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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Fisheries Business Adminidtration
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Dec 1984
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Jun 1984
Selecting the target year
The Theory of Fisherman's Successor-Cultivation
The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration, volume 15, issue 1, 1984, Pages 1~57
The fisherman has been playing the roles of forming the fisheries village and surviving the fisheries production. Therefore, we should understand the nature of the fisherman's successor-cultivation which has been performed in order to maintain equlibrium between the fisheries economy and the national economy. Thesedays, fisherman's successor-cultivation mainly has been undertaken by the government in order to facilitate forming the economic foundation of fisherman's successor who has intended to choose "fisheries" as his own occupation in the future. From the above-mentioned, we find the meaning of the undertaking as both securing the foundation of living permanently and having the worth-while life of a professional fisherman by the survival and growth of his own business. And then, choosing the "fisheries" as an occupation, the successor should be satisfied with the requisites of occupation: 1) maintaining one's living, 2) working out one's individuality, 3) fulfilling one's social role-through engaging in the fisheries. Therefore, in order to have these requisites satisfied, I intend to suggest the followings : Firstly to maintain one's living, the environment of fisheies village should be kept in good condition to facilitate the successor's economic performance. Secondly to work out one's individuality, the fisheries' educational system should be adjusted to improve fisherman's ability. 1 hope to institute "the course of regional fisheries management" in fisheries high school and junior vocational collage, and "the school of fisheries management" for the learning of advanced fisheries knowledge. Thirdly to fulfill one's role, the opportunity actively participating in decision-making of the village's affair should be prepared more sufficiently, and the present fishing-centered fisheries system should be reformed into the fish-farming-centered fisheries system. To do this, the long-perspective vision is necessary. These three suggestions are come out from the macro-view point. Meanwhile the fisherman as an individual to improve his business is from the micro-view point. That is, the public aid, financial and legal, should be prepared. The above-mentioned suggestions are necessary to equalize fisherman's social status with other professional's especially from the result of improving the successor's economic force. Therefore, the principle of cultivating the fisherman's successor should be the principle of social equilibrium. be the principle of social equilibrium.
A Study on the Classification of Islands by PCA(II)
The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration, volume 15, issue 1, 1984, Pages 58~80
The classification of islands is prerequisite for establishing a development policy to vitalize many-sided function of islands. We try to classify the 440 inhabited islands which exist in Jeon-Nam area and Kyong-Nam area by means of PCA. PCA begins with making correlation matrix of orignal variables. From this matrix we can comprehend the rough relationships between two variables. Next, we look for the eigenvalues which are roots of characteristic equation of correlation matrix. The number of eigenvalues is equal to that of original variables. We choose the largest eigenvalue λ
among them and then look for the eigenvector of correlation matrix corresponding to the largest eigenvalue. Linear combination of eigenvector obtained above and original variables is namely first Principal Component (PC). Using an eigenvalue criterion(λ
1), we choose 3 PCs in Jeon-Nam area and 2 PCs in Kyong-Nam area. But we decide to consider only two PCs in both areas to faciliate a comparative analysis. Now, loss of information is 31.7% in Jeon-Nam area and 26.64% in Kyong-Nam area. PCs extracted by preceding procedure have characteristics as follows. The first PC relates to aggregate size of islands in case of both areas. The second PC relates to income per household, factors of agricultural production and factors of fisheries production in Jeon-Nam area, but in Kyong-Nam area it means distance from island and income per household. A classification of islands can be attained by plotting component scores of each island in graph used two PCs as axes and grouping similiar islands. 6 groups are formed in Jeon-Nam area and 5 groups in Kyong-Nam area. The result of this study in kyong-Nam area accords with prior result of study.
A Study on the Overseas Investment of Fisheries under the 200 Nautical Miles System
The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration, volume 15, issue 1, 1984, Pages 81~95
The international marine system was plunged into the age of divided occupation with the adoption of the United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea in April, 1982. The exclusive economic zone of 200 Nautical miles set up by the Convention confirms the assertions of many coastal states whose fishing industries are not well-developed. However, it is unfavorable to the countries whose fisheries are being carried on in deep-sea, because the coastal state has sovereign rights to conserve and manage living resources in it. Under the circumstances the Korean deep-sea fisheries had to find ways out of the difficulties. The ways may be divided into two ways, namely, licensed fishing and joint-venture fishing. The former type becomes unfavorable to foveign fisheries because of decreasing quarts, rising fees and remunerations. The latter type properly meets the wishes of countries concerned and has some merits. However, there is a possibility of bearing the risk in case of investment in developing countries. The insurance system is effective to make up for the loss from the risk, although not perfect. The deep-sea fisheries depressed now by accumulated difficulties need more financial support from the Goverment for the active promotion of overseas joint-venture.
The Conditions of the Entrepreneurial Laver Culture
The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration, volume 15, issue 1, 1984, Pages 96~113
It has been appeared since 1979 that the pattern of laver culture changes from household management to entrepreneurial management. The typical entrepreneurial laver culture management (ELCM) can be defined as a management by the floating aquaculturing method and mechanical processing system. Historical studies show that the ELCM could be operated only under the following condintions; \circled1 securing capital, labor and aquaculturing farm. \circled2 Leveling up of technology to combine these resources effectively. \circled3 Realizing its true value of products for good profits. In turning from household mangement to ELCM, there are some obstacles as follows ; \circled1 Uncertainty, which cannot maintein the merit of mass production because the object of laver culture is living in the sea. \circled2 Immaturity of management owing manly to the lower level of technology and scarcity of competent managers. \circled3 Social problems ; lack of aquaculturing farm, overpopulation in fishing villiage, side-job with agriculture etc. For these reasons, there has been household management with overlabor and underconsumption in fishing village. In order that ELCM can enter the stage of maturity, those problems should be solved. Because ef laver industrial inferiority, these can be solved by the support assistance of government. As the required conditions in ELCM are filled by the government policy, ELCM are increased recently in its numbers.
Demand Analysis of Fresh-fish in the Urban Communities
The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration, volume 15, issue 1, 1984, Pages 114~130
The structure of food demand is being changed according to the improvement of living standard. Moreover, the intake of animal protein is stepping up. This paper considers how much fresh-fish is consumed as source of animal protein and what extent fresh-fish have substitutive relation for meat with special reference to the change of income and price of fresh-fish and meat. And it is thought to be important work to estimate demand of fresh-fish in attemps to the prediction of food consume pattern and fishing industries in the future. For this estimation, the substitutive relation of fresh-fish and meat is essentially studied. The main conclusions of this study can be drawn as follows: 1. Fresh-fish and meat have substitutive relation on price axis. By the way, increase in demand of A (fresh-fish which have comparatively low price) can be expected according to the low of it's price against meat, but B (fresh-fish wihich have comparatively middle-high price) have peculiar demand without substitutive relation for meat. 2. Demand of A and B rise according to the income increases. 3. It is not sufficient to explain substutive relation of fresh-fish and meat without income variable. 4. Income increases bring about the more increase in demand of B than A. By the way, price increases bring about the decrease of it's consume expenditure, but A have fundamental demand as the source of animal protein. 5. In future, the intake of animal protein will step up. By the way, meat will occupy the more portion of the source of animal protein than fresh-fish.
Foreign Entry Strategies for Korean Fishery Firms
The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration, volume 15, issue 1, 1984, Pages 131~153
Fishery resources are still abundant compared with other resources and the possibility of exploitation is probably great. The Korean fishery industry has grown remarkably since 1957, and Korea is ranked as one of the major fishery countries. Its of fishery products reached the 9th in the world and the value of exports was 5th in 1982. But recently a growth rate has slowed down, due to the enlargement of territorial seas by the declaration of the 200 mile, Exclusive Economic Zone, the tendency to develop fishery resources strate-gically in international bargaining, the change in function of the international organizations, the expansion of regulated waters, the illegal arrest of our fishing boats, the rapid rise in oil prices, and the fall in fish prices, the development of fishery resources as a symbol of nationalism, the fishing boats decreptitude, the rise of crew wages, regulations on fishing methods, fish species, fishing season, size of fish, and mesh size, fishing quotas and the demand of excessive fishing royalties. Besides the the obligation of coastal countries, employing crews of their host countries is also an example of the change in the international environment which causes the aggravation of foreign profit of fishing firms. To ameliorate the situation, our Korean fishery firms must prepare efficient plans and study systematically to internationalize themselves because such existing methods as conventional fishing entry and licence fishing entry are likely to be unable to cope with international environmental change. Thus, after the systematic analysis of the problem, some new combined alternatives might be proposed. These are some of the new schemes to support this plan showing the orientation of our national policy: 1. Most of the coastal states, to cope with rapid international environmental change and to survive in the new era of ocean order, have rationalized their higher governmental structure concerning the fishery industries. And the coastal countries which are the objectives of our expecting entry, demand excessive economic and technical aid, limit the number of fishing boats’entry and the use of our foreign fishing bases, and regulate the membership of the international fishery commissions. Especially, most of the coastal or island countries are recently independent states, which are poorer in national budget, depend largely on fishing royalties and licence entry fees as their main resources of national finance. 2. Alternatives to our entry to deep sea fishing, as internationalization strategies, are by direct foreign investment method. About 30 firms have already invested approximately US $ 8 million in 9 coastal countries. Areas of investment comprise the southern part of the Atlantic Ocean, the Moroccan sea and five other sea areas. Trawling, tuna purse seining and five other fields are covered by the investment. Joint-venture is the most prominent method of this direct investment. If we consider the number of entry firms, the host countries, the number of seas available and the size of investment, this method of cooperation is perhaps insufficient so far. Our fishery firms suffer from a weakness in international competitive ability, an insufficiency of information, of short funds, incompetency in the market, the unfriendliness of host coastal countries, the incapability of partners in joint-ventures and the political instability of the host countries. To enlarge our foreign fishing grounds, we are to actively adopt the direct investment entry method and to diversity our collaboraboration with partner countries. Consequently, besides proper fishing, we might utilize forward integration strategies, including the processing fied. a. The enterprise emigration method is likely to be successful in Argentina. It includes the development of Argentinian fishing grounds which are still not exploited in spite of abundant resources. Besides, Arentina could also be developed as a base for the exploitation of the krill resources and for further entries into collaboration with other Latin American countries. b. The co-business contract fishing method works in American territorial seas where American fishermen sell their fishery products to our factory ships at sea. This method contributes greatly to obtaining more fishing quotas and in innovation bottom fishing operation. Therefore we may apply this method to other countres to diffuse our foreign fishing entry. c. The new fishing ground development method was begun in 1957 by tuna long-line experimental fishing in the Indian Ocean. It has five fields, trawling, skipjack pole fishing and shrimp trawling, and so on. Recently, Korean fisheries were successful in the development of the Antarctic Ocean krill and tuna purse seining. 3. The acceleration of the internationalization of deep sea fishing; a. Intense information exchange activities and commission participation are likely to be continues as our contributions to the international fishery organizations. We should try to enter international fishery commissions in which we are not so far participating. And we have to reform adequately to meet the changes of the function of the international commissions. With our partner countries, we ought to conclude bilateral fishery agreements, thus enlarging our collaboration. b. Our government should offer economic and technical aids to host countries to facilitate our firms’fishery entry and activities. c. To accelerate technical innovation, our fishery firms must invest greater amount in technical innovation, at the same time be more discriminatory in importing exogeneous fishery technologies. As for fishing methods; expanded use of multi-purpose fishing boats and introduction of automation should be encuraged to prevent seasonal fluctuations in fishery outputs. d. The government should increases financial and tax aid to Korean firms in order to elevate already weak financial structure of Korean fishery firms. e. Finally, the government ought to revise foreign exchange regulations being applied to deep sea fishery firms. Furthermore, dutes levied on foreign purchaed equipments and supplies used by our deep sea fishing boats thould be reduced or exempted. when the fish caught by Korean partner of joint-venture firms is sold at the home port, pusan, import duty should be exempted.