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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food Culture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 23, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
Selecting the target year
A Survey on Dining-out Behaviors and Food habits of Housewives in Daejon
Lim, Young-Hee ; Na, Myeung-In ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 1, 2008, Pages 1~9
This study aimed to offer some basic data for nutrition education to housewives by comparing behaviors of eating out targeted on housewives who live in Daejon surveyed by classification of regions and by family forms. As for their ages, 79 housewives (16.0%) are less than 30, 179 housewives (36.8%) are between 30 and 39, 156 housewives (35.9%) are between 40 and 49 and 74 housewives (15.2%) are more than 50, and as for their final academic careers, 204 housewives (41.9%) graduated from universities, which was the most and as for religions, 172 housewives (35.3%) had no religion, which was the most, and in the case that they had religions, 137 housewives (27.5%) believed in Christianity. And as for occupations, 327 housewives (69.0%) had no job, and in case they had jobs, 123 housewives (25.3%) that occupied the most were professional. As for husbands’ occupations, profession was the most for 143 housewives (29.4%) and as for monthly income,
won was most as 40.0%. As for times of eating out, ‘4 times a year’ was said by 131 housewives (26.9%), which was the most, and as for the times of food home service, ‘seldom’ was said by 221 housewives (45.4%), and as to the expense for eating out a month, ‘less than 100,000 won’ was said by 219 housewives (45.0%), which was the most, and as for the reasons of their eating out, ‘for harmony in a family’ was said by 119 housewives (24.4%). As for times of eating out by general items of housewives, it was appeared that the younger, the higher in education, less in religion, more in occupation, the more professional in their husbands’ jobs, the more nuclear in family forms, fewer in number of family members and the more average family income per a month, they had more times of eating out. Regarding the factors influencing on eating out, ‘high price’, ‘nutritive imbalance’ and ‘use of MSG’ were pointed by 204 housewives (41.9%), 83 housewives (17.0%) and 63 housewives (12.9%) respectively as the problems of food service shops. And as for the question why their went to their regular restaurants, 185 housewives (38.0%) said ‘taste of food’, and the most considerable thing when they selected menu at a restaurant was ‘taste of food’ for 167 housewives (34.3%). The survey showed that a lot of housewives thought the prices at restaurants were high, and they valued taste of food most, therefore food service shops should improve the taste and nutrition of food.
The Relationship between the Introduction of Vegetables and Fruits into Korea and the Silk Road
Kim, Jeong-Ok ; Shin, Mal-Shick ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 1, 2008, Pages 10~17
The author examined the origins, the course and the period of introduction of 94 types of vegetables and fruits mainly used in Korea. Then, based on it, the author looks into the relationship between food culture in Korea and those in the Silk Road. Among the vegetables and fruits, 57 types are not originated from Korea 17 types of stem and leaf vegetables, 9 types of root and fruit vegetables. 7 types of fruits, 6 types of seed, 6 types of pomes, 2 types of berries and grapes, and 1 type of nut. Their origins are spread in Europe, Southwest and South Asia but interestingly, they are located near or along the Silk Road. Therefore, it can be presumed that the vegetables and fruits were introduced into Korea from its neighboring countries by way of the Silk Road even before the Three Koreas Period and they were eaten widely in the Joseon Dynasty. Thus, the Silk Road helped some of the vegetables and fruits used in Korea to be introduced into Korea and eventually, contributed to diversifying Korean food culture. The cultural exchange is not one-way but two-way communication and the cultural exchange through the Silk Road is no exception. It is certain that by way of the Silk Road, foods and recipes were introduced into Korea from other countries but at the same time, Korean foods and recipes were propagated to other countries. In the future, more researches and studies should be conducted to find out how the foods and recipes are exchanged among the countries by the way of the Silk Road.
Satisfaction for Military Foodservice System of Korean Soldiers in Iraq
Jang, Myung-Sook ; Kang, Yek-Mo ; Lee, Jin-Mee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 1, 2008, Pages 18~25
The purpose of this study was to examine the satisfaction level of military personnels dispatched to Iraq with foodservices in a bid to help establish an efficient overseas military foodservice system. A total of 300 soldiers who served in an army division dispatched to Iraq was surveyed for this study. Regarding connections between the type of management and satisfaction level with foodservices, the contracted cafeterias were more satisfactory in terms of service than the military selfoperated ones, which indicated that it’s urgently needed to improve the service of the military-run cafeterias. The present work force of the Ministry of Defence makes it hard to provide military personnels with specialized foodservices. The military foodservice should provide meals to soldiers with quality. More branded concepts should be improved in the view of cost and effect. Or it’s advisable to take advantage of private resources as part of efforts for civil-military collaboration.
Oxidative Stability of Hydrated Soybean Oil during Heating at High Temperature
Kim, Myong-Ae ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 1, 2008, Pages 26~32
: In this experiment, three samples of oils were used. These oils were hydrated soybean oil, pure soybean oil and regular soybean oil. Oil was used after heating at
every four hours term and total heating hours was 16 hours. The physio-chemical analysis and sensory evaluation were performed on these oils. The hydrated soybean oil showed lower acid, peroxide and carbonyl value than the other two oils (p<0.05 or p<0.001). The other two oils were more affected in rancidity than the hydrated soybean oil. In color test, whereas L value lowed during the heating time, a and b value increased during the heating time. The tendency of high L value and low b value in a long-time heating was more apparant on the pure soybean oil and the regular soybean oil than on the hydrated soybean oil (p<0.05). In sensory evaluation, color and rancidity order increased during the heating time. The hydrated soybean oil showed color and rancidity order than the other two oils. In overall quality test, the pure and regular soybean oil that had been used for 12 and 16 hour were not preferable. The hydrated soybean oil that had been used for 16 hour were not preferable. In sensory evaluation, the hydrated soybean oil, the pure and regular soybean oil did not show a apparent difference, although the hydrated soybean oil had a little better scores on the overall quality.
Variations of Serving Sizes and Composition of Manufactured Milk and Soymilk Products and Implications for Dietary Assessment
Noh, Hwa-Young ; Jang, Eun-Joo ; Shim, Jae-Eun ; Park, Min-Kyung ; Paik, Hee-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 1, 2008, Pages 33~40
Accuracy of dietary assessment depends on correct estimation of quantity as well as correct data on composition of the products. Milk and soymilk were considered quite homogeneous in items of package size and composition. One serving size of fluid milk and soymilk is considered 200 mL but there are products with different amounts on the market. This study was conducted to investigate variations of amounts and composition of fluid milk and soymilk products of one portion siz on Korean market. Twenty-nine milk products were purchased and categorized into 8 groups-regular, low-fat, skim, chocolate, strawberry-flavored, banana-flavored, and black soybean-added. Sixteen fluid soymilk products were purchased and categorized into 4 groups-regular, infant, black sesame or black soybean added and others. Actual volume of each product was measured by mass cylinder and compositions of major nutrients on the package were compared to the values in the most widely used nutrient DB in Korea. Amounts of milk specified on the package of purchased products were 182.3-318.5 ml, the largest being banana-flavored milk. Amounts of soy milk were 184.3-240.5 mL, the largest being regular soymilk. Measured amount of each products were close to the amount on the package (<5%). Contents of macronutrients on the package were different from the food composition table in several products. The amounts of calcium varied greatly among the products due to the popularity of adding calcium to milk and soymilk products recently. These variations in the amount and contents of major nutrients in milk and soymilk products can lead to considerable error to the results of dietary assessment unless the amount and the composition of each product are regularly updated in the food composition table whenever the new products are introduced in the market.
Menu Development and Evaluation using Food Intake Status of the Elerly in busy farming season of Damyang Jeonnam
Park, Chan-Eun ; Joo, Min-Jung ; Lee, Hye-Jin ; Kim, Hae-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 1, 2008, Pages 41~47
Survey on the food intake status and health condition of the elerly over 65 years old living in Damyang Jeonnam was performed and meal menus for the pavillion were developed using local products. Allowance of the elderly less than 100,000 won was 45%. The local products of the area recognized by the elderly were bamboo shoot (30%) > bamboo (22.5%) > bamboo basket (12.5%) > do not know (15%) > green tea (10%) > rice(7.5%) > vegetable. In dental health, 52.5% of them had bad condition but 62.5% did not use denture at all. The most favorate foods were Korean (92.5%) and Chinese and Japanese were favored by 5%, and 2.5%, respectively. In percentage of eat-out and use of instant foods, 42.5% of them answered that eating-out chances were very rare and 62.5% answered that they do not use instant foods at all. Potassium intakes for the male and female elderly were significantly very low with values of 2579.2 mg and 2601 mg, respectively (p < 0.05). Calorie intakes for men were 1678.5 kcal, which was only 84% of RI and 1470.8 kcal for women (92%). Shortages of nutrition including calcium intake and others were very serious and the meal was not nutritionally balanced based upon the study of GMDFO. The menu for the elderly in busy farming season of the area were developed with the use of local products and the information from the study.
Measuring the Factors Influencing Customers' Value Perceptions of Foodservice in Namhaean Tourist Area's Restaurant
Kang, Jong-Heon ; Ko, Beom-Seok ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 1, 2008, Pages 48~54
The purpose of this study was to measure the factors influencing customers’ value perception of foodservice in tourist area’s restaurant. A total of 273 questionnaires were completed. Structural equation model was used to measure the causal effects. Results of the study demonstrated that the confirmatory factor analysis model also indicated excellent model fit. The proposed model yielded a significantly better fit to the data than the parsimonious model and extended model. In proposed model, the effects of perceived sacrifice, overall service quality and customer satisfaction on perceived value were statistically significant. The effects of perceived value on loyalty intention were statistically significant. As expected, the overall service quality had a significant effect on customer satisfaction. Moreover, the customer satisfaction played a mediating role in the relationship between overall service quality and loyalty intention.
Effect of Raw versus Flavor, Browning and Caking reduced Onion (Allium cepa L.) on Blood Pressure of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats
Choi, Pok-Su ; Kwon, Ji-Youn ; Han, Myung-Ryun ; Han, Myung-Ryun ; Kim, Sun-Hee ; Chang, Moon-Jeong ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 1, 2008, Pages 55~61
Non processed onion (Allium cepa L.) powder or onion powder processed with
calcium chloride+1% soluble starch solution was added to the diet of 16 week old Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) for 5 weeks. 36 SHR and Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 diet groups, each of six. They were named control, NPO (non processed onion), PO (processed onion). The rats of the control group were fed diet without onion powder. To NPO and PO groups were added 5% of non processed onion and processed onion, respectively. Body weight gain, food efficiency ratio (FER), blood pressure, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity and Na excretion of urine and feces were analyzed. The processed onion and non processed onion diet reduced body weight gain without affeting the total food intake in Wistar rats (p<0.05). The body weight gain was lowest in Wistar rats fed with a diet with processed onion powder. The rats fed with diet containing PO or NPO had lower blood systolic blood pressure in SHR (p<0.05). The effect of onion powder on decreasing the blood pressure was not significant in Wistar rats. The ACE activity in lung was lowered in the SHR fed with either PO or NPO (p<0.05) compared to those fed with control diet. The urinary Na excretion was significantly lower in SHR than Wistar rats. The effects of PO and NPO on increasing the urinary and fecal excretion of Na were significant (p<0.05). These results suggest that onion processed with
+1% calcium chloride+1% soluble starch solution to reduce volatile flavor, browning and caking preserves an antihypertensive effect of non processed onion.
Characteristics of Breadmaking According to the Addition of Fermented Rice Bran
Park, Hyun-Sil ; Han, Gi-Dong ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 1, 2008, Pages 62~67
This study was conducted to evaluate characteristic of breadmaking for white bread with fermented rice bran (FRB) (5 to 20%). In proximate composition analysis of FRB which was contained 38.72% moisture, 11.06% crude protein, 17.38% crude fat, 12.74% crude fiber and 11.85% ash. The degree of dough fermentation and dough pH tended to decrease depending on the degree of FRB powder, but there were no significant differences between control group and 5% FRB adding group. In bread weight and volume analysis, bread weight was decreased but bread volume was increased with FRB powder adding degrees. The color of crumb became darker according to the addition of FRB powder, but redness and yellowness were increased. The hardness, gumminess and brittleness of white bread showed a tendency to increase while cohesiveness and springness was decreased. In sensory analysis, FRB group showed generally low scores in color, flavor, texture, taste, overall acceptability except for 5% FRB adding group which showed similar results with control group. Taken together, FRB could be used as a nutrition improvement for breadmaking and a suitable FRB adding volume for breadmaking is 5%.
Effects of Extracts from the Mushroom Keumsa Sangwhang (Phellinus linteus) on Fasting Blood Glucose and Cholesterol Levels in Human
Kim, Yong-Dae ; Kim, Nam-Sik ; Eom, Sang-Yong ; Kim, Sung-Hoon ; Kang, Jong-Won ; Lee, Sang-Won ; Park, Soon-Young ; Kim, Jeong-Su ; Kim, Heon ; Hong, Jang-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 1, 2008, Pages 68~72
This study demonstrated the effects of extracts from the mushroom Keumsa sangwhang(Phellinus linteus) (KPLE) on fasting glucose and cholesterol levels in human blood. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled human intervention study, healthy volunteers were randomized to receive 3.3 g of KPLE (n=31) or placebo (n=31) per day by oral administration for 8 weeks. The cholesterol and fasting serum glucose levels were evaluated before and after treatment. The fasting serum glucose level was significantly decreased by KPLE administration (p<0.01), but the total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDLcholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations did not change. This study suggests a possibility that KPLE may be useful as a functional food for the prevention of diabetes mellitus.
Investigation on the History of the Muck (Traditional Starch Jelly) and Its Processing Methods Reviewed in the Ancient and the Modern Culinary Literatures
Cha, Jin-A ; Cha, Gyung-Hee ; Chung, La-Na ; Kim, Soo-Youn ; Chung, Yoo-Sun ; Yang, Il-Sun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 1, 2008, Pages 73~89
Muck (Korean traditional starch jelly) is very unique and the one of the oldest starch processing traditional food. The typical ingredients for making muck such as acorns, mungbean and buckwheat have been eaten since the new stone age or even before that era. This study was for investigation on the history of muck and its processing methods in the ancient and the modern culinary literatures from the 1400’s to 1900’s. The summary of the reviews was as follows. In the ages from the 1400’s to 1700’s, using starch powder, Se-myon and Chang-myon were made and their shape were like noodles instead of cubical shape. It was after the 1700’s that muck making methods were revealed in the literature, like
(1737). The naming of muck might be from the time after 1800’s, in
(around 1870) the basis of the names of Choeng-po (white mungbean jelly) and Whang-po (yellow mungbean jelly) could be found. One of the most well-known muck dish, Tang-pyeong-chae, was recorded many old literatures, so it was found that Tang-pyeong-chae was very popular and governmental policy of Tang-pyeong-chak influenced the food of the common people. In
(late 1800’s) there were records of several types of muck and starch powder making methods in detail which were handed down to the modern ages.
Effect of Freeze-Dried Korean-Style Dishes on Visceral Fats and Serum Lipid Concentrations in Rats Fed with High Fat Diet
Hong, Sang-Pil ; Han, Chan-Kyu ; Lee, Min-A ; Yang, Ji-Na ; Shin, Dong-Bum ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 1, 2008, Pages 90~96
This study was performed to reveal nutritional excellency of popular Korean dishes, which were intended to distribute as a take-out type food suited for Americans. Four Korean dishes were selected due to their high preference from American sensory panels: Jeyuk-bokkeum (B), Kimchi-bokkeum (C), Dubu-jorim (D) and Namul (E). Nine weeks of the experimental periods were composed of two parts. In phase 1(5 weeks of the first half), high fat diets were fed to all treatments including the control group (A). In phase 2 (4 weeks of the last half), freeze-dried four Korean dishes were fed to the treatments except for the control. There was no significant difference in the final body weights among the groups as well as daily body weight gains and FER. Organ weights of the control group tended to be smaller than those of the treatment groups. For visceral fats, perirenal fat pad (RFP) and epidydimal fat pad (EFP) of the groups C and D were decreased by 20% compared with those of the group A. Total cholesterol level of the group C (94.13 mg/dL) was significantly lower than any other groups (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference in triglyceride(TG) level. HDL-cholesterol level of group B(20.38 mg/dL) was significantly higher than that of group D (17.25 mg/dL), but no significant differences were seen in groups C and E (p<0.05). In LDL-cholesterol level, the highest level was seen in group D, the lowest level in group E (p<0.05). From the findings, Kimchi-bokkeum, Dubu-jorim and Namul were superior to those of the control and jeyukbokkeum in terms of the blood lipid profiles. It might be a good Korean style take-out items suited for the Americans’ taste along with a good nutritional quality in the near future.
Analyzing the Indirect Effect of Food Involvement on Vegetable Consumption among Adults in Jeonnam Area
Kang, Jong-Heon ; Jeong, Hang-Jing ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 1, 2008, Pages 97~104
The purpose of this study was to measuring the causal relationships among food involvement, health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, weight control and vegetable consumption. A total of 290 questionnaires were completed. Structural equation model was used to measure the causal relationships among constructs. Results of the study demonstrated that the structural analysis result for the data also indicated excellent model fit. The effects of food involvement on health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, weight control and vegetable consumption were statistically significant. As expected, health, mood, sensory appeal and eight control had significant effects on vegetable consumption. Moreover, health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal and weight control played mediating roles in the relationship between food involvement and vegetable consumption. In conclusion, based on structural analysis, a model was proposed of interrelations among food involvement, health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, weight control and vegetable consumption. It should be noted that the original vegetable consumption model was modified and should, preferably, be alidated in future research. Other variables, such as attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavior control, may be incorporated to form vegetable consumption models that consist of new antecedent and consequence pairs.
An Analysis on the Satisfaction with the Quality of School Foodservice in Chungbuk Province
Lee, Young-Eun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 1, 2008, Pages 105~114
The purposes of this study were to identify the students’ perception and to evaluate the satisfaction with the quality of school foodservice in Chungbuk Province. A questionnaire survey of 900 students was conducted and 370 completed questionnaires were available for the purpose of the statistical evaluation. Statistical analyses were performed on the data utilizing the SAS V8.2 program. Importance, performance and satisfaction scale were composed of 5-Likert scales. The main results of this study were summarized as follows: The degree of importance and performance on twenty three attributes and the degree of satisfaction with four dimensions and overall satisfaction were measured according to type of school, location of school, place for eating, type of foodservice system and type of foodservice operation. The importance score was significantly higher than the performance score at all quality attributes except for the food appearance. The performance score of ‘waiting time’ and ‘atmosphere’ was less than 3 point out of 5 scale. The average satisfaction score for the quality dimensions of food, sanitation and service was 3.35, 3.19 and 3.10 point out of 5 scale, respectively. The satisfaction score for dimension of environment was 2.93 point out of 5 scale. The score for overall satisfaction was 3.27 point out of 5 scale. The satisfaction score for elementary school foodservice management was significantly higher than middle and high school foodservices. The satisfaction score for commissary foodservice operations was significantly higher than conventional foodservice operations. Using survey results as a base, the dieticians of school foodservice are required to meet the needs of the students and increase students’ satisfaction.
Development and Standardization of Dried Persimmons Gruel on Books
Cho, Mi-Sook ; Lee, Eun-Young ; Kim, Jan-Di ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 1, 2008, Pages 115~120
The dried persimmon was effective in caring an inflammation, an ulcer and a burn and preventing hypertension and arteriosclerosis. At the Jejungsinpyun. dried persimmons gruel was beneficial to stomach and intestine and toned down voice. Based on Jejungsinpyuns and Sikryochanyo, dried persimmons gruel was developed for modern people. To standardize the dried persimmons gruel, physical properties and consumer acceptability was examined. The procedures of dried persimmons gruel was to make dried persimmons juice after soaking dried persimmons with same volume water during 24 hr and blending. To decrease the astringent taste of dried persimmons, dried persimmons juice and water with cinnamon (2%) was mixed and simmered during 3 min. Dried persimmons paste with cinnamon was added and the gruel was boiled more during 5 min. dried persimmons gruel was completed. The dried persimmons gruel were divided of 5 groups consisted of each 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 g dried persimmons. As dried persimmons content increased, lightness, apparent viscosity decreased. Acceptability test indicated the sample of dried persimmons : rice ratio at 2 : 5 had the highest overall acceptability and flavor. Considered to each, the sample of the dried persimmons : rice ratio at 2 : 5 met the purpose of the study.
Nutritional Changes of Buckwheat During Germination
Lee, Eun-Hye ; Kim, Chul-Jai ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 1, 2008, Pages 121~129
To produce buckwheat sprouts, buckwheats were germinated at
up to 8 days in total darkness. In proximate analysis, moisture content increased from 13.87% of buckwheat groats to 93.75% of buckwheat sprouts on the 8th day of germination. On dry weight basis, lipid and ash contents increased like as protein content increased from 13.45% to 21.82% while carbohydrate content decreased due to enzyme hydrolysis. Amino acids were rich in glutamic acid, aspartic acids, and lysine, and also the ratio of the essential amino acids to total amino acids increased from 26.84% to 36.84%. Vitamin C did not exist in buckwheat groats but its content has continued to increase as far as 99.56 mg/100 g buckwheat sprouts. Rutin continued to increase by HPLC analysis from 4.71 mg/100 g buckwheat groats to 1,524 mg/100 g buckwheat sprouts. In analysis of organic acids, oxalic, maleic, and citric acids were commonly found in buckwheat sprouts. Fagopyrin was found almost none in buckwheat sprouts. In conclusion, the conversion of buckwheat seeds into sprouts through germination in darkness results in physically different final product with nutritional changes such as higher content of rutin, generation of vitamin C, abundance of the essential amino acids, and the existence of fagopyrin on very little.
The Development of Nutrition Education Program for Improvement of body Perception of Middle School Girls (II);Development of Nutrition Education Program
Soh, Hye-Kyung ; Lee, Eun-Ju ; Choi, Bong-Soon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 1, 2008, Pages 130~137
If we may practice the nutrition education planned on the basis which carefully grasped the inappropriate behavioral determinants of middle-school students, it might be an effective method achieving the change in perception and behavior improving the distorted perception about the ideal body shape, so we are to suggest the 8 week program of body shape perception improvement for successful nutrition education as follows. The body shape perception improvement program is a step-by-step group consulting program. At the introduction stage, we let them understand the meaning of true beauty and body change of teenage period and forming of sexual identity. At the stage of perception conversion, we let them have the opportunity to observe the status of body perception of the teenager and self-observation. At the stage of correction, we let them criticize the distorted body image in the society with mass media at the same time with the self-reflection. At the stage of maintenance and evaluation, we suggested the behavior guidance while preparing it. Setting this as the basis, we applied the contents such as the evaluations through cultural sharing events making somethings while directly participating. As the target groups to practice education were middle school students, we considered the learning level and behavioral features of the middle school students, and composed the programs including the methods such as role play, watching real things, media production, discussions and experiences. If the program of body shape perception improvement developed at this study could be utilized at the field of schools, the teenagers can change their ways of thought naturally avoiding the view about unified appearance rightly perceiving negative self-image that the teenagers can have and if the group consulting can be practiced regularly at each school, many students may experience the change in perception, so it might solicit the improvement of health of the families and local societies as well as that of the individual student.