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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Food Preservation
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Preservation
Editor in Chief :
Kwang Duk Moon
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 18, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
Removal Efficiency of Microorganism and Pesticide Residues by a Using Surface Washing System on Yuja (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka)
Sung, Jung-Min ; Kwon, Ki-Hyun ; Kim, Jong-Hoon ; Jeong, Jin-Woong ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 18, issue 5, 2011, Pages 627~635
DOI : 10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.627
This study was conducted to assess the effects of the removal of pesticide residues and microorganisms from yuja (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka) using a surface-washing system, under the following washing conditions: 0.11, 0.42, and 0.73 m/s spray rotation speeds; 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2 MPa water pressure and 0.046, 0.092, and 0.138 m/s conveying speeds. Tap-water treatment was used as the control. The washing efficiency when using squid ink was highly correlated with the conveying speed and the spray rotation speed. In addition, the highest washing efficiency was achieved when the water pressure was 0.9 MPa. The microorganisms were reduced to 0.40 log CFU/g for the tap-water treatment, and all the treatments, except those at the conveying speed of 0.138 m/s and the spray rotation speed of 0.11 rpm (6.07 log CFU/g), produced higher removal efficiencies compared with the tap-water treatment. Reductions of 2.20 and 2.05 log CFU/g were achieved at the spray rotation speeds of 0.42 and 0.73, respectively. The largest reductions were observed when the conveying speed was 0.046 m/s. Higher pesticide residue removal efficiency values were obtained at slower conveying speeds and higher spray rotation speeds. Higher than 50% removal efficiency was achieved when the spray rotation speed was 0.046 m/s for spirodichlofen, deltamethrin, benomyl, thiophanate-methyl, and acequinocyl. Especially, the removal efficiency for benomyl and thiophanate-methyl was more than 90%. It can thus be concluded that the pesticide residues in yuja can be effectively reduced by washing the latter with a less-than-0.092-m/s conveying speed and a higher-than-0.42-m/s spray rotation speed.
Chemical Components of Muskmelon(Cucumis melo L.) according to Cultivars during Storage
Youn, Aye-Ree ; Kim, Byeong-Sam ; Kwon, Ki-Hyun ; Kim, Jong-Hoon ; Choi, Duck-Joo ; Cha, Hwan-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 18, issue 5, 2011, Pages 636~642
DOI : 10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.636
The chemical components of four muskmelons (Thankyou, Beauty, Picnic, and Symphony), according to the cultivars, were investigated during storage at
for 28 days. After the storage period, the Picnic cultivar indicated a weight decrease of up to 4.70% whereas the Symphony cultivar showed the best weight maintenance during storage (1.02%). The Thankyou and Symphony cultivars had higher sugar content and acidity levels than the Beauty and Picnic cultivars during storage. While the Symphony and Beauty cultivars showed high hardness at the start of their storage, their hardness decreased much during storage while the Thankyou and Picnic cultivars showed little change in hardness during storage. Further, the Thankyou cultivar not only maintained its unique muskmelon yellow color but also showed lower microorganism growth than the other cultivars. The stem water loss seen in this cultivar, however, tends to be the first thing seen by the consumers and may thus determine its merchantable quality. In addition, as the Thankyou cultivar showed the least quality change during storage, it will be useful for the development of a technology for minimizing the moisture content of a muskmelon's stem.
Effect of Green Tea and Lotus Leaf Boiled Water Extracts Treatment on Quality Characteristics in Salted Mackerel during Storage
Nam, Ki-Ho ; Jang, Mi-Soon ; Lee, Doo-Seog ; Yoon, Ho-Dong ; Park, Hee-Yeon ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 18, issue 5, 2011, Pages 643~650
DOI : 10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.643
This study was carried out to analyze the quality change of mackerel treated of green tea and lotus leaf boiled water extracts. And investigate the antioxidant effects of them on the lipid peroxidation of mackerel during storage at
for 28 days. It was estimated periodical measurements of proximate composition, pH, carbonyl, volatile basic nitrogen, trimethylamine-N, acid, peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values. It had no effect on proximate composition compared with non- treated control nearly but, pH of all the samples was increase during 28 days continuously. The contents of volatile basic nitrogen and trimethylamine-N lower than control during storage. Also, acid, peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values of mackerel treated of green tea and lotus leaf boiled water extracts were significantly lower than control throughout storage period. Especially, mackerel treated of 2% green tea and lotus leaf boiled water extracts shows that more effective than 1% of things in antioxidant during storage. Results indicate that the application of green tea and lotus leaf boiled water extract on the surface of mackerel may be useful to lower the rancidity degree and fish odor during storage.
The Chilling Injury Development and Quality Characteristics of 'Ooishiwase' Plums (Prunus salicina L.) according to Ripening Stages and Cold Storage Temperature
Cho, Mi-Ae ; Hong, Yoon-Pyo ; Choi, Sun-Young ; Jung, Dae-Sung ; Lim, Byung-Sun ; Park, Soo-Jeong ; Lee, Seung-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 18, issue 5, 2011, Pages 651~660
DOI : 10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.651
This study was conducted to evaluate the quality characteristics of and chilling injury development in 'Ooishiwase' plum fruits after harvest, according to the ripening stage and storage temperature. The fruits were harvested at three ripening stages (60, 80, and >90% skin color) and were then stored at 1, 4, 5, 6, and
cold-storage rooms for up to 48 days. The fruit quality parameters, respiration patterns, and chilling injury development were monitored during the storage periods and the three days of subsequent ripening at
. The fruits harvested at the 60%-skin-color stage maintained the flesh firmness, color, weight loss, and TA, and their respiration rates and ethylene production were decreased compared with the 80%-or >90%-skin-color fruits, at a lower storage temperature. The major symptoms of chilling injuries in the Ooishiwase plums were gel breakdown, flesh browning, and flesh translucency. These symptoms appeared at all the low-storage-temperature and ripening treatment stages. When the fruits, however, were harvested at a more immature stage and were stored at a lower storage temperature, the chilling injury development decreased. These results show that the development of chilling injury in Ooishiwase plums is related to the climacteric behavior during cold storage.
Quality Characteristics of Frozen Doraji (Platycodon grandiflorum) according to Various Blanching Treatment Conditions
Lee, Young-Joo ; Lee, Hye-Ok ; Kim, Ji-Young ; Kwon, Ki-Hyun ; Cha, Hwan-Soo ; Kim, Byeong-Sam ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 18, issue 5, 2011, Pages 661~668
DOI : 10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.661
This study was conducted to devise appropriate blanching-process conditions as a means to convert Doraji, which is widely used in Korean food due to its unique fragrance and flavor, into frozen food materials for various uses. For the Hunter L values representing the brightness transformation among the surface color and gloss changes that were observed in Doraji before and after freezing, and after Doraji went through a blanching process, the specimen that went through a blanching process at
showed a significantly higher value compared to another specimen processed at a higher temperature, and the first specimen's value also rose after freezing. Meanwhile, for the hardness values, they declined more as the blanching temperature became higher and as the processing time became longer. For the number of total counts and the number of coliform groups, the number of total counts at
cfu/g before the blanching process was reduced into the approximately 2-3 log scale, and no coliform group was detected after the blanching process. As for the peroxidase activity, its activation was decreased by the blanching process, and more than 89% of the peroxidase became inactivated in all the specimens that went through the blanching process. The sensory characteristics of the frozen-thawed Doraji by test group showed the radish leaves blanched at
for 1 min to be the most highly evaluated in terms of the overall preference level (p<0.05).
Quality Characteristics of Drink with Maca (Lepidium meyenii) Extract and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activity during Storage
Jeon, In-Sook ; Kang, Yong-Soo ; Chung, Hai-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 18, issue 5, 2011, Pages 669~677
DOI : 10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.669
The objective of this study was to develop a functional drink using maca extract, and to evaluate the latter's antioxidative activity during storage. Maca extract was added in five different content percentages (0, 8, 16, 24, and 32%), and the physicochemical properties were investigated. The pH of the control drink was lower than that of the drink to which maca extract was added. The
increased with the increasing amount of maca extract. The Hunter L value decreased while the yellowness (b) value increased as the maca extract level increased. The results of the consumer acceptance test showed that no significant differences in overall acceptability were observed between the control and the 8%-, 16%-, and 24% maca-added drinks. Therefore, it is suggested that up to 24% maca extract can be added to drinks without depressing the quality. The changes in the total polyphenol content, DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical activity, and tyrosinase inhibitory effect were monitored during storage at 4 and
for four weeks. The results showed that there was a gradual decrease in the total polyphenol content and antioxidant activities after four-week storage, and the drinks containing maca extract exhibited a smaller decrease in antioxidant activity than did the control drink. Moreover, microbial growth was not shown during the same periods.
Effect of Different Coagulants on Quality of Tofu Incorporated with Persimmon Fruit Powder
Lee, Yun-Rae ; Chung, Hun-Sik ; Seong, Jong-Hwan ; Moon, Kwang-Deog ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 18, issue 5, 2011, Pages 678~683
DOI : 10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.678
The effects of coagulant types (magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, calcium sulfate, glucono-
-lactone) on yield, quality properties and storability of astringent persimmon powder added tofu were investigated. Yield, hardness, chewness, crispness, and overall acceptability of tofu coagulated by glucono-
-lactone were higher than those coagulated by the others. L value, a value, pH, soaking-solution turbidity, and total aerobic bacteria of glucono-
-lactone coagulated tofu were lower than those coagulated by the others. Calcium sulfate and calcium chloride coagulated tofu showed relatively high L and b values. Magnesium chloride coagulated tofu had higher sensory score for firmness, taste, overall acceptability than calcium chloride and calcium sulfate coagulated tofu, but there was no significant difference between magnesium chloride and glucono-
-lactone. The results suggested that glucono-
-lactone and magnesium chloride were found to be the suitable coagulants for processing of the persimmon powder added tofu.
Studies on Target Market of GAP Certified Raw-Ginseng
Kim, Gwan-Hou ; Lee, Ka-Soon ; Yi, Doo-Hee ; Hong, Seung-Jee ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 18, issue 5, 2011, Pages 684~691
DOI : 10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.684
This study was carried out to suggest producers' marketing direction for GAP certified rawginseng using STP(segmentation, targeting and positioning). In order to fulfill this object, conjoint analysis and cluster analysis were used. The main results are as follows. Based on the results of part worth for attributes such as safety, size, and price, GAP certified raw-ginseng, large size, and low price were preferred to conventional ginseng, small size, and high price respectively. In the relative importance for each attributes, safety was 47.2%, size was 30.0%, and price was 17.8%. As a result of market segmentation, 3 consumer groups(large size preferred, safety preferred, lower price preferred) were classified. Among those groups, the safety preferred group was selected as a target market for GAP certified raw-ginseng and its market size was estimated approximately 2,968 tons which is 26.8% of total raw ginseng market.
Physicochemical Characteristics of Yanggaeng with Pear Juice and Dried Pear Powder Added
Park, Yeon-Ok ; Choi, Jin-Ho ; Choi, Jang-Jeon ; Yim, Sun-Hee ; Lee, Han-Chan ; Yoo, Maeng-Ja ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 18, issue 5, 2011, Pages 692~699
DOI : 10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.692
This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of yanggaeng prepared with pear juice and dried pear powder. The proximate composition and total polyphenol content, antioxidant activities, Hunter`s color values, texture, sensory properties of pear yanggaeng variants [pear juice (PJ), pear juice and hot-air-dried pear powder (PJH), pear juice and freeze-dried pear powder (PJF) yanggaeng] were examined. The moisture content was highest (27.9%) in the control (C) yanggaeng, but the latter`s energy and carbohydrate content were lower than in the pear yanggaeng variants. The differences between the pear yanggaeng variants were not significant.The total polyphenol content was highest in the 20.7 mg/100g PJF yanggaeng. The antioxidant activities of PJF yanggaeng were higher than those of the other pear yanggaeng varients. The Hunter color value results showed that the lightness (L) values were highest in C yanggaeng whereas the redness(a) and yellowness(b) values were highest in PJH yanggaeng. The springiness in texture was lowest in C yanggaeng and not significant in the others. The hardness and chewiness were highest in PJH and PJF yanggaeng, but adhesiveness was lowest therein. The results of the sensory test showed that PJF yanggaeng was the highest in flavor, color, taste, hardness, chewiness, and overal quality. Based on these results, it can be concluded that pear juice and freeze-dried pear powder yanggaeng has excellent physicochemical and antioxidant activities.
The Physicochemical Qualities and Antioxidant Activities of Apple Juices Marketed in Korea
Hwang, In-Wook ; Kim, Chang-Seob ; Chung, Shin-Ky ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 18, issue 5, 2011, Pages 700~705
DOI : 10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.700
The physicochemical qualities, antioxidant activities, and polyphenols composition of eight kinds of cloud and clear apple juice products marketed in Korea were investigated. The acidities of eight kinds of cloud and clear apple juice products were in the range of 0.299~0.556 and showed no significant difference (p<0.05). The soluble solid contents of the cloud type were higher than those of the clear type which had higher reducing sugar contents. The color value and turbidity of the cloud type were also higher, but the vitamin c contents showed no significant differences. The total phenolic contents of the cloud type (1.13~1.42 g/L) were four fold to eight fold higher than the clear type (0.12~0.32 g/L). Nine polyphenolic compounds, including chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid (-)-epicatechin, quercitrin, phloridzin, and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), were isolated by HPLC analysis, and the total amount of the cloud type (319.37~985.63 mg/L) was higher than that of the clear type (92.88~214.39 mg/L). The antioxidant activities, by DPPH and FRAP assays, of the cloud type showed stronger than those of the clear type. The antioxidant activity and the color value were highly correlated with total phenolic content and polyphenols content (r>0.95).
Chemical Characteristics of Gochujang with Different Amount of Sweet Persimmon Powder
Kim, Jeong-Yeon ; Hwang, Su-Jung ; Eun, Jong-Bang ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 18, issue 5, 2011, Pages 706~713
DOI : 10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.706
This study was conducted to investigate the chemical characteristics of Gochujang with different amounts of sweet persimmon powder added during fermentation at
for 90 days, in an effort to improve its taste and organoleptic quality. The moisture content was shown to be inclined to increase in all the treatments throughout the fermentation. There was no significant difference between the paste with sweet persimmon powder and the control. The pH showed a tendency to decrease with increased fermentation time in all the samples during fermentation, keeping a pH range of 4.64-4.67 after 60 days of fermentation. On the contrary, the titratable acidity increased during fermentation, showing a level of 0.147-0.156 mg% in the paste with sweet persimmon powder on the 90th day of fermentation. The sugar content was shown to be
in the early stage of fermentation, revealing a tendency to in crease with an increase in the amount of sweet persimmon powder added. The amino-type nitrogen content was at the 241.27-245.47 mg% level in the early stage of fermentation, and appeared to be significantly high (p<0.05) in the treatments with 3 and 4% sweet persimmon powder added, respectively, after 60 days of fermentation. The content was within the range of 357.47-371.53 mg% on the 90 th day of fermentation in the final stage, showing an increase trend throughout the fermentation. The alcohol content gradually increased with an increase in fermentation time, showing a range of 0.94-0.10% on the 90th day of the final stage of fermentation. Moreover, the content was highest (0.96-0.108%) on the 70th day of fermentation, demonstrating a trend to slightly decline in all the treatments thereafter.
Quality Characteristics of Curd Yogurt with Sweet pumpkin
Jung, Hyeon-A ; Kim, An-Na ; Ahn, Eun-Mi ; Kim, You-Jeong ; Park, Suk-Hyeon ; Lee, Jae-Eun ; Lee, Su-Mi ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 18, issue 5, 2011, Pages 714~720
DOI : 10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.714
Sweet Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) is rich in minerals, vitamins, and dietary fibers and has less fat. It is thus effective for dieting and for preventing constipation. Sweet Pumpkin contains vitamin A, particularly beta-carotene, which is turned into retinol in the body and helps protect the vision. It is currently on the spotlight as a vision care, anticancer, and diet food, among others, but because it is hard to find yogurt made of Sweet Pumpkin, in this study, Sweet Pumpkin powder was added to yogurt for promotion as a new health food. Yogurt was made with 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3% Sweet Pumpkin powder, and the color properties (brightness, redness, and yellowness), viscosity, pH, and acidity were measured through a sensory test (color, flavor, taste, overall acceptability). The storage stability at five-day intervals for one day, five days, ten days, 15 days, etc. was also experimented on. For the color properties, the greater the amount of Sweet Pumpkin powder added, the greater the decrease in the lightness (L) value, but the redness (a) and yellowness (b) values increased (p<0.001). For the viscosity, it was decreased for five days and then increased by 47-68% for ten days. This showed a significant difference in storage stability period: one day (p<0.001), five days (p<0.01), and ten days (p<0.01) (except 15 days). Further, there was a significant difference in pH and acidity [pH: for one day (p<0.001), five days (p<0.01), and ten days (p<0.01); acidity: one day (p<0.001), ten days (p<0.05), 15 days (p<0.001)]. No significant difference in pH was shown, however, for 15 days, and in acidity for five days. The results of the sensory test are highly estimated in the order of 1%>2%.3%>0%>0.5%. The study results indicate that the addition of 1% Sweet Pumpkin powder is most suitable for manufacturing Sweet Pumpkin yogurt.
Optimization of 1(3)-Palmitoyl-2-Oleoyl-3(1)-Stearoyl Glycerol Produced via Lipase-catalyzed Esterification Using the Response Surface Methodology
Hwang, Yun-Ik ; Shin, Jung-Ah ; Lee, Jeung-Hee ; Hong, Soon-Taek ; Lee, Ki-Teak ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 18, issue 5, 2011, Pages 721~728
DOI : 10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.721
1(3)-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3(1)-stearoyl-(POS)-glycerol-enriched reaction products were synthesized from camellia oil, palmitic ethyl ester, and stearic ethyl ester via lipase-catalyzed interesterification. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the production of the POS-enriched reaction product (Y1, %) and the stearicand palmitic-acid contents at the sn-2 position due to acyl migration (Y2, %). The reaction factors were the enzyme amount (X1, 2-6%), reaction time (X2, 60-360 min), and substrate molar ratio of camellia oil to palmitic ethyl ester and stearic ethyl ester (X3, 1-3 mol). The predictive models for Y1 and Y2 were adequate and reproducible as no lack of fit was signified (0.128 and 0.237) and as there were satisfactory levels of R2 (0.968 and 0.990, respectively). The optimal conditions for the reaction product for maximizing Y1 while minimizing Y2 were predicted at the reaction combination of 5.86% enzyme amount, 60 min reaction time, and 1:3 substrate molar ratio (3 moles of palmitic ethyl ester and 3 moles of stearic ethyl ester). Actual reaction was performed under the same conditions as above, and the resulting product contained 20.19% TAG-P/O/S and 12.71% saturated fatty acids at the sn-2 position.
Evaluation of Muscle Quality of Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) Fed Extruded Pellets Containing Different Protein and Lipid Levels, and Raw Fish-based Moist Pellet
An, Cheul-Min ; Park, Hee-Yeon ; Son, Meang-Hyun ; Kim, Kyoung-Duck ; Kim, Kang-Woong ; Jang, Mi-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 18, issue 5, 2011, Pages 729~738
DOI : 10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.729
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of extruded pellets (EP) containing different levels of protein (51%-55%) and lipid (9%-15%) on flesh quality of flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) comparing with raw fish-based moist pellet (MP). Two replicate groups of 40 fish per each tank (initial mean weight 106 g) were fed one of three experimental EP (EP1, EP2 and EP3) containing different protein and lipid levels, a commercial EP (EP4) and MP for 16 weeks. Moisture content of fish fed MP was significantly higher than that of fish fed all EP. Significantly higher contents of 16:1n-7, 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3 and lower 18:2n-6 were observed in fish fed EP4 and MP compared with fish fed EP1, EP2, EP3. The 22:6n-3 content was not significantly different among all groups. Taurine content of fish fed MP was significantly higher than that of fish fed all EP. Asparagine content of fish fed EP1 was significantly higher than that of fish fed EP2, EP, EP4 and MP. Significant difference were observed in lysine and serine contents of fish fed experimental diets. In nucleotides and their related compounds, ATP and AMP content was not affected by diets. Significant difference were observed in IMP contents of fish fed experimental diets. Textural properties, no significant difference was observed among the fish groups fed different diets.
Antioxidative Activities of Methanol Extracts from Different Parts of Chrysanthemum zawadskii
Chung, Hai-Jung ; Jeon, In-Sook ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 18, issue 5, 2011, Pages 739~745
DOI : 10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.739
The major objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts from different parts (flower, leaf stem, and root) of Chrysanthemum zawadskii by employing various in-vitro assay systems. The extraction yields from the flower, leaf stem, and root were 18.347, 12.93, and 11.33-----, respectively. The total polyphenol content was highest in the flower (17.16 mg/100 g) and lowest in the root (11.33 mg/100 g). The antioxidant activities were raised within creasing amounts of extracts, and the extracts from the flower showed the highest effect on the superoxide anion radical scavenging, metal chelating on ferrous ions and reducing power. In addition, the leaf stem also showed good antioxidant activity in various systems. These results suggest that the methanolic extracts from the flower and leaf stem possess excellent antioxidant activities and may thus serve as potential sources of natural antioxidants.
Comparison of Free Amino Acids and Nucleotides Content in the Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus Fed with Extruded Pellet
Jang, Mi-Soon ; Park, Hee-Yeon ; Kim, Kang-Woong ; Kim, Kyoung-Duck ; Son, Maeng-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 18, issue 5, 2011, Pages 746~754
DOI : 10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.746
This study analyzed the taste components of dorsal muscle and fin muscle collected from olive flounder cultured with extruded pellet (EP) compared with those of olive flounder cultured with raw fish moist pellet (MP) as a control. The olive flounder in this study were cultured for 10 months with either the formulated extrude pellets (FEP), commercial extruded pellets (CEP) or the MP feed, and the average weight was 1.15 kg. The major nucleotides and related compounds in the dorsal muscles of the fish fed with MP, CEP and FEP diets were AMP and IMP. The fin muscle of the olive flounder contained the largest amounts of IMP(
). The K value of the dorsal muscle in olive flounder fed with MP, CEP and FEP showed 9.63%, 9.83% and 5.84%, respectively. The free amino acids in the dorsal muscle of olive flounder showed significantly differences in the composition depending on the feed, but the distribution of free amino acids showed similar patterns. Among free amino acids, taurine showed the highest content in all the experimental groups, and the asparagine and citrulline contents were significantly higher in the groups fed with CEP and FEP than in the group fed with MP. The significant differences were observed in the contents of specific free amino acids in dorsal muscle and fin flesh depending on the feed for cultured olive flounder.
Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Ethanol Extracts from Citrus unshiu Peel by Response Surface Methodology
Jeong, Ji-Eun ; Shim, Sang-Phil ; Jeong, Yoo-Seok ; Jung, Hee-Kyoung ; Kim, Young-Chan ; Hong, Joo-Heon ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 18, issue 5, 2011, Pages 755~763
DOI : 10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.755
This study was conducted to monitor the quality characteristics Citrus unshiu ethanolic extracts by a response surface methodology. In extraction conditions based on the central composite design with variations in ethanol concentration (0~100%), extraction temperature(
), and ratio of solvent to sample(20 mL/g). The maximum value of yield was 36.31% at
, 67.13% of ethanol concentration. The extraction yield and total polyphenol content were improved with the increase of ethanol concentration than extraction temperature. Total flavonoid content was improved with the increase of extraction temperature than ethanol concentration. The coefficients of determinations(
) were 0.8646(p<0.1) and 0.9153(p<0.05) in electron donating ability and hesperidin content, respectively. Estimated conditions for the maximized extraction including yield, total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content, electron donating ability, and hesperidin content were 55~73% in ethanol concentration,
in extraction temperature, and 20 mL/g in ratio of solvent to sample.
Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Smilax china Leaf Extracts
Ko, Myung-Soo ; Yang, Jong-Beom ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 18, issue 5, 2011, Pages 764~772
DOI : 10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.764
Hot-water and 70%-ethanol Smilax china leaf extracts were prepared, and their total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, DPPH-radical-scavenging ability, nitrite-scavenging ability, and antimicrobial activity were determined. The total polyphenol contents of the hot-water and ethanol extract were
, respectively; their flavonoid contents were
; their DPPH-radical-scavenging abilities, assayed at 1.0 mg/mL, were 33.6 and 92.3%; and their nitrite-scavenging abilities, assayed at 0.1-2.0 mg/mL, were 37.9-61.6 and 38.4-77.8%. The 70%-ethanol extract showed higher antimicrobial activity than the hot-water extract. The antimicrobial activities were high in Bacillus cereus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella typhymurium, and Staphylococcus aureus, in that order. The antimicrobial substances in the two extracts were maintained after heating at
for 30 min.
Characteristics of Alcohol Fermentation in Citrus Hydrolysate by Different Kinds of Sugar
Park, Chan-Woo ; Woo, Seung-Mi ; Jang, Se-Young ; Choi, In-Wook ; Lee, Sang-Il ; Jeong, Yong-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 18, issue 5, 2011, Pages 773~778
DOI : 10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.773
This study investigated the alcohol fermentation characteristics of citrus hydrolysate by adding various sugars(sucrose, honey, fructose and fructooligosaccharide). As a result, the alcohol content was shown to be similar among all the sugars. Fructose, glucose, sucrose and maltose were detected as a major free sugar. In particular, the contents of fructose and glucose were shown to be higher in sucrose addition, lactic, citric and malic acids were detected as major organic acids of citrus wine. When the sensory characteristics of citrus wines were compared, flavor was shown to have a sensory score of 5.1 in sucrose addition, showing the most preference. However, no significant difference in preference was found among the sugars. Color, taste and overall acceptability were shown to have the most preference in sucrose addition, and then in honey, fructose, and fructooligosaccharide in order. Therefore, a further study on the improvement of quality and sensory preference using aging process and complex sugars is required.
Characteristics of Alcohol Fermentation in Oriental Melon by Different Yeast
Jo, Yong-Jun ; Park, Chan-Woo ; Jang, Se-Young ; Kim, Ok-Mi ; Jeong, Yong-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 18, issue 5, 2011, Pages 779~785
DOI : 10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.779
This study was conducted to investigate and compare the characteristics of alcohol fermentation in oriental melon by different yeast. As a result, no significant difference in pH, total acidity and sugar content was found in alcohol fermentation of oriental melon by different yeast. The pH was shown to be constantly maintained but the total acidity was shown to increase during fermentation process. The sugar content was rapidly decrease starting from 3 day of fermentation, and it was reduced to be approximately 7 oBrix after fermentation. For organic acid content, lactic and citric acid contents were shown to be the highest in all periods of fermentation, which revealed that lactic and citric acid were major organic acids. Free sugar content were shown to gradually decrease during the fermentation and to be rarely detected at 9 days of fermentation. Alcohol content was shown to be 14.20% at (C) S. cerevisiae RC-212, which was the highest content. It was shown to be more than 12% at other periods, which showed that no significant difference in alcohol content was found according to different yeast. For alcohol components, acetaldehyde content was shown to be the highest at (E) S. cerevisiae K1-V1116, and methanol content was shown to be relatively higher at (C) S. cerevisiae RC-212 and (D) S. bayanus EC-1118. N-propanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol and isoamyl alcohol, which belong to fusel oil, were shown to be produced at 3 day of fermentation and gradually increase. These results, no significant difference in physicochemical properties of alcohol fermentation in oriental melon by different yeast.
Change in the Microbial Profiles of Commercial Kimchi during Fermentation
Chang, Ji-Yoon ; Choi, Yu-Ri ; Chang, Hae-Choon ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 18, issue 5, 2011, Pages 786~794
DOI : 10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.786
To investigate the sanitary-quality level of commercial kimchi in South Korea, the pH, acidity, and microbial-flora changes in the kimchi were determined. Samples of kimchi produced by three different manufacturers (a small grocery store, a small/medium-sized enterprise, and a large food company) were collected. Freshly made kimchi was purchased and fermented at
for 10 days. The pH of the commercial kimchi on the purchased day was approximately pH 5.8, and that on the
day of fermentation was
4.1. The kimchi purchased from a large company showed a more rapid decline in pH level during fermentation. The saltiness of the kimchi purchased from a medium-sized company was slightly higher than those of the other commercial kimchi samples. The saccharinity index of the kimchi produced by a small grocery store was higher than those of the other samples, and its value deviation was also higher than those of the other commercial kimchi samples. A higher total viable-cell count and a higher lactic-acid bacteria (LAB) count were detected in the kimchi from the large food company at the beginning of fermentation compared to the samples of the two other kimchi manufacturers. The highest cell numbers of gram-positive bacteria (except LAB) and coliform bacteria were detected from the small-grocery-store kimchi, but the coliform bacteria count gradually decreased during fermentation although such bacteria were still detected until the
day of fermentation. In contrast, coliform bacteria were not detected in the samples from the medium-sized and large food companies. Yeast, which is detected in over-ripened kimchi, was detected in the unfermented kimchi from the small grocery store, which had a below-0.36% acidity level. The gram-positive bacteria (except LAB) that were detected in all the tested commercial kimchi samples were determined to be Bacillus spp., and the gram-negative bacteria were determined to be Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Sphingomonase spp., and Strenophomonas spp. The proportions of all the aforementioned bacteria in the kimchi samples, however, were different depending on the samples that were taken. These results indicate that a more sanitary kimchi production process and a more systematic kimchi production manual should be developed to industrialize and globalize kimchi.
Deacidification Effect of Campbell Early Must via Carbonic Maceration : Effect of Enzyme Activity Associated with Malic-Acid Metabolism
Chang, Eun-Ha ; Jeong, Seok-Tae ; Jeong, Sung-Min ; Roh, Jeong-Ho ; Park, Kyo-Sun ; Park, Seo-Jun ; Choi, Jong-Uck ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 18, issue 5, 2011, Pages 795~802
DOI : 10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.795
To determine the deacidification factor during carbonic maceration (CM), different temperature conditions were studied. The pH was higher in CM-
and was lower in CM-
. The total acid was inversely related to the pH. The malic-acid level decreased much more in CM-
than in CM-
while the lactic-acid level increased much more in CM-
. The activity of the NADP-malic enzyme, which catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate into pyruvate,
, and NADPH, was higher in CM-
showed no NADP-malic enzyme activity. The malic-dehydrogenase (MDH) activity was higher in CM-
showed no MDH activity. The oxalacetate decarboxylase activity was similar to the NADP-malic-enzyme and MDH activities. Pyruvate decarboxylase activity was shown in all the CM treatments. The L-lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was not explored in the fermentation of pyruvate to lactate via LDH in the grapes during CM. In this study, it was confirmed that carbonic maceration reduced the malic acid during fermentation and was affected by the temperature. Moreover, it was assumed that the deacidification during the carbonic maceration of the grapes was probably correlated with the degradation enzyme activity of malic acid.
Analysis of the Free Amino Acids and Volatile-Flavor Compounds in the Commercial Brown-Rice Vinegar Prepared via Static Acetic-Acid Fermentation
Kim, Gui-Ran ; Yoon, Sung-Ran ; Lee, Su-Won ; Jeong, Mi-Seon ; Kwak, Ji-Young ; Jeong, Yong-Jin ; Yeo, Soo-Hwan ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 18, issue 5, 2011, Pages 803~810
DOI : 10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.803
This study was performed to evaluate the quality of the commercial brown-rice vinegars of South Korean and Japanese origins, which were prepared via static acetic-acid fermentation. The major free amino acids of Korean brown-rice vinegars were proline, glutamic acid and phenylalanine, while those of the Japanese were proline, valine, phenylalanine, lysine,
-aminobutyric acid, alanine and isoleucine. The
-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and total amino acids (3686.37~4212.27 mg%) contents were found to be significantly higher in the Japanese than in the Korean brown-rice vinegars. The key volatile compounds of the Korean brown-rice vinegars, analyzed with GC-MS, were acetic acid, benzaldehyde, phenethyl alcohol and phenethyl acetate while those of the Japanese brown-rice vinegars were acetic acid, ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol, isoamyl acetate, phenethyl acetate and benzaldehyde. The volatile patterns of the Korean and Japanese commercial brown-rice vinegars were effectively distinguished from each other using an electronic nose, through which it was also elucidated that the volatiles profiles were similar among the Japanese vinegars but were different among the Korean vinegars.
Characteristics of Ice Wine Fermentation of Freeze-Concentrated Campbell Early Grape Juice by S. cerevisiae S13 and D8 Isolated from Korean Grapes
Hwang, Sung-Woo ; Hong, Young-Ah ; Park, Heui-Dong ;
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 18, issue 5, 2011, Pages 811~816
DOI : 10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.811
Cryoextraction (a freeze concentration using an instrument) can increase the sugar concentration in grape juice by reducing its water content, similar to the natural freezing of grapes for natural ice wine. In this study, fermentation of freeze-concentrated Campbell Early grape (Vitis labruscana) juice to 36
was carried out using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains D8 and S13 isolated from Korean grapes. During the fermentation, strains S13 and D8 showed rapid sugar reduction and alcohol production compared with S. cerevisiae Fermivin
used as a control. After nine-day fermentation, the residual sugar contents were lower in W13(9.77%) and D8 wine(9.07) than that in Fermivin
wine(14.0%). Total acid content was high in the D8>S13>Fermivin
wine, in that order. The acetaldehyde content was highest in the D8 wine and lowest in the Fermivin
wine, among the three. The methanol content was slightly higher in the S13 and D8 wines than in the Fermivin
wine. In the sensory evaluation, the S13 wine exhibited the highest score in flavor and taste among the three wines. Both the two S13 and D8 wines exhibited higher scores than Fermivin
wine in overall preference.