (
), but resveratrol was not detected in the stems. The levels of moisture, crude protein, crude fat, ash, and carbohydrate in Gyeong-buk peanut sprout were 6.69%, 35.58%, 33.08%, 2.96%, and 21.96% (all w/w), respectively, in dried material. Compared with peanuts, peanut sprouts contained higher protein levels, and a lower content of crude fat, but showed a minimal difference in mineral content. The amino acid content of peanut sprouts (2,551.8 mg/100 g) was higher than that of peanuts (87.89 mg/100 g). Specifically, the asparagine content of peanut sprouts (834.54 mg/100 g) was the highest of all amino acids. Saturated fatty acids, including myristic and palmitic acids, were detected in peanuts, and the levels of unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic (31.19 g/100 g) and linoleic acids (39.24 g/100 g) in peanut sprouts were higher than those of other fatty acids.
Evaluation of Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Antithrombin Activities of the Rhizome of Various Dioscorea Species
Kwon, Jung-Bae ; Kim, Mi-Sun ; Sohn, Ho-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 17, issue 3, 2010, Pages 391~397
Yams (Dioscorea spp.) have been used as medicinal and edible resources worldwide. In the present study, methanol extracts were prepared from various kinds of yam, including D. batatas (Gyeongbuk No. 1 and No. 4), D. alata L. (Gyeongbuk No. 5 and No. 6), and D. bulbifera and D. nipponica, and the antioxidant, antithrombin, and antimicrobial activities of these extracts were evaluated. The water content of the various yams was 54.7~83.2% (D. batatas> D. alata L.>D. nipponica>D. bulbifera) and the methanol extracts contained 0.59-1.59% (w/v) solid matter (D. alata L.>D. batatas >D. nipponica>D. bulbifera). The mean concentrations of total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and total sugars in the different types of yam were 49.82 mg/g, 9.79 mg/g, and 173.81 mg/g, respectively. Analysis of DPPH radical-scavenging activity showed that D. alata L. Gyeongbuk No. 6 had a strong antioxidant capacity (IC50=
), whereas the other yams showed reduced levels of activity (IC50=371-
). D. alata L. Gyeongbuk No. 6 showed a strong antithrombin activity against human thrombin. Upon treatment with a D. alata methanol extract (1.5 mg/mL), thrombin time was increased 7.35-fold compared with that when methanol alone was used. In an antimicrobial activity assay, the D. nipponica extract showed moderate antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, and Salmonella typhimurium. Our results indicate that different varieties of Dioscorea spp., including D. batatas, have useful biochemical attributes, including antioxidant, antithrombin, and antibacterial activities.
A Concentrated Onion Extract Lowers Serum Lipid Levels in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet
Kim, Ju-Youn ; Seo, Yun-Jung ; Noh, Sang-K. ; Cha, Yong-Jun ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 17, issue 3, 2010, Pages 398~404
It is known that onions, or bioactive compounds therein, providehealth benefits. The present study was designed to investigate whether a concentrated onion extract lowered blood lipid levels in rats fed a high-fat diet. Initially, male Sprague-Dawley rats were housed singly in an environment in which temperature and light duration were controlled, and had free access to a nutritionally adequate AIN-93G diet and deionized water. After an acclimatization period, rats were weight-matched and assigned to one of the following five groups: 1) a control group, fed the AIN-93G diet mixed with 10% (w/v) lard and 0.7% (w/v) cholesterol to induce hyperlipidemia (control); 2) three experimental groups, fed the AIN-93G diet mixed with a high-fat source plus concentrated onion extract at three different levels (termed the low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose groups); and, 3) a placebo group, fed the AIN-93G diet with fats plus the same concentrated extract but devoid of onion-derived material. All five groups freely ingested their respective diets over 6 weeks. At 0, 3, and 6 weeks, blood samples were collected from the orbital sinus following overnight food deprivation. At 6 weeks, livers were collected. Both control and experimental groups continually gained body weight throughout the study. No significant differencein body weight gain was observed among groups. However, the serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and non HDL-cholesterol were significantly reduced by ingestion of concentrated onion extract. Also, the hepatic levels of total lipids and total fatty acids, especially C18:1 (oleic acid), were significantly decreased in rats fed a high level of concentrated onion extract, compared with the control and placebo groups. These results provide clear evidence that ingestion of a concentrated onion extract has a profound inhibitory effect on serum lipid levels in rats fed a high-fat diet. Our findings indicate that a concentrated onion extract may be used to alleviate hyperlipidemia by lowering serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
Reduction of Microbial Populations on the Surface of Fresh Ginseng by Various Washing Treatments
Kim, Hee-Su ; Kim, Eun-Jeong ; Choi, Jeong-Hee ; Hong, Seok-In ; Jeong, Moon-Cheol ; Kim, Dong-Man ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 17, issue 3, 2010, Pages 405~409
Surface cleaning is both essential and troublesome when a consumer seeks to eliminate soil attached to the surface of fresh ginseng because all ginseng purchased in the market is covered with soil, reflecting the post-harvest situation. To facilitate ginseng use at home, a fresh-cut type of ginseng is required. As a first step toward production of such ginseng, several washing and dipping treatments were investigated with respect to surface cleaning and reduction of microbial populations on fresh ginseng. In terms of microbial distribution on the surface of fresh ginseng, higher levels of viable bacteria (6.63 log CFU/each) and fungi (5.12 log CFU/each) were present on the rhizome head than on other regions of the root. Of the washing treatments tested, hand-brushing was effective for surface cleaning and to reduce microorganism levels on fresh ginseng, but use of a high-pressure water spray followed by hand-brushing was optimally effective. To further reduce the levelsof microorganisms on the surface of fresh ginseng after washing, additional dipping treatments in 70% (v/v) ethanol and electrolyzed acidic water (at pH 2.3) were somewhat effective but showed no significant differences compared with other dipping treatments tested, including a 3 ppm ozone solution, a 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite solution, or hot water at
Isolation from Chungkookjang and Characterization of a Bacterium Producing an Extracellular Protease of High Specific Activity
Park, Hee-Jin ; Park, Heui-Dong ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 17, issue 3, 2010, Pages 410~417
Several extracellular protease-producing bacteria were isolated from Chungkookjang, a traditional Korean food of fermented soybeans, on skim milk agar plates. Among these bacteria, strain D14 exhibited the highest production (15.2 U/mL) and specific activity (40.0 U/mg protein) of extracellular protease activity as assessed on growth in a protease induction medium composed of 1% (w/v) soluble starch, 1.5% (w/v) skim milk, 0.5% (w/v) yeast extract, and 2% (w/v) NaCl. The bacterium was identified as Bacillus subtilis based on morphological and physiological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence. A BLAST search of 16S rDNA sequences revealed that the isolate was most closely related to Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis strain NCIB 3610. The 16S rDNA sequence homology was 99.9%. Our isolate produced the highest level of protease when grown in a protease induction medium containing 1% (w/v) sorbitol and 0.5% (w/v) yeast extract. Fructose and glucose reduced enzyme production to 12.7% and 35.9%, respectively, of the level seen when the strain was grown in medium containing soluble starch. Soytone also reduced enzyme production to 61.4% of the level noted when the strain was grown in medium containing yeast extract.
Analysis of Consumer Preferences for Wine
Park, Eun-Kyung ; Ryu, Jin-Chun ; Kim, Tae-Kyun ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 17, issue 3, 2010, Pages 418~424
Although the wine industry continues to grow, little empirical research on consumer preferences has been conducted. Thus, our objective was to analyze consumer views on wine attributes. A choice experiment (CE) was designed to detect a marginal willingness to pay for particular characteristics of wine (balance, flavor, color, clarity, and value-for-money). A questionnaire was administered and 286 responses were received. A multinomial logit model was estimated using the maximum likelihood method. The results indicated that balance, flavor, color, clarity, and price were all important to consumers. The CE data revealed that estimates of marginal willingness to pay were 31,899 won/bottle for balance, 23,088 won/bottle for flavor, 3,230 won/bottle for color, and 25,936 won/bottle for clarity. The balance of a wine was most important, and the flavor, clarity, and color were also significant. The results of this work will be of assistance in promoting the domestic wine industry.
Effect of UV-C Irradiation on the Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Lipid Oxidation in Hamburger Patties during Storage
Kim, Hyun-Jin ; Kim, Seul-Ki ; Chun, Ho-Hyun ; Song, Kyung-Bin ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 17, issue 3, 2010, Pages 425~429
Inactivation by UV-C irradiation of Listeria monocytogenes cocktail inoculated on hamburger patties was examined. Hamburger patty samples were inoculated with 6-7 log CFU/mL of L. monocytogenes cocktail, and then exposed to doses of 0, 1, 5, or
of UV-C light, followed by storage at
for 7 d. Microbiological evaluation indicated that the populations of L. monocytogenes decreased significantly (p<0.05) as irradiation dose increased. In particular, L. monocytogenes populations decreased by 2.03 log CFU/g after exposure to 10
, compared with control samples. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels of hamburger patty samples increased during storage, regardless of UV-C irradiation status. These results indicate that UV-C irradiation may be useful in improving the microbial safety of hamburger patties during storage.
Comparison of Anti-Oxidant Activities of Chaff Vinegar Liquor
Nam, Dong-Yoon ; Lee, Si-Rim ; Park, Chul-Hong ; Park, Kyu-Sik ; Nam, Sang-Heon ; Heo, Jin-Chul ; Lee, Sang-Han ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 17, issue 3, 2010, Pages 430~434
This study was carried out to compare anti-oxidant activities of chaff vinegar liquors. We examined the effects of several kinds of chaff vinegar liquor (CA; CA1, chaff vinegar liquor; CA2, wood vinegar liquor; CA3, chaff vinegar liquor with red ginseng; and CA4, chaff vinegar liquor with rosemary) by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing activity of plasma (FRAP) assay, and
reduction. The results showed that CA have potential in reducing DPPH, FRAP and
activity. CA was increased its anti-oxidant activity by the fermentation of rosemary extract. The present results suggest that the chaff vinegar liquor could be used for anti-oxidant agents and/or be developed for anti-oxidative potentiation of prototypes.