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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Food Preservation
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Preservation
Editor in Chief :
Kwang Duk Moon
Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 4 - Dec 2000
Volume 7, Issue 3 - Sep 2000
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Jun 2000
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Mar 2000
Selecting the target year
Development of Postharvest Technologies to Preserve High Quality of Greenhouse Horticultural Commodities and their Processed Products -Development of Natural Antimicrobial Agents for preserving Greenhouse Fresh Produce(II)
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 1~7
To develop natural antimicrobial agents for keeping qualities of postharvested greenhouse produce the antimiocrobial actions of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. extract , which showed remarkable antimicrobial effects against microorganism causing the postharvest decay of greenhouse produce, were investigate. In the inhibitory experiment of enzymes related to energy production metabolism hexokinase activities decreased to 73% and 68% by treating with Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et.Zucc. extract and Eugenia caryophyllata Thumnberg extract in comparison with control, respectively. Direct visualization of microbial cells by using both transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope showed that microbial cell membrane was destroyed by treating with the dilute extract solution. this change of celluloar membrane permeability could be identified in the experiment that 0-nitrophenyl-
-D-galactopyrano-side(ONPG), the artificial substrate of
-galactosidase, was hydrolyzed in the presence of the extract, indicating that the membrane was perturbed. The separation and identification of the most antimicrobialo substances isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb et. Zucc. extract and Eugenia caryophyllata Thunberg extract were carried out by using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry 9GC/MSD), which were identified as eugenol. As a result, the functionality of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. extract and Eugenia caryophyllata Thunberg extract as antimicrobial agents for keeping qualities of postharvested greenhouse produce may be recommended.
Effect of Antimicrobial Dipping and Packaging on the Keeping Quality of Cucumbers
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 8~11
The antimicrobial extracts of rheum palmatum and coptis chinensis root as well as grapefruit seed extract(GFSE) were applied to dipping treatment for keeping qualities of cucumbers, respectively, which were then packed in low density polyethylene(LDPE) films incorporated with 1 % antimicrobial extracts and stored
. Dipping and packaging in the antimicrobial agents suppressed the growth of putrefactive microorgani는 and the decay ratio of cucumbers. In addition, the loss ratio of ascortic acid content and their weight was decreased during the sotrage of cucumbers. Consequently, the combined method of dippinf and packaging in antimicrobial agents turned out to be superior to dipping treatment or film-packaging in the view point of decay ratio and the keeping qualities of cucumbers.
Fabrication of Polyethylene Films Coated with Antimicrobials in a Binder and Their Application to Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Strawberries
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 12~18
As am economical and effective way of antimicrobial film fabrication , antimicrobial agents were coated on the LDPE film with a binder mediu. the fabricated films were then applied tomodified atmosphere packaging of fresh strawberries. A binder of polyamide was selected for the coating medium, based on the stability in water. 1% grapefruit seed extract-coated film showed the antimicrobial activity on the plate media against EScherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, bacillus subtilis , Bacillus cereus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Micrococcus flavus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while one with 10% Coptis chinesis extract inhibited only M. 림편 and one coated with 10% rheum palmatum extract did not inhibit any of 10 strains tested. The packages of fresh strawberries by using antimicrobial agents-coated films created the gas compositions of O2 1.4-5.5% and CO2 5.7-7.9%, and contributed to reduced growth of total aerobic bacteria and yeast/molds on the produced. However, their lower microbial count was not correlated directly with the reduced decay of the fruits.
Effect of Calcium Spraying on Storage Quality of Onion(Allium Cepa L)
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 19~22
This study was carried out investigate the storability of onions on calcium spraying, after cutting foliage, 6 different treatemnt , the dilution spraying of calcium nitrate 9 3%, 6%) , calcium carbonate(3%, 6%), dust scattering and the controls were evaluated for rotting, sprouting, healthy bulb and total weight loss ratio during storage. Rotting ratio on the dilution spraying of 6% calcium carbonate was lower than that of the control after 4 months storage by 16.7%. Sprouting and total weight loss were decreased in the dilution spraying of 6% calcium carbonate.
Effect of Kalium Fertilizer on Storage Quality of Onion (Allium Cepa L.)
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 23~28
In order to find out the storage quality as influenced by the amount of kalium fertilizer in the Onion (Allium Cepa L.) cultivation , 4 different levels of kalium fertilizer amount, 0, 11, 154 and 462 kg/ha, were applied to cv. "Changnyungdaego" with the following results. As the amount of kalium fertilizer was increased, the content of kalium was increased in the soil and plant, the progress of falldown was somewhat delayed at the level of 462kg/ha kalium fertilizer , but the plant growth and yield were not different , respectively. The rotting ratio was decreased 7.5% by October at the 462kg/ha kalium than the 0 kg/ha treatment . The sprouting and total weight loss ratio were decreased at the levels of 154kg/ha kalium fertilizer.
Storage Life Investigation of Diverse Grape Cultivars
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 29~32
Storage life of grape cultivars including Kyoho(Inzuka), which were imported from Japan and are cultivated after adoption as farming application, were examined. The stu요 was accomplished with grapes packed by PE film under storage temperature
and humidity 90%RH loss of weight, Weight loss and occurrence of abnormal fruit increased in proportion to storage days. Abnormal fruits of Kyoho(izuka), North Black , and Seto giants increased rapidly after 60 days of storage, resulting in slight deterioration of commercial value. Similarly, this phenomenon of Campbell early , Takasumi , and Aki Queen occurred after 70 days of storage. External appearance decreased rapidly after 60 days of storage, resulting in 7.0 index of Takatsuma and Aki Queen , 3.0-3.6 of North Black and Seto Giants, and 5.0 of Campbell Early, kyoho (izuka0, and takasumi after 80 days of storage. Soluble solide content and titratable acidity showed a trend to be decreased with lapse of storage. Sugar/acid ratio shwoed much fluctuation between different grapes. Possible storage days, in view of more 70% merchandise berry ratio, were 90 days of Takatsuma and Aki Queen , 70 days of Campbell Early, 60 days of Takasumi , kyoho(Iizuka), and Seto giants, below 60 days of North Black.
Effects of Package Environment on Keeping Quality during Storage in Cabbage and Broccoli
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 33~37
Effects on keeping quality according to the different package environment in cabbage and brccoli were studied. Opened 2 mil LDPE (low density polyethylene) sealed 4 mil LDPE and BA(barrier polyethylene) were used as package films. Weight loss was markedly in opened 2 mil LDPE in cabbage and broccoli as 6 and 28%, respectively. Carbon dioxide was higher in seal-packaging cabbage and broccoli with BA held at 4
was above 15 and 31% within 15 days, respectively, while oxygen content was depleted to 2% or less after 10 days. The main difference between volatile sulfur-containing compounds produced from cabbage and broccoli were the relative quantities and rates of production of hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl disulfide in opened 2 mil LDPE , sealed 4 mil LDPE and barrier bags during storage.
Changes in Pectin of Satsuma Mandarin during Ripening and Storage
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 38~43
Changes in firmness and pectin contents during maturation and sotrage of Stsuma mandarin (Citrus Unshiu Marc. var. miyagawa) were investigated. Firmness of fruits was decreased quickly from 1,176.8g-force to 503.6g-dorce. Satsuma mandarin was stored at 3
5% relative humidity. Firmness were decreased from 538.9g-force to 336.9g-force during storage. Alcohol-insoluble solid(AIS) of peel and flesh were decreased quickly from 27.04g/100g to 12.30g/100g, and from 2.67g/100g to 1.91g/100g during maturation of fruits. During storage of fruits, AIS of peel was decreased from 14.32g/100g to 12.06g/100g . During maturation of fruits, water soluble pectin (WSP) of peel were increased from 420.82mg/100g to 601.62mg/100g as wet basis. Hexametaphosphate soluble pectin (HMP) was also increased from 450.17mg/100g to 577/53mg/100g. hydrochloricacid soluble pectin (HSP) was decreased from 1938.30 mg/100g to 695.14mg/100g. During storage of fruits, HMP and HSP of peel was decreased from 507.82mg/100g to 695.14mg/100g. During storage of fruits, HMP and HSP of peel was decreased from 527.82mg/100g to 275.47mg/100g , and from 672.28mg/100g to 351.36mg/100g, respectively. WSP of peel was increased from 543.70mg/100g to 584.31mg/100g. Total pectin substance (TPS) of peel was decreased from 2809.79 mg/100g to 1874.29mg/100g during maturation, and from 1723.80mg/100g to 1211.14mg/100g during storage, respectively. Composition ratio of pectin was in order of WSP>HSP>HMP.
Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Evaluation for Grading of Satsuma Mandarin Produced in Cheju
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 44~50
Physicochemical properties and sensory evaluation of Satsuma mandarin produced in Cheju were investigated . Fruit index(width/Length), soluble solids and acid content of Citrus unshiu marc. var. miyagawa(miyagawa) and C. unshiu marc. var.(okitsu) harvested at 1st December were 1.16 and 1.23, 12.12 and 12.01, 0.97 and 1.09, respectively. and the fruit of miyagawa was showed somewhat round in shape, compared to ikitsu. the taste of miyagawa seemed to be better than okitsu. However, compared to miyagawa, peel thickness was thinner, flesh ratio was higher, and firmness was higher as 0.502kg-force in kitsu. Nevertheless there were some differences among panelist groups in sensory evaluation , middle size of citrus fruits were favorable to most panelists, but except very small or very large size of fruits, there were not so much differences in okitsu. The panelists referred to somewhat flat-shaped fruits from that sensory evaluation score was increased to 1.3 in fruit index. nevertheless there were not so much differences in full-colored fruits, the citrus peel color of reddish yellow was more favorable than greenish or pale yellow color. the score was increased more linearly according to citrusfruit produced in optimum ciltivation area, and was prefered to thinner in peel thickness , Correlation between soluble solids, acid content , Brix/acid ratio and flesh ratio with sensory evaluation score were not showed significantly, it was different to with citrus juice. This data obtained in this experiments are supposed to be applied to the quality evaluation of Satsuma mandarin produced in Cheju .
Quality Characteristics of Satuma Mandarin by Harvest Areas and Sea Level Altitude in Cheju
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 51~56
Quality characteristics of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.var.miyagawa) harvest on early December according to production areas and sea level altitude of Cheju were investigated. Soluble solids and flesh ratio were distributed 9.32∼12.50, 75.95%-81.3 in citrus fruits harvested in orchards located below 10m sea level altitude (lower area), and was 10.23-12.17 , 77.35%-80.29% on those over 150m sea level altitude )higher area), respectively. Acid content of citrus juice was 0.95%-1.26% in fruits harvested inlower area, and was 1.02%-1.39% in higher area. In proportion to late harvesting , Brix/acid ratio and fruits quality was improved. Soluble solids of fruits harvested in higher area were higher than those of fruits from higher area, but acid contents were on the contrary . In sensory evaluation on fruit appearance, the differences between two altitudes were not clear.
Freshness Extension of Ginseng with Freezing Point Depressing Agents
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 57~62
Ginseng was stored at a temperature lower than the freezing point after a treatment of freezing point depressing agents to extend its freshness. Respiration rate at freezing point of ginseng, -1.7
, was inhibited 92% and 97% compared with those stored at 5
, respectively. Sorbitol solution chosen as a freezing point depressing agent lowered the freezing point of ginseng to about -3.0
. Ginsengs treated with the sorbitol solution and packaged with 0.06mm LDPE was stored at -2
, and the quality change was then compared with ginsengs stored at 0
. Weight loss of ginsengs stored at -2
for 100days was 1.5%, which is about 2.6times less than those stored at 5
. However, there were no significant difference between the ginsengs stored at -2
and at 0
(1.9%). Spoilage rate of the ginsengs was 100% after 50 days of storage at 5
and 25% after 100days at 0
respectively. but that of ginsengs stored at -2
was 13%, which was half than that of ginsengs stored at 0
. Firmness and amount of monoscaccharides in ginsengs were decreased during storage at 5 or 0
but ginsengs stored at -2
showed better firmness and an increase in monosaccharides such as fructose and glucose. From above, when ginseng treated with freezing pont depressing agents were stored at -2
, the shelf life was extended to 2 or 3 times longer than those that were stored at 5 or 0
Effects of Relative humidity Conditions on the Compressive Strength Changes of Corrugating Mediums
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 63~67
Changes in the compressive strength of four typical corrugating mediums (K
A, AS and S) as affected by relative humidity conditions were compared and their relative cost effectiveness was analysed. All mediums lost their compressive strength as relative humidity increased. at the relative humidity of 93% , As medium lost 58% of its initial strength while S medium did about 40%. Calculations of compress factor and compress factor by price indicated that
medium was the most cost effective and maintained the highest compressive strength among the mediums tested. It was recommended that
medium could be effectively used to make corrugated fiberboard especially for fresh agricultural product packaging .
Genotoxicological Safety of the Two gamma-Irradiated Herbs ; Houttuynia cordata Thunberg and Kycium Chinense Miller
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 68~73
These experiments were performed to investigate the safety of two herbs-Houttuynia cordata Thunberg and Lycium chinese Miller-irradiated with gamma-rays in respect of genotoxicity. Water extracts from the 10 kGy gamma-irradiated herbs were examined in two short -term in vitro tests ; (1) Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay (Ames test) in strain TA 98 and Ta100 and (2) Micronuclues test on clutured Chinese hamster ovary(CHO) cells. No mutagenicity was detected in the two assays with or without metabolic activation . From these results , the safety of the herbs irradiated with gamma-rays at practical doses could be revealed in further tests of genotoxicity in vivo, chronic and reproductive toxicity.
Oleoresin Content and Physiological Activities of Fresh Red pepper by microwave-Assiated Extraction
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 74~79
Water and ethanol extracts of fresh red peppers were obtained by two methods, conventional extraction (CE) and microwave-assiated extraction (MAE), under different extraction conditions. Red pepper oleoresins extracted by CE and MAE were examined in oleoresin yield and physiological activities. The proper extraction time of MAE was about 5 minutes, whereas that of CE was 2 hours. therefore extraction time was decreased drastically by MAE but there was no significance in oleolesin yields. the electron donating abilities also showed negligible difference between two extracts obtained by CE and MAE, and 80% level in all extracts . the nitrite scavenging effect was reduced by increased of ph , and showed a high elimination effect over 85% at ph 1.2. All extracts had a high tyrosinase inhibitory effects of 100%. The angiotensin I-conventing enzyme effect showed higher activity with over 80% in MAE than 70% level in CE. the capsanthin was extracted with ethanol and was 11.4 and 12.9
moles per 1 g of fresh red pepper by CE and MAE, respectively.
Quality Characteristics of Bread Prepared with the Addition of Roasted Safflower Seed Powder
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 80~83
The quality characteristics of bread processed with the addition of roasted safflower seed powder were evaluated Safflower seed powder was roasted at 180
for 20 min and pulverized below 45mesh size. Bread was processed by addition of control, 1, 2, 3 and 4% safflower seed powder at basic formulation. Dough raising power was increased as the addition of safflower seed powder increase, but Hunter's L value was decreased, From the sensory evaluation of safflower seed bread, color score was decreased significantly as the addition of roaste safflower seed powder increase, but overall acceptance had no significantly difference between control and added 4% of safflower seed.
Characteristics of Peach Wine Prepared by Using Different Cultivars
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 84~88
The study was conducted to investigate the fermentation characteristics of Daegubo, Harutoh and Yumyung peach cultivars produced mainly in Kyungbuk. soluble solidss, pH, titratable acidtidy, sap rate, alcohol degree, color and sensory quality were analyzed. Sap rates of the three fresh peaches were in the range from 92 to 94%. SS in the juice were 9.6% for Daegubo peach, 9.0% for yumyung and 7.4% for Hakutoh. titrable acidity of DAegubo , harutoh and Yumyung peaches were 0.54, 0.41 and 0.37 % , respectively. In alcohol fermentation , Daegubo and Yumyung peach cultivars showed high sugar decrease and alcohol formation , good color and sensory quality, while Hakutoh showed low sugar decrease and alcohol fermentation.
Characteristics of Peach Vinegar by Parallel Complex Fermentation
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 89~93
The study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of peach vinegar by parallel-complex fermentations. The vinegars prepared by using Changbnag-Chosang and Yumung peach cultivars added with 7, 10, and 13% sugaring concentrations were examined. The rate of increase in alcohol degree and titratable acidity, and that of decrease in soluble solids showed higher at Yumyung peach than at Changbang-chosang. Alcohol and acetic acid fermentation by paralle-complex fermentation were performed better in Yumyung peach than Changbang -chosang. but the fermentation of Yumyung showed active alcohol fermentation in the early stage, and active acetic acetic acid fermentation in the late stage. Quality of the vinegar prepared with Yumyung peach was better than that of Changbang-chosang, which were evaluated by acetic acid contents , peach taste and odor in the vinegar, and overall taste. The fermentation was accelerated with an increase in sugaring , concentrating but overall taste was best in 10 % sugaring.
Liquefaction and Saccharification Conditions of Potatoes for Alcohol Fermentation Using Potatoes
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 94~98
To produce liquor and vinegar using potatoes needs to liquefy and sacchrify potatoes . So selecting the efficient fermenter for proceeding these process successfully is very important . This study was investigated several fermenter and crush types of potatoes for alcohol fermentation. Final sugar contents was high in pottoes saccharificatiion by nuruk or crude enzyme. But pure enzyme and blucoamylase ended liquefaction and saccharificatiion within short ime. So complex type fermenter mixed several fermenters was superior to single type fermenter. Complexfermenter III using crude enzyme and glucoamyulase saccharificed excellently potatoes with 150% of water contents by treatment of 3 hours. Through alcohol fermentation using pressure steamed potatoes (PSP), it could be obtained 6.4% , 150%, of alcohol content and yield. However to perform a series process efficiently , crush steamed pottoes (CSP) was suitable. When it was fermented after saccharification using crush steamed potatoes and complex fermenter III, it could be obtained 6.6% of alcohol and 6.7% of acidity.
Analysis of Components and Leaves Yield by Cultivars for Persimmon Leaf Tea
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 99~102
Comparing and analysing the productivity and the main ingredients of persimmon leaves by cultivars were conducted to improve the quality and productivity of the per-simmon leaf tea. As a result of the survey, Dungsi was decidedly good in growth co-ndition of survival rate, stem diameter and the number of shoots etc. Also , DUngsi had the highest leaf productivity of 567 leaves and the leaf weight of 1.98 kg per one plant after three years of planting . On accounts of productivity, ingredient analysis and panel test etc. we collectively through that Dungsi was the best cutltivar for the persimmon leaf tea.
Inhibition of Enzymatic Browning of Apple Juices by Benzoic Acid Isolated From Peach (Prunus persica Batsch) Seeds
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 103~107
Previously , the methanolic extract of peach sees was found to have a strong tyrosinase inhibitory activity in an in vitro assay. Several phenolic compunds were isolated from the seeds by solvent fractionation , Sephadex LH-20 chromatography, and preparative HPLC , and one of them showing strong tyrosinase inhibition was identified as benzoic acid by UV, IR,
C-NMR, and EI-MS spectrsopy. Benzoic acid (IC50= 250
/ml) and L-ascorbic acid (IC50=28
/ml), well-known tyrosinase inhibitors. In particular , benzoic acid inhibited markedly the enzymatic browing (melanosis) of apple juices at low concentration of 0.01% and 0.05, comparable to that of L-ascorbic acid (P<0.05). these results suggest that benzoic acid, one of an effective food preservatives, may be potentially useful as a functional alternative to sulfites for the control of melanosis in fruit juices.
Comparison of Chemical Compositions of Houttuynia cordata Thunb Cultivated from Different Local Area
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 108~112
Proximate composition , volatile compounds, free amino acids, fatty acids and inorganic compounds in leaf, stem and root of Houttyunia cordata Thunb cultivated from two different area, Bosung and Sunchon , were analyzed. Each part of Houttuynia cordata Thunb from both local area showed moisture contents of 80-84% and crude ash contents of 2.1 ∼2.8%. Crude fat and protein contents were less than 3 % showing slightly higher contents in leaf than in both stem and root . Twenty six volatile compunds were identified from the parts of the plant, the volatile contents were high in the oder of leaf, root and stem. Major volatile compounds were mostly derivatives of decanoic acid ; decanoic acid, 20 tridecanoie, decanal and dodecanoic acid. Of free amino acids in leaf asparagine was the highest, while in stem hydroxyproline, proline and arginine were the major free amino acids. Linoleic acid was the highest in the stem and root, and linolenic acid was highest in leaf. the major minerals of all parts were K, Ca. Mg, P, Fe, Zn and Cu, showing highest with K.
Antimicrobial Activities of Korean Sword Bean (Canavalia gladiata) Extracts
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 113~116
The antimicrobial activities of three parts of Korean sword bean , such as whole seed, dotyledon and hull were investigated . Yields were higher hull other parts in water and methanol extract. Methanol extract in seed parts was fractionated with different solvents, such as hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water, yields of water fractino showed 3.3% , 2.5% and 0.3% in whole seed, 채쇼ledon and hull, respectively. In solvent extracts using methanol, hexane, chloroform, and water , methanol extract showed the most effective antimicrobial activities. Antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate fraction of methanol extractwas higher than those of other fractions.
Physiocochemical Properties of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. Leaf Tea
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 117~123
In order to promote the utilization of Hovenia dulcis leaf as food, leaf tea was nanufactured and its physicochemical properties were examined. Aong proximate composiotns of Hovenia dulcis leaf tea were found in both fermented tea and roasted tea the higher contents of total sugar and crude protein. In minerals component of fermented tea and roasted tea, potassium (K) was the most high amounts of 11,560.6 ppm and 11,084.6 ppm, respectively. The highest contents of free sugar in both teas were mainly consisted of sucrose, the amounts of sucrose showed 1.47% and 1.94% . In case of organic acids, oxalic acid and citric acid were revealed 631.26mg% and 660.05mg%, respectively. The highest contents of total amino acid in fermented tea and roasted tea were 812.01mg% and 709.72mg% of glutamic acid. the fatty acids of fermented tea and roasted tea were mainly composed of 40.18% of linolenic acid and 26.92% of palmitic acid, respectively. The major volatile compounds of fermented tea and roasted tea were composed of 3, 7, 11, 15-tertramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol and methyl palmitate and the amounts of those showed 290.1ppm and 472.97 ppm, respectively. The tannins of fermented tea and roasted tea were 1.02% and 1.26% , as the extraction steps increased the tannin contents decreased. In Hunter's color values of tea extract L and b values decreased , while a value of those increased as the extraction steps were repeated.
Antibacterial Activity of Powdered Spice against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 124~131
Antibacterial activities of powdered spices(garlic , ginger, cinnamon and clove) against pathogenic Escherichia coli )157:H7 and Staphyloccus auresus were investigated. Spice powder was added in was exponetial phase of each bacterial culture . Growth inhibition was determined by the absorbance at 660nm and morphological changes of the cells were observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Ginger powder has the highest antibacterial activity, following cinnamon , clove and garlic has the least activity.Growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphyloccus aureus were completely inhibited within 5 hours after addition of 1 % of garlic , 0.3% of ginger or cinnamon , 0.5% of clove powder on the exponential phase of the cells. Spice untreated cells of E. coli and S. aureus, the cytoplasm was entirely surrounded by rigid cell wall and cell walls formed a smooth layer well attached to the plasma membrane. In the cells of E. coli and S. aureus treated with spice powder, cell wall and plasma membrane were lysed and severely damaged. E.coli cells growth in the presence of spice powder showed plammolysis, the loss of electron dense material, the formation of extra cellular blebs and cytoplasm burst out from the cell. S .sureus cells grown in the presence of spice powder showed swell of cell wall, the loss of electron dense material , coagulation of cell cytoplasm and formation of extra cellular blebs. Severely damaged cells of S. aureus lost whole cytoplasm and left as ghost of the cell. Spice powder stimulated autolyssi and induced cell death.