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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of Materials Processing
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Technology of Plasticity
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 8 - Dec 2011
Volume 20, Issue 7 - Nov 2011
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Oct 2011
Volume 20, Issue 5 - Aug 2011
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Jul 2011
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Manufacturing of Thick Film for Rotary Screen using Electroforming
Kwon, H.H. ; Park, S.H. ; Beom, M.W. ;
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 20, issue 2, 2011, Pages 93~98
DOI : 10.5228/KSTP.2011.20.2.93
Electroforming is a kind of metal molding technology. After gilding on the possession object(conductivity, nonconductivity) separate it with possession object and produce a part or duplicate. This process has an excellent ability of duplicating detailed figure. To simplify the manufacturing process of a rotary screen, this study was adopted electroforming technology and produced silicon rubber mandrel. Furthermore, to indicate the optimal condition for the acquisition of high-qualified rotary screen product, the experiment was executed with pH, time, sulfamate nickel solution according to density which were the main factors to decide the condition, then compared it with the product made by original "S" company in Holland. As a result, the figure of hole was more obvious and correct. Also the open size increased by more than 2-3%.
Contact Pressure Effect on Frictional Behavior of Sheet Steel for Automotive Stamping
Han, S.S. ;
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 20, issue 2, 2011, Pages 99~103
DOI : 10.5228/KSTP.2011.20.2.99
Many parameters influence the frictional behavior of steel sheet during stamping. The contact pressure between a die and a sheet during stamping is one of them. Thus, this parameter is investigated for high strength steel (HSS) sheets, which are widely used for auto body panels due to their potential for weight reduction. Since HSS extend the limits of contact pressure for mild steel, the effect of this parameter on friction cannot be ignored. To investigate the influence of contact pressure on the frictional behavior of steel sheets, a flat type of friction test was conducted on three different steel sheets under various contact pressures. For bare steel sheets, the curve representing the relationship between contact pressure and friction coefficient exhibits a U shape. Coated steel sheets show a similar tendency except at low contact pressure. For these materials, when the contact pressure is very low, the friction coefficient slightly increases with pressure before it starts to decrease. The test results show that the effect of contact pressure on frictional behavior of steel sheet is not negligible even for contact pressures that are lower than the strength of HSS sheet.
Connector Design in Press Forming Process to Prevent Frame Twisting of Metal Front Case for Mobile Phone
Lee, I.K. ; Lee, C.J. ; Son, Y.K. ; Lee, J.M. ; Kim, D.H. ; Kim, B.M. ;
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 20, issue 2, 2011, Pages 104~109
DOI : 10.5228/KSTP.2011.20.2.104
The metal front case of a mobile phone is manufactured by press forming and welding of thin metal sheets. Twisting of the frame after the forming process is one of main obstacle for the assembly with reinforcement by welding. This study introduces a method preventing twisting of the metal front case frame in press forming. The spring-back after forming produces twisting of the frame, which leads to a low structural stiffness. To reduce twisting, connectors are required to reinforce the structural stiffness of the frame. In this study, the twisting profile is evaluated using a finite element(FE) analysis for various connector shapes. The actual connector shape is determined by minimization of the frame twisting within the tolerance of the FE-analysis. To verify the validity of the proposed blank shape, a forming experiment is performed and the twisting profile is measured using a 3D laser scanning method. The dimensional accuracy is found to be within the tolerance and in good agreement with the FE-analysis.
Progressive Process Design of Integrated Part for Mobile Phone
Chang, M.J. ; Kim, G.H. ; Lee, C.J. ; Kim, B.M. ; Lee, S.B. ; Ko, D.C. ;
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 20, issue 2, 2011, Pages 110~117
DOI : 10.5228/KSTP.2011.20.2.110
The purpose of this work is to develop of a press forming process for mobile phone battery cover as an alternative to the current manufacturing process by laser welding. This press forming process consists of a combination of bending, side pressing and side bending operations. The dimensional error for each process was investigated by finite element(FE) analysis and the Taguchi optimization method. The spreading of the cover width in the side pressing process was adjusted by modifying the blank shape with a notch. The over-bending method was adopted to compensate the spring-back which occurs after bending. Forming experiments were performed to verify the reliability of the developed press forming process. In addition, the strength of the product was evaluated to verify the suitability of the battery cover manufactured with this new press forming process. The results of the forming experiments indicate that the dimensional accuracy of the battery cover is within the required tolerance. The strength of the battery cover was evaluated to 547N which is larger than required strength of 400N.
Characterization of Direct Laser Melting Technology for the Fabrication of Fuel Cell Bipolar Plate
Mun, S.M. ; Jang, J.H. ; Kim, T.H. ; Lee, H.J. ; Moon, Y.H. ;
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 20, issue 2, 2011, Pages 118~123
DOI : 10.5228/KSTP.2011.20.2.118
Manufacturing of the bipolar plate of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) by direct laser melting technology (DLM) was attempted. The DLM technology is highly influenced by process parameters such as laser power, scan rate and layering height. Therefore, an analysis of the DLM technology was performed under various conditions. The bipolar plates were fabricated using the DLM process with 316L stainless steel (STS 316L) plates and powder. Powder melting trials at various energy density were performed in order to select a feasible melting range for a given laser power. The melting line height increases and eventually saturates when the energy density increases, but decreases when the laser power increases at a given energy density. For the estimation of the potential performance of the bipolar plate, the surface roughness and contact resistance of the DLM layer were also analyzed. The changes of line height and thickness are useful information to report when manufacturing bipolar plate of fuel cell through the DLM process.
Statistical Study on Correlation Between Design Variable and Shape Error in Flexible Stretch Forming
Seo, Y.H. ; Heo, S.C. ; Kang, B.S. ; Kim, J. ;
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 20, issue 2, 2011, Pages 124~131
DOI : 10.5228/KSTP.2011.20.2.124
A flexible stretch forming process is useful for small quantity batch production because various shape changes of the flexible die can be achieved conveniently. In this study, the design variables, namely, the punch size, curvature radius and elastic pad thickness, were quantitatively evaluated to understand their influence on sheet formability using statistical methods such as the correlation and regression analyses. Forming simulations were designed and conducted by a three-way factorial design to obtain numerical values of a shape error. Linear relationships between the design variables and the shape error resulted from the Pearson correlation analysis. Subsequently, a regression analysis was also conducted between the design variables and the shape error. A regression equation was derived and used in the flexible die design stage to estimate the shape error.
Numerical Study of Shadow Effect on Slab Deformation in Reheating Furnace
Noh, J.H. ; Hwang, B.B. ; Maeng, J.W. ; Kim, J.D. ;
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 20, issue 2, 2011, Pages 132~139
DOI : 10.5228/KSTP.2011.20.2.132
Three dimensional simulations were performed for the deformation of a slab in a roller hearth type slab reheating furnace. The main objective of this study was to examine the deformation pattern of the slab due to the shadow effect, i.e., the temperature difference between the upper and lower slab surfaces, in particular, the variations of displacement and effective stress in the vertical direction. A commercially available FE code, ANSYS Workbench
, was used in a fully coupled thermo-elasticity analysis. Several cases with different slab surface temperatures were selected for the simulations. For the sake of simplicity, the temperature environment inside the furnace was assumed to be homogeneous for the upper and lower faces of the slab. Two cases of with different slab width were selected as model geometry. The deformation patterns were computed and explained in terms of periodicity and symmetry. The results indicated that the shadow effect leads to a significant displacement in the vertical direction and, thereby, is one of the main reasons for the separation of the slab and its supports. These simulations also predicted that the deformation is more severe along the transverse direction than along the longitudinal direction.
Effect of Post Heat Treatment on Bonding Interfaces in Ti/STS409L/Ti Cold Rolled Clad Materials
Bae, D.S. ; Kim, W.J. ; Eom, S.C. ; Park, J.H. ; Lee, S.P. ; Kim, M.J. ; Kang, C.Y. ;
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 20, issue 2, 2011, Pages 140~145
DOI : 10.5228/KSTP.2011.20.2.140
The aim of the present study is to derive optimized post heat treatment temperatures to get a proper formability for Ti/STS409L/Ti clad materials. These clad materials were fabricated by cold rolling followed by a post heat treatment process for 10 minutes at temperatures ranging from
. The microstructure of the interface was observed using a Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM) and an Energy Dispersive X-ray Analyser(EDX) in order to investigate the effects of post heat treatment on the bonding properties of the Ti/STS409L/Ti clad materials. Diffusion bonding was observed at the interfaces with a diffusion layer thickness increasing with the post heat treatment temperature. The diffusion layer was composed of a type of(
) intermetallic compound containing additional elements, namely, Fe, Ti and Ni. The micro Knoop hardness of the Ti/STS409L interfaces was found to increase with heat treatment up to
and then decrease for temperatures rising up to
. The tensile strength was shown to decrease for heat treatment temperature increasing to
and then increase rapidly for temperature rising up to
. A post heat treatment temperature range of
was found to optimize the formability of Ti/STS409L/Ti clad materials.
Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of Forming Characteristics for AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Sheet
Lee, M.G. ; Kim, H.J. ;
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 20, issue 2, 2011, Pages 146~153
DOI : 10.5228/KSTP.2011.20.2.146
This study aimed at providing an experimental database for the mechanical properties of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheet such as stress-strain curve, yield stress, R-value and forming limit diagram(FLD) at various strain-rates and temperatures. Tensile tests were carried out on specimens having the orientations of
to the rolling direction with different crosshead speeds in the range between 0.008 and 8 mm/s at temperature from 25(room temperature) to
. The influence of the specimen gage length on the tensile properties was investigated. FLD tests were performed at punch speed of 0.1 and 1.0 mm/s in the same temperature range as that of the tensile tests. Swift cup tests were conducted to verify the usefulness of the material database and the reliability of the finite element analysis(FEA). The effects of strain-rate as well as temperature were taken into account in these simulations. It was shown that the FLD-based failure was reasonably well predicted by the thermal-deformation coupled analysis for this rate-sensitive material.
Roll Die Forming Process for Manufacturing Clutch Hub in Automotive Transmission
Ko, D.H. ; Lee, S.K. ; Kwon, Y.N. ; Kim, S.W. ; Lee, H.S. ; Park, E.S. ; Kim, B.M. ; Ko, D.C. ;
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 20, issue 2, 2011, Pages 154~159
DOI : 10.5228/KSTP.2011.20.2.154
The roll die forming (RDF) process is a new manufacturing technique for producing gear parts such as clutch drum and clutch hub in automotive transmission. In the RDF process, the material is deformed by a roll installed on a die set. Excellent productivity, low forming load and improved dimensional accuracy have quantitatively been shown to be the benefits of the RDF. In this study, the RDF process is applied to manufacture a clutch hub with a gear shaped part. A finite element (FE) analysis was performed in order to investigate the material strain field and dimension of the final product. Based on the result of the FE analysis, a RDF experiment was performed and the dimensional accuracy of the final product was validated. This work demonstrates that RDF is a process capable of producing a sound clutch hub.
Process Development for Automotive Hybrid Hood using Magnesium Alloy AZ31B Sheet
Jang, D.H. ;
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 20, issue 2, 2011, Pages 160~166
DOI : 10.5228/KSTP.2011.20.2.160
Weight reduction while maintaining functional requirements is one of the major goals in the automotive industry. The use of lightweight magnesium alloys offers great potential for reducing weight because of the low density of these alloys. However, the formability and the surface quality of the final magnesium alloy product for auto-body structures are not acceptable without a careful optimization of the design parameters. In order to overcome some of the main formability limitations in the stamping of magnesium alloys, a new approach, the so-called "hybrid technology", has been recently proposed for body-in-white structural components. Within this approach, necessary level of mechanical joining can be obtained through the use of lightweight material-steel adhesion promoters. This paper presents the development process of an automotive hybrid hood assembly using magnesium alloy sheets. In the first set of material pairs, the selected materials are magnesium alloy AZ31B alloy and steel(SGCEN) as inner and outer panels, respectively. In order to optimize the design of the inner panel, the stamping process was analyzed with the finite element method (FEM). Laser welding by CW Nd:YAG were used to join the magnesium alloy sheets. Based on the simulation results and mechanical test results of the joints, the determination of die design variables and their influence on formability were discussed. Furthermore, a prototype based on the proposed design was manufactured and the static stiffness test was carried out. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed hybrid hood with a weight reduction of 25.7%.
Application of Failure Criteria in Aluminum Sheet Forming Analysis
Kim, Ki-Jung ; Nguyen, Ngoc-Trung ; Kim, Dae-Young ; Kim, Heon-Young ;
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 20, issue 2, 2011, Pages 167~172
DOI : 10.5228/KSTP.2011.20.2.167
The numerical simulation of the Forming Limit Diagram(FLD) test was carried out to calculate the limiting dome height(LDH: ISO12004-2) for aluminum alloy sheet Al6061-T6. The finite element analysis was used as an effective method for evaluating formability and diagnosing possible production problems in sheet stamping operations. To predict fracture during the stamping process, several failure models such as Cockcroft-Latham, Rice-Tracey, Brozzo and ESI-Wilkins-Kamoulakos(EWK) criteria were applied. The predicted results were discussed and compared with the experiments for Al6061-T6.
Influence of Molding Conditions on Environmental Stress Cracking Resistance of Injection Molded Part
Choi, D.S. ; Kim, H.S. ;
Transactions of Materials Processing, volume 20, issue 2, 2011, Pages 173~178
DOI : 10.5228/KSTP.2011.20.2.173
Environmental Stress Cracking(ESC) is one of the most common causes of unexpected brittle failure of thermoplastic polymers. The exposure of polymers to liquid chemicals tends to accelerate the crazing process, initiating crazes at stresses that are much lower than the stress causing crazing in air. In this study, ESC of acrylonitirile butadiene styrene(ABS) was investigated as a function of the molding conditions such as injection velocity, packing pressure, and melt temperature. A constant strain was applied to the injection molded specimens through a 1.26% strain jig and a mixture of toluene and isopropyl alcohol was used as the liquid chemical. In order to examine the effects of the molding conditions on ESC, an experimental design method was adopted and it was found that the injection velocity was the dominant factor. In addition, predictions from numerical analyses were compared with the experimental results. It was found that the residual stress in the injection molded part was associated with the environmental stress cracking resistance (ESCR).