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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Food Preservation
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Preservation
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 4 - Dec 2001
Volume 8, Issue 3 - Sep 2001
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Jun 2001
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Mar 2001
Selecting the target year
Freshness Extension of ‘Fuji’Apple to Packaging materials
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 8, issue 4, 2001, Pages 345~350
This study was measured weight loss, total ascorbic acid, titratable acidity, and soluble solids content to investigate the effect of EPS(expanded polystyrene foam, foaming rate 55 times V/W) box, LDPE film pouches and double wall corrugated fiberboard box during storage at 20
. Weight loss of apple packed with corrugated paperboard box after 40 days storage was 5.7%, arid those of LDPE, CE(zeolited coated film) film and EPS box were 0.2-0.5%. Ascorbic acid content of apple packed with LDPE, CE, EPS was higher than that of control. Titratable acidity and total soluble solid content of control were changed 40% and 10%, but the EPS were changed 27% and 4%, respectively. Overall appearances of ‘Fuji’apple packed with LDPE, CE and EPS were better than that of control.
Changes of Quality in Dried Omija (Schizandra chinensis Baillon During Storage)
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 8, issue 4, 2001, Pages 351~355
This study was carried out to examine the of quality on the dried Omija according to its package materials and storage plates. The changes of moisture contents, anthocyanin content, molds damage rates, and color values were measured during storage. In the sealing up by the P.E file, the moisture contents of the dried Omija had just a little differences among the storage places, but in the gauze bag remarkably as the storage period goes on, especially in this case, 8 months later since the storage in the cool chamber, the damage rates of the dried Omija by the mold was 9.0%, twice as much as in the indoor bag packaging it was increasand after 10 months, that was lather high in the indoor and warehouse. The anthocyanin content of the dried Omija after the storage of 10 months was the highest at 0.05mm black P.E film package in the cool chamber, which was 55.7 mg/100g, but in the indoor and warehouse 39.7, 45.0mg/100g, respectively. These results show thats the storage conditions had an important effect on the quality of the dried Omija during the long-term storage.
Effects of Ventilation Condition and Ventilating Hole Sizes to Improve Quality Onion(Allium cepu. L) under Room Temperature
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 8, issue 4, 2001, Pages 356~361
This study was conducted to improve the storability of onion bulbs by assembly simple house storage and the reduce the rotteness caused by field open storage. Allium cepa cv. Changnyungdeago, late strain was used for the test at the storage condition of natural ventilation of levels 2, forced ventilation of levels 2, field open storage and 75mm, 100mm, and 125mm ventilating holes. Mean tamperature and relative humidity were not significantly different by ventilation conditions. Mean temperature was lower in forced ventilation than that of in natural ventilation and non-ventilation, and relative humidity was a little higher in ventilation treatment than those of the others. Weight loss of onion bulbs were 2.5%, 2.9%, 3%, 4.3% in field open storage, non ventilation, natural ventilation of levels 2 and forced ventilation of levels 2 respectively. Rotting rate in natural ventilation of levels 2 and farced ventilation of levels 2 were 27.7% and 25.4% respectively but 34.6% and 37.8% in non ventilation and field open storage. Therefore, the treatment of ventilation reduced the rotteness of storage onion bulbs. The smaller the size of a ventilating hole, the lower mean temperature was maintained. The relative humidity was some high in July, but didn’t showed significantly difference in August and September. With small size of a ventilating hole, the strong wind velocity was obtained, and wind velocity by position was weaker in the middle part than both ends. Rutting rates in 75㎜, 100㎜, and 125㎜ ventilating holes were 17.9%, 15.3% and 14.1% respectively.
Effects of Blackout Certain to Improve Quality of Onion(Allium cepa. L) under Room Temperature
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 8, issue 4, 2001, Pages 362~366
This study was conducted to reduce degradation of marketability by the rot and discolor of onion bulbs under room temperature from 1977 to 1998. Allium cepa cv. Changnyungdeago, late strain, was used for the test at the storage condition of non-shading, 55% and 95% shadings. The results obtained are as follows: The mean temperature was maintained lowly 1.0∼2.9
in 55% and 2.0∼3.8
in 95% shadings in contrast to nun-shading, but the relative humidity was a tittle higher in high shading than other shading condition. The illumination and color density maintained lowly in high shading. After 21 days of storage, the rate of discolored onion bulbs was significantly higher in non-shading(90.0%) than 55%(35.7%) and 95%(13.3%) shadings. The rotting rate by the end of August was a little decreased at 55%(25.4%) and 95% shadings(26.5%) in contrast to non-shading(28.9%), and total weight loss was maintained lowly in high shading.
Changes in Quality of King Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) during Modified Atmosphere Storage
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 8, issue 4, 2001, Pages 367~373
In order to study the effect of modified atmosphere storage on extending shelf life of King Oyster mushroom was wrapped with PVC film and packed with 20
polyolefin(PD941), and effects of temperature(0, 5, 10
) in packaging conditions on the respiration and keeping qualities were evaluated. Higher respiratory activity and weight loss were observed at higher temperature. The concentration of O
of PVC wrap and polyolefin(PD941) packages for all showed 1∼2% and 10∼14%, respectively. Polyolefin(PD941) package wan superior to the PVC wrap packaging method in Hardness, Hunter L value, Hunter b value and sensory qualities, and reducing weight loss at 0
compared to PVC wrap. It was found that the optimum shelf-life period of King Oyster mushroom packaged by PVC wrap was estimated to be 50, 28 and 12 days at 0, 5 and 10
, respectively, and 50, 32 and 21 days in Polyolefin(PD941).
Changes of microflora in processing and preservation of dried persimmon
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 8, issue 4, 2001, Pages 374~378
We investigated the change of microfloral states during drying processing and storage of dried persimmon. Initial stave of drying, a total bacteria counts of dried persimmon which was made the rural region of Sangju province were higher than that of downtown but after 7 weeks, there was no differents. A total cell count of bacteria decreased during drying processing but mold and yeast increased. In a storage test of dried persimmon at a different temprature, 3
, room temp. 4
, respectively, low temprature storage was effectvie not only to retard the growth of microorganism but also maintain the suitable appearence.
Changes in Quality of Soybean Sprouts Grown by Ozone Water Treatment during Storage
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 8, issue 4, 2001, Pages 379~384
This study was conducted to investigate the changes in quality of soybean sprouts grown by ozone treatment during storage. Soybean spouts were cultivated under conditions of ozone water watering after soaking in water (W/W), watering after soaking in ozone water (O/W), ozone water watering after soaking in water (W/O) and ozone water watering after soaking in ozone water (O/O). The ozone concentration in soaking of soybean and watering of soybean sprouts was 0.3 ppm, respectively. No significant difference in shelf-life between W/W soybean sprouts and ozone treated samples showed. But shelf-life of soybean sprouts stored in 0.01 ㎜ polyethylene film at 10
prolonged 4 and 2 days, respectively. The slow growth of total microbe in the ozone treated samples stored at 10
was observed, whereas that of products at 20
showed rapid growth during storage. However, no great difference occurred among samples in the changes of moisture, vitamin C and chlorophyll content during storage. Higher hardness of soybean spouts stored at 10
was kept in the O/W and W/O products. Color, flavor and overall acceptability evaluated by sensory teat during storage had higher scores in O/W products as compared to the other samples.
Antibrowning Effects of Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water with/without Freezing Point Depressing Agents on Peeled Chestnut during Storage
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 8, issue 4, 2001, Pages 385~392
This study was to investigate the inhibiting effect of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water with/without freezing point depressing agents on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of peeled chestnut. 0.85% sodium chloride, 0.5% citron and 0.5% lemon juice were used to freezing point depressing agents. The content of total phenolics was 13.36 mg% at the earlier stage of storage, and then suddenly increased at around 8∼1ldays. At the 11th day, PPO activity of untreated chestnut was 1,152 units, that was higher than any ethers. EO water adding lemon and citron juice showed synergistic effects on the enzyme inhibition, and their PPD activities were 143.3 and 180.22 units after 4 weeks, respectively. Sensory analysis showed that acceptance of peeled chestnuts was dependent on color and taste, which was related to PPO activity and sweetness. The peeled chestnut treated with EO water added citron or lemon juice tended to show the highest score fur acceptance.
Preservative Effect of Kimchi during storage of Seafood Bun
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 8, issue 4, 2001, Pages 393~398
Changes in physicochemical and microbiological properties of seafood bun containing kimchi were investgated during storage at 20
. pH of seafood bun tended to decrease and titratable acidity tended to increase during storage, as the kimrhi added more the pH was higher and titratable was lower. Acidity of seafood bun tended to increase during storage, the acidity was lower in seafood added kimchi than in control. Peroxide value of seafood bun added kimchi was lower than that of control, the value decreased with kimchi content. VBN and TBA values increased during storage, as the kimchi added more the value was lower. Viable colony and E. coli count significantly increased during 2 days of storage and tended to slightly increase afterward. The seafood bun added 20% kimchi obtained higher scores than other samples.
Antimutagenic and Antioxidative Effects of Seafood Bun with Kimchi
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 8, issue 4, 2001, Pages 399~404
Antimutagenic, antioxidative and nitrite-scavenging effects of seafood bun were investigated. Each samples were extracted with methanol. Aflatoxin Bl(AFB1) was used as mutagen. Seafood bun added 20% kimchi(5mg/plate) reduced mutagenicity of AFB1 for Salmonella typhimurium TA and YG 1024 to 47% and 61%, rrespectivery. The reduction rate of seafood bun added 20% kimchi was higher relative to that of other samples. Mydrogen donating activity in all buns showed over 50% and seafood bun added 20% kimchi was higher than others, but the activity was lower than that of 0.1% BHT. The peroxide value for linoleic acid increased during the storage, the values in seafood bun added 20% kimchi was higher than others, but the activity was lower than that of 0.1% BHT. The peroxide value for linoleic acid increased during the storage, the values in seafood bun added 20% kimchi was significantly lower and the values in other buns were a lower than that of control, the values in all of the samples were higher than that in 0.1% BHT. Among the samples tested, the TBA value in the seafood bun added 20% kimchi for liver homogenate of rat was the lowest. Nitrite-scavenging effect in all the samples tested was higher than 50%.
Effect of Rice Addition on Enzyme Activities of Soybean Meju Fermented by Monascus spp.
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 8, issue 4, 2001, Pages 405~411
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of rice powder m tile enzyme (protease,
-amylase and glucoamylase) activities of soybean meju fermented by Monascus prepureus and Monascus pilosus. The activities of the enzyme in the rice meju and the soybean meju fermented by M. pilosus were higher than those by M. perpureus. Protease activity of powdered rice meju was higher than that of granular rice meju, while
-amylase and glucoamylase activities were higher in granular rice meju. Protease activity in soybean meju fermented by adding of the cultured medium of Monascus strains(CMM) as a seed inocula were higher than those of the rice powder meju, while
-amylase and glucoamylase activiities were lower than those of soybean meju by CMM. The concentration of rice powder to show maximum protease activity in soybean meju was also 10% against steamed soybean. But
-amylase activity of soybean medju by the CMM added 2% powdered rice showed lower but the activity increaed with an increase in powdered rice, whereas
-amylase and glucoamylase activiities decreased with an increase in powdered rice. Protease activity of soybean meju fermented by 10% rice meju fermented by M. pilo년 as a seed inocula was higher than that of the meju fermented by Aspergillus oryzae, whereas
-amylase and glucoamylase activities of the soybean meju showed less than 50%.
Monitoring of Alcohol Fermentation Condition with Brown Rice Using Raw Starch-Digesting Enzyme
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 8, issue 4, 2001, Pages 412~418
This study was carried out to set up alcohol fermentation condition for uncooked brown rice. Response surface methodology(RSM) was applied to optimize and monitor of the alcohol fermentation condition with uncooked brown rice. The optimal yeast strain for fermentation of uncooked brown rice was S. cerevisiae GRJ. The polynomial equation for alcohol contents, brix pH and total acditiy showed 0.8828, 0.8409, 0.9431 and 0.9280 of R
, respectively. Optimum range of uncooked alcohol fermentation for maximum alcohol contents were 0.34%(w/w) of enzyme concentration and 350%(w/w) of added water content, respectively. Predicted values at optimum alcohol fermentation condition agreed with experimental values.
Preparation of Freeze-dried Instant Spiced Toha-jeot (FIST)
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 8, issue 4, 2001, Pages 419~426
This study was carried out to develope a convenient instant spiced Toha-jeot. Toha-jeot was manufactured by five samples; 8%, 10%, 13% 23% sodium chloride and a conventional type soy sauce. The Toha-jeot was refrigerated at 4
for 3 months and then boiled glutinous rice, red pepper powder, chopped garlic and ginger were added, and the spiced Toha-jeot was fermented at 4
for 2 months, was freeze-dried at a condition of 40
, vacuum 100∼200 millitor millitorr and then packed in vacuum. It is called freeze-dried instant spiced Toha-jeot (FIST). Changes in the components and quality of refrigerated spiced Toha-jeot (RST) and FIST were investigated for 30day. The moisture content of RST was 53.79∼58.91%. Among the mineral constituents of RST, Na and Ca were dominantly occupying. Water activity of FIST was 0.28-0.39 while that of RST was 0.87-0.92. TBA value of FIST was lower than that of RST. Acidity, VBN (volatile basic nitrogen) and TBA(thiobarbituric acid) of the FIST and RST increased slightly, whereas pH decreased. The major components of fatty acids in FIST and RST were analysed into a feater amount of linoleic acid (Cl8:2), palmitic acid (Cl6:1), oleic acid (Cl8:1), linolenic acid (Cl8:3), EPA (C2O:5) and stearic acid(Cl8:0). In sensory evaluation, the RST had higher scores in color and taste and the FIST in chewiness and flavor. The qualitative characteristics and sensory evaluation of FIST and RST were similar.
Effects of Chitosan on Quality and Shelf-life of Paeksulgis Added Chitosan
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 8, issue 4, 2001, Pages 427~433
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chitosan on the shelf-life and quality of Paeksulkis(Korea rice cake). Paeksulgis containing 0-0.5% chitosan were stored at 5
for 4 week and 2
for 1 week to test the effect of extenting shelf-life of Paeksulgis by chitosan. The pH of Paeksulkis was 5.65 without chitosan and pH of those were about 7.0(6.94-7.01) with 0.05-0.5% level of chitosan. Moisture content of Paekrukis wish or without chitosan was 38-40%. In Hunter’s color values of Paeksulkis of control, the lightness (L) was 84.28, redness(a) was -1.56 and yellowness(b) was 7.68. The lightness (L), redness(a) and yellowness(b) of Paeksulkis were increased by the increasing concentration of chitosan. In mechanical characteristics, cohesiveness concentration of Paeksulkis were the highest in control while obtained the highest score in color, after swallowing and overall quality (p<0.05). The score of flavor and consistency of Paeksulkis with different levels of chitosan wre not significant while the score of moisture in Paeksulkis with 0.05-0.5% level of chitosan was significantly higher than control (p<0.05). The score of flavor and consistency of Paeksulkis with different levels of chitosan were not significant while the score of moisture in Paeksulkis with 0.05-0.5% level of chitosan was significantly higher than control (p<0.05). Total bacterial counts (TBC) of Paeksulgis immediately before storage were 4.2
CFU/g in control and those containing 0.3-0.5% of chitosan were 0.5-1.0 log cycle lower than control. TBC of Paelsulgis containing chitosan was lower than increased for 2 weeks, reached at 1.8
CFU/g and decreased for 2 weeks, reached at 1.8
CFU/g during storage at 5
. TBC of Paeksulkis with more than 0.3% of chitosan were 1.9 log cycles lower than that of control during storage at 5
. TBC of Paeksulkis with more than 0.3% of chitosan were 1.9 log cycles lower than that of control during storage at 5
for 4 weeks. TBC of Paeksulgis increased to 10
CFU/g in control and 10
CFU/g in more than 0.3% chitosan during storage at 20
for 1 week. The shelf-life of Paeksulkis was increased with increasing concentration of chitosan both temperature at 5
Effects of Attrition Milling in Wheat Flour on Starch Damaged of Dough and Bread Baking Properties
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 8, issue 4, 2001, Pages 434~441
The purpose of this research is the establishment of optimal processing and the quality improvement of confectionary analysis of the damaged starch content of flour. I studied the rheological and bread making properties of the dough containing different damaged starch content. I examined rheological and physico- chemical characteristic farinograph, extensograph and amylograph with DNS, CWRS and SW containing 6.5%, 8.2%, 9.0%, 9.0% and 10.5% of damaged starch. And I measured the hardness and specific volume and performed the functional survey by rheometer for quality control. In the amylogram, at the damaged starch content 9.5% at such the maximum viscosity was 900 B.U. the volume of bread fermention tolerance were increased. In addition, the extensegram after 135 min showed that maximum resistance of the dough were 570 B.U at the damaged starch contents of 9.5% and the bread had homogeneous air cells and internal structures at the damaged starch contents of 9.5% at which the area(A), resistance(R) and R/E value of the dough were highest.
Changes in the Constituents of Citrus Juice by Ultrafiltration
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 8, issue 4, 2001, Pages 442~448
The citrus juice obtained from Jeju mandarines, Citru unshiu, was filtered to remove 20% of its original volume through the hollow fiber ultrafiltration systems equipped with various pore sizes of membranes. As the results of ultrafiltration, the contents of total acids, ascorbic acid, ascorbic acid, free sugars and neohesperidin in retentate showed the tendencies of gradual decreases with the increase of membrane pore sizes from 10K to 100K daltons, but tendencies were inverted when the membrane with 500k was used. The changes of color, soluble solids, total nitrogen, amino-nitrogen, naringin and hesperidin were not consistent with the membrane pore size. Considering all the data obtained using various pen sizes of membranes, the filtration system with NMWC 500K daltons was the most effective to produce citrus juices with hither quality.
Changes in Chemical Components of Black Bean Chungkugjang Added wish Kiwi and Radish during Fermentation
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 8, issue 4, 2001, Pages 449~455
Changes in pH, titratable acidity, reducing sugar, nitrogen compound and mineral of black bean chungkugjang(BBC)added with kiwi and radish during fermentation were investigated. During fermentation of BBC, pH was increased, while titratable acidity was decreased. The changes in pH and titratable acidity of all chungkugjangs other than BBC were very rapid after 24 hrs of fermentation. Reducing sugar content was highest in BBC and was increased by 24 hrs of fermentation and decreased thereafter. Amino-type nitrogen increased rapidly after 24 hrs of fermentation. The addition of kiwi and radish increased the content of amino-type nitrogen in BBC by enhancing proteolysis of black bean, being as much as in soybean chungkugjang. At 72 hrs of fermentation BBC was found to be lower in ammonia type nitrogen than soybean chungkugjang. Mineral content, in general, was higher in BBC than in soybean chungkugjang, showing highest in potassium followed by phosphorus, magnesium and calcium.
Carotenoids pigment extraction from a wasted persimmon peel
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 8, issue 4, 2001, Pages 456~461
To develop the use of natural pigment for food, carotenoids from wasted persimmon peel were extracted with seven organic solvents. Among the solvents, acetone was a high yielding solvent of carotenoids. Extraction trends depending on process variables(temperature, time, solvent ratio to persimmon peel) were explained through response surface which was made by central composite experimental design. Carotenoid contents were increased with the extraction time and solvent ratio but it decreaed in the higher experimental design. Carotenoid contents were increased with the extraction time and solvent ratio but it decreased in the higher extraction temperature. The optimum conditions of extraction process variables were predicted as 29
, 93min. at fixed solvent ratio(1:27).
Antimicrobial Effects of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. Extract on Pathogenic Microorganisms
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 8, issue 4, 2001, Pages 462~468
To develop natural food preservative, antimicrobial activity of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (PD) ethanol extract against pathogens were investigated. The growth of pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29737, Bacillus subtils KCTC 1021, Bacillus megaterium KCTC 3007 and Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802 was inhibited as much as 4 to 6 log cycle in tryptic soy broth containing 40mg/㎖ of PD extract but Salmonalla typhimurium ATCC 14028 and Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 21541 were not inhibited. The total, gram negative and psychrotrophic bacterial count were inhibited in minced pork containing 40mg/㎖ of PD extract for 20 days at 4
. The sensory quality of hamburger patty such as taste, flavor and overall acceptability were not decreased by the addition of 40mg/㎖ PD(p<0.05).
Chemical Properties of Hot Water Extracts from Bamboos(Phyllostuhys sp.)
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 8, issue 4, 2001, Pages 469~474
Chemical composition of the water extract of three different kinds of bamboos was investigated to access nutritive sources. Bamboo stalks and leaves were extracted massively and concentrated to 3°Brix, and crude protein and fat contents of the extracts were respectively 0.56∼0.69% and 0.28∼0.58%. Main mineral contents of the extracts were K, P and Mg in order, and those were the highest in Wangdae stalks. In free sugar analysis of the extracts, Maengjongjuk stalks contained 1.1% sucrose, Somdae stalks contained 0.51% fructose and Wangdae stalks contained 0.6% glucose as the highest level. Organic acid contents of the extracts showed high level in acetic and malic acid which were 54.0 and 44.2mg% in extracts of Wangdae stalks respectively. Among amino acids, aspartic acid was contained the highest level in stalk extracts, and their concentrations were 42.2, 39.9 and 34.6mg% in Wangdae, Somdae and Maengjongjuk respectively. In leaf extracts, glutamic acid concentrations were higher than the other amino acids, and those were 19.3, 18.5 and 15.7mg% in Maengjongjuk, Wangdae and Somdae, respectively.
Functional Properties and Antimicrobial Activity of Bamboo(Phyllostachys sp.) Extracts
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 8, issue 4, 2001, Pages 475~480
Yields of bamboo extracts were 1.0∼1.5% in stalks and 3.1∼3.2% (w/w) in leaves. Electron donating ability of extracts from stalks was 62% in Maengjongjuk, 55% in Somdae and 52% in Wangdae, while that of leaf extracts showed very low level. On the contrary, nitrite-scavenging activity was higher in leaf extracts than stalk extracts, and the activity was 63, 57 and 55% in leaf extracts of Maengjongjuk, Wangdae and Somdae, respectively. Antimicrobial activity was examined against 7 major strains which cause food poisoning, and extracts of bamboo stalks showed somewhat activity, while leaf extracts showed merely or no activity according to strains. But all extracts showed relatively strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and extracts of Somdae stalks and Maengjongjuk leaves showed antimicrobial antimicrobial activity against those strains on 100
Antitumoral, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Solvent Ftactions from Grifola umbllatus
Korean Journal of Food Preservation, volume 8, issue 4, 2001, Pages 481~487
Grifola umbellatus was extracted using methanol, and the extract was further fractionated by water and ethyl acetate. Assay of each fraction with MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide] revealed significant cytotoxicity effect of the methanol extract of Grifola umbellatus against human gastric cancer cell but not normal human lymphocytes. The methanol extract showed the highest antioxidant activity as well. Antimicrobial activity of Grifola umbellants against Helicobacter pylori was higher in method extract than in other fractions. Grifola umbellatus had a significant inhibitory effect on Helicobacter pylori reducing both its growth and urease activity. These results show that the methanol extract of Grifola umbellatus possesses therapeutic potential on gastric diseases.