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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of Materials Processing
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Technology of Plasticity
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Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 8 - Dec 2003
Volume 12, Issue 7 - Nov 2003
Volume 12, Issue 6 - Oct 2003
Volume 12, Issue 5 - Aug 2003
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Jul 2003
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Apr 2003
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
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Blocker Design of Closed Die Forging with Wavelet Transform
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 12, issue 4, 2003, Pages 277~283
DOI : 10.5228/KSPP.2003.12.4.277
In a closed-die forging process, blocker has been used to fill and distribute metal well in finisher die. Generally, the blocker shape was determined by an expert with many experiences. However, the manual blocker design process takes much time and efforts, so various automatic methods for the blocker design process have been suggested for the last three decades. The method with filtering in FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) for the blocker design provides general solution than other methods. But. due to the properties of FFT in time-frequency domain, this method has some drawbacks such as long calculation time, difficulty of local control and additional boundary process after filtering. In this study. DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform), which is more flexible and is more wildly used than FFT, is applied to the blocker design. The method with filtering in DWT is very proper to design blocker in both 2-D and 3-D shapes. To verify the efficiency of this method, blockers of some models are designed and the results show that blocker design with DWT is effective for the blocker designs.
Effects of Nitrogen on Deformation Behavior of Duplex Stainless Steel
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 12, issue 4, 2003, Pages 284~289
DOI : 10.5228/KSPP.2003.12.4.284
The effects of nitrogen on the deformation behavior of duplex stainless steel have been studied. The variation of strength was correlated with the characteristic microstructures pertaining to nitrogen. Analysis based on Hall-fetch relation confirmed that nitrogen enhances phase-boundary strengthening effect. The evolution of dislocation structure, slip traces and misorientation distribution during deformation were also characterized to elucidate the effect of nitrogen on inelastic deformation mechanism. It has been verified in this study that the higher nitrogen content provides a dual-phase microstructure with smaller strength difference between austenite and ferrite resulting into the earlier transfer of inelastic deformation from austenite to ferrite.
Prediction of Microstructure During High Temperature Forming of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 12, issue 4, 2003, Pages 290~295
DOI : 10.5228/KSPP.2003.12.4.290
High temperature deformation behavior and prediction of final microstructure after forming of Ti-6Al-4V alloy were investigated in this study. Equiaxed and Widmanstatten microstructures of Ti-6Al-4V alloys were prepared as initial microstructures and compression tests were performed to obtain the flow curves at high temperatures (700∼110
) and various strain rates (10
/s). From the results of compression test, strain rate sensitivity (m) and activation energy (Q) were calculated and used to establish constitutive equation. To predict the final microstructure after farming, finite element analysis was performed considering the microstructural parameters such as grain size and volume fraction of second phase.
Finite Element Analysis of Glass Lens Forming Process Using Open Die
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 12, issue 4, 2003, Pages 296~301
DOI : 10.5228/KSPP.2003.12.4.296
Though a glass tens has outstanding optical performance, it has not been widely used because manufacturing process shows poor productivity and high cost. However, press-forming method of glass lens overcomes these disadvantages with mass production. When glass lens is produced by press-forming method using closed die, it is needed that the volume of glass lens preform is precisely measured in order to prevent incomplete products and to increase in life of die. The present. paper shows the shortcoming of forming process with closed die, and performs FEM simulation of forming process with open die in order to overcome this shortcoming. The design parameters of open die are selected on the basis of assembly with optical module and maintenance of optical performance. FEM simulation is carried out with selected parameter of open die and two basic preform. According to distribution of effective strain in glass lens, optical property of glass lens formed at each set of die and preform is compared.
Residual Stress Analysis of Rot Rolled Strip in Coiling Process
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 12, issue 4, 2003, Pages 302~307
DOI : 10.5228/KSPP.2003.12.4.302
Hot rolled strip is cooled by air and water in Run-Out-Table. In this process, phase transformation and shape deformation occurs due to temperature drop. Because of un-ideal cooling condition of ROT, irregular shape deformation and phase transformation arise in the strip. which affect the strip property and lead to the residual stress of strip. And these exert effects on the following processes, coiling process, coil cooling process, and re-coiling process. Through these processes, the residual stress becomes higher and severe. For the prediction of residual stress distribution and shape deformation of final product, Finite element(FE) based model was used. It consists of non-steady state heat transfer analysis, elasto-plastic analysis. thermodynamic analysis and phase transformation kinetics. Successive FEM simulation were applied from ROT process to coil cooling process. In each process simulation, previous process simulation results were used for the next process simulation. The simulation results were matched well with the experimental results.
Application of Dynamic Materials and Softening Models to the FEM Analysis of Hot Forging in SAF2507 Steel
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 12, issue 4, 2003, Pages 308~313
DOI : 10.5228/KSPP.2003.12.4.308
High temperature deformation and softening behavior of SAF 2507 super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) has been investigated in connection with an FEM analysis of hot forging process. Flow curves at various strain rates and temperatures were determined first from compression tests, and the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization were also formulated through the analysis of load relaxation test results. Using the dynamic materials theory proposed by Prasad, the deformation behavior was effectively determined for various conditions. Constitutive relations and recrystallization kinetics formulated from the test results were then implemented in a commercial FEM code. The forming load as well as the distribution of recrystallized volume fraction after forging was successfully predicted by means of the flow stress compensation formulated upon the volume fraction of recrystallization and adiabatic heating.
A Study on Shear Fracture Behavior of Metal in Micro Hole Punching Process
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 12, issue 4, 2003, Pages 314~319
DOI : 10.5228/KSPP.2003.12.4.314
In the micro hole punching, the size and shape of burr and burnish zone are very important factors to evaluate quality of micro holes which depend on punch-die clearance, strain rate, workpiece material and etc. To get micro holes with small burr and wide burnish zone for industrial demands, not only the parametric study but also a study on fracture behavior in shear band are necessary. In this study, 100
m micro holes in diameter were fabricated on brass (Cu63/Zn37) and SUS 316 foils as aspect ratio 1:1, and the characteristics of micro holes was investigated comparing with those of macro holes over several mm by scanning electron microscopic views and section views. Like macro hole, micro hole is also composed of 4 portions, rollover. burnish zone, fracture zone and burr, and it shows similar fracture behavior in shear band. But by high strain rate (10
) condition unlike that of macro hole fabrication and by the increment of relative grain size in the direction of the workpiece thickness, fracture zone is not observed.
Forming Analysis of the Front Side Member using Equivalent Draw-bead for Crashworthness Assessment
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 12, issue 4, 2003, Pages 320~327
DOI : 10.5228/KSPP.2003.12.4.320
This paper is concerned with forming analysis of Front Side Members and effects of the forming analysis on crash analysis of an auto-body. For efficient forming analysis, equivalent draw-bead restraining forces are calculated with ABAQUS/Standard and then used as the boundary condition in forming simulation. In order to demonstrate the validity of the forming analysis, the thickness variation in the numerical simulation result is compared quantitatively with the one in the real product. Forming histories obtained kom the forming analysis are utilized as the initial condition of the crash analysis for accurate assessment of the crashworthiness. Crashworthiness such as the load-carrying capacity, crash mode and the energy absorption is evaluated and investigated for the identification of forming effects.
Evaluation of Flow Stress using Geometric Conditions of Ball Indentation Tests
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 12, issue 4, 2003, Pages 328~333
DOI : 10.5228/KSPP.2003.12.4.328
Ball indentation tests have been used to estimate the mechanical properties of materials by several investigators. In this study, load-depth curves from ball indentation tests were analyzed using the geometric conditions of the contact between ball and specimen. A series of numerical calculations and experimental results showed that the contact load-depth curves could be simplified by linear functions. Once we obtained the contact indentation depth from linearizing the experimental indentation curves, the estimation process of the flow properties became straight-forward and the scatter of results could be drastically reduced.
A New All-Hexahedral Refinement Technique by Automatic Expansion of Zero Thickness Element Layers
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 12, issue 4, 2003, Pages 334~339
DOI : 10.5228/KSPP.2003.12.4.334
This paper presents a new algorithm that enables the refinement of hexahedral elements while maintaining the appropriate connectivity. In the algorithm, at first the regions of mesh to be refined are defined and, then, the zero-thickness element layers are inserted into the interfaces between the regions. All the meshes in the regions, in which the zero-thickness layers are inserted, are to be regularized in order to improve the shape of the slender elements on the interfaces. This algorithm is applied to the analysis of plastic deformation process. The results show that the refined mesh gives smaller relative errors than the original mesh.
An Effective Mesh Smoothing Technique for the Mesh Constructed by the Mesh Compression Technique
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 12, issue 4, 2003, Pages 340~347
DOI : 10.5228/KSPP.2003.12.4.340
In the rigid-plastic finite element simulation of hot forging processes using hexahedral mesh, remeshing of a flash is important for design and control of the process to obtain desirable defect-free products. The mesh compression method is a remeshing technique which enables the construction of an effective hexahedral mesh in the flash. However, because the mesh is distorted during the compression procedure of the mesh compression method, when it is used in resuming the analysis, it causes discretization error and decreases the conversance rate. Therefore, mesh smoothing is necessary to improve the mesh quality. In this study, several geometric mesh smoothing techniques and optimization techniques are introduced and modified to improve mesh quality. Then, the most adaptive technique is recommended for the mesh compression method.
Investigation on the Description Method of Extrusion Die Surface using NURBS Surface and Area Mapping Method
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 12, issue 4, 2003, Pages 348~357
DOI : 10.5228/KSPP.2003.12.4.348
In order to construct the extrusion die surface of arbitrarily shaped sections, an automatic surface construction method based on NURBS surface and area mapping method is proposed in the present work. A center point fur area mapping is determined by introducing the mapping concept based on constant area proportionality between original billet and final product. The characteristic points of inlet profile are determined using the traditional area mapping method and the root finding numerical method. The inlet and outlet profiles are precisely described with NURBS curves using the characteristic points of entry and exit sections. For the construction of NURBS surface, an interpolation method for the pre-determined two section curves has been developed to be used in the generation of interior control points and weights. To show the validity of the proposed method, automatic die surface generation is carried out for the several kinds of shaped sections.
Prediction of Serrated Chip Formation in High Speed Metal Cutting
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 12, issue 4, 2003, Pages 358~363
DOI : 10.5228/KSPP.2003.12.4.358
Adiabatic shear bands have been observed in the serrated chip during high strain rate metal cutting process of medium carbon steel and titanium alloy The recent microscopic observations have shown that dynamic recrystallization occurs in the narrow adiabatic shear bands. However the conventional flow stress models such as the Zerilli-Armstrong model and the Johnson-Cook model, in general, do not predict the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) in the shear bands and the thermal softening effects accompanied by DRX. In the present study, a strain hardening and thermal softening model is proposed to predict the adiabatic shear localized chip formation. The finite element analysis (FEA) with this proposed flow stress model shows that the temperature of the shear band during cutting process rises above 0.5Τ
. The simulation shows that temperature rises to initiate dynamic recrystallization, dynamic recrystallization lowers the flow stress, and that adiabatic shear localized band and the serrated chip are formed. FEA is also used to predict and compare chip formations of two flow stress models in orthogonal metal cutting with AISI 1045. The predictions of the FEA agreed well with the experimental measurements.s.
Study on the Cold Formability of Drawn Non-heat Treated Steels
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 12, issue 4, 2003, Pages 364~369
DOI : 10.5228/KSPP.2003.12.4.364
Non-heat treated steels are attractive in the steel-wire industry since the spheroidization and quenching-tempering treatment are not involved during the processing. However, non-heat treated steels should satisfy high strength and good formability without performing heat treatment. Therefore, it is important to investigate optimum materials showing a good combination of strength and formability after the drawing process. In this study, three different steels such as dual phase steel, low-Si steel, and ultra low carbon bainitic steel were used to study their mechanical properties and the cold formability. The cold formability of three steels was investigated by estimating the deformation resistance and the forming limit. The deformation resistance was estimated by calculating the deformation energy, and the forming limit was evaluated by measuring the critical strain revealing crack initiation at the notch tip of the specimens. The results showed that deformation resistance was the lowest in the low-Si steel, and the forming limit strains of ultra low carbon bainitic steel and low-Si steel were higher than that of commercial SWRCH45F steel.
Determination and Analysis of Interface Heat Transfer Coefficients in Hot Forming of Ti-6Al-4V
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 12, issue 4, 2003, Pages 370~375
DOI : 10.5228/KSPP.2003.12.4.370
Determination of the interface heat transfer coefficient was investigated in non-isothermal bulk forming of glass-coated Ti-6Al-4V. FE analysis and experiments were conducted. Equipment consisting of AISI Hl3 die was instrumented with thermocouples located at sub-surface of the bottom die. Die temperature changes were investigated in related to the process variables such as reduction, lubricant and initial die temperature. The calibration approach based on heat conduction and FE analysis using an inverse algorithm were used to evaluate the interface heat transfer between graphite-lubricated die and glass-coated workpiece. The coefficients determined were affected mainly by the contact pressure. The validation of the coefficients was made by the comparison between experimental data and FE analysis results.
An Investigation of Microstructural Evolution and Sliding Wear Behavior of Ultra-Fine Grained 5052 Aluminum Alloy Fabricated by an Accumulative Roll-Bonding Process
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 12, issue 4, 2003, Pages 376~381
DOI : 10.5228/KSPP.2003.12.4.376
Microstructural evolution and dry sliding wear behavior of ultra-fine grained 5052 Al alloy obtained by an accumulative roll-bonding process have been investigated. After 7 ARB cycles, ultra-fine grains with a large misorientation between neighboring grains were obtained. The grain size was about 0.2
m. The hardness, tensile and yield strengths of the ultra-fine grained alloy increased as the amount of accumulated strain increased with the ARB cycles. Sliding wear tests of the ultra-fine grained 5052 Al alloy were conducted at room temperature. Wear rate of the ultra-fine grained alloy increased in spite of the increase of hardness. Surface of the worn specimens were examined with SEM to investigate wear mechanism of the ultra-fine grained alloy.
Finite Element Analysis of Nanoindentation Process and its Experimental Verification
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 12, issue 4, 2003, Pages 382~387
DOI : 10.5228/KSPP.2003.12.4.382
In this study, to achieve the optimal conditions for mechanical hyper-fine pattern fabrication process, deformation behaviors of the materials during indentation were studied with numerical method by ABAQUS S/W. Brittle materials (Si, Pyrex glass 7740) were used as specimens, and forming conditions to reduce the elastic recovery and pile-up were proposed. The indenter was modeled a rigid surface. Minimum mesh sizes of specimens are 1-10nm. Comparisons between the experimental data and numerical result demonstrated that the finite element approach is capable of reproducing the loading-unloading behavior of a nanoindentation test.
Study on Electrochemical Polishing for Stainless Steel 300 Series using Micro Pulse Current
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 12, issue 4, 2003, Pages 388~393
DOI : 10.5228/KSPP.2003.12.4.388
Electrolytic polishing is the anodic dissolution process in the transpassive state. It removes non-metallic inclusions and improves mechanical and corrosion resistance of stainless steel. Electrolytic polishing is normally used to remove a very thin layer of material from the surface of a metal object. An electrolyte of phosphoric acid 50% in vol., sulfuric acid 20% in vol. and distilled water 30% in vol. has been used in this study. In the low current density region, there can be found plateau region and material removal process and leveling process occur successively. In this study, an electrochemical polishing process using pulse current is adopted as a new electrochemical polishing process. In electrochemical machining processes, it has been found that pulse electrochemical processes provide an attractive alternative to the electrochemical processes using continuous current. Hence, this study will discuss the electrochemical polishing processes in low current density region and pulse electrochemical polishing.
Study on the Frictional Behavior, Wear and Corrosion Resistance of Textured TiN Coated Layers
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 12, issue 4, 2003, Pages 394~400
DOI : 10.5228/KSPP.2003.12.4.394
TiN coated films exhibit excellent mechanical properties such as high wear, erosion and corrosion resistances and a high thermal stability. Therefore, they are widely applied to a coating material in tools, ornaments, parts and semiconductors. However, the fracture of TiN coated films frequently occurs. The distribution of preferred orientations, i.e., texture, of TiN coated films strongly influences the fracture behavior of these films. In the present study. various TiN coating layers having different textures were prepared by the reactive ion physical vapor deposition and the texture dependence of friction coefficient, erosion and corrosion in these coating layers was investigated. The sample depicting the (115) texture parallel to the coating layer normal displayed a flatter surface than that observed from the sample having the (111) texture. The friction coefficient of TiN thin films was hardly dependent on the texture of coated samples. The samples having (115) texture displayed higher wear, erosion and corrosion resistances than the samples having (111) texture.
Efficiency Enhancement in Sheet Metal Forming Analysis with a Mesh Regularization Method
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 12, issue 4, 2003, Pages 401~407
DOI : 10.5228/KSPP.2003.12.4.401
This paper newly proposes a mesh regularization method for the enhancement of the efficiency in sheet metal forming analysis. The regularization method searches for distorted elements with appropriate searching criteria and constructs patches including the elements to be modified. Each patch is then extended to a three-dimensional surface in order to obtain the information of the continuous coordinates. In constructing the surface enclosing each patch, NURBS(Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline) surface is employed to describe a three-dimensional free surface. On the basis of the constructed surface, each node is properly arranged to form unit elements as close as to a square. The state variables calculated from its original mesh geometry are mapped into the new mesh geometry for the next stage or incremental step of a forming analysis. The analysis results with the proposed method are compared to the results from the direct forming analysis without mesh regularization in order to confirm the validity of the method.
Estimation of Die Service Life for Die Cooling Method in Hot Forging
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 12, issue 4, 2003, Pages 408~413
DOI : 10.5228/KSPP.2003.12.4.408
Dies may have to be replaced for a number of reasons, such as changes in dimensions due to die wear or plastic deformation, deterioration of the surface finish, break down of lubrication and cracking or breakage. In this paper, die cooling methods have been suggested to improve die service life considering die wear and plastic deformation in hot forging process. The yield strength of die decreases at higher temperatures and is dependent on hardness. Also, to evaluate die life due to wear, modified Archard`s wear model has been proposed by considering the thermal softening of die expressed in terms of the main tempering curve. It was found that the use of die with cooling hole was more effective than that of direct cooling method to increase the die service life for spindle component.