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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food Culture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 23, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
Selecting the target year
The Effects of the Business Ethical Value upon Person-organization Fit, Job Satisfaction, Turnover Intent and Organization Performance;The Employees of Family Restaurant and Feeding Facility
Jung, Hyo-Sun ; Yoon, Hye-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 2, 2008, Pages 139~151
The purpose of this study was to determine the empirical cause-effect relationships among business ethical values and person-organization fit, job satisfaction, turnover intent, and organizational performance within family restaurants and feeding facilities. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 459 restaurant employees. The SPSS and Amos programs were then applied to the data to perform frequency, factor, reliability, correlation and SEM analyses. The primary results are as follows. First, business ethical values had a significant positive effect on person-organization fit. Second, person-organization fit had a significant positive effect on job satisfaction, and a significant negative effect on turnover intent. Third, job satisfaction had a significant positive effect, and turnover intent had a significant negative effect, on organizational performance. Finally, upon verifying the possible direct and indirect effects of business ethical values within family restaurants and feeding facilities, it was determined that the ethical values had significant direct and indirect effects on person-organization fit, job satisfaction, turnover intent, and organizational performance. These findings have various implications. For example, an improved in-house ethical working environment leads to greaterperson-organization fit, and having employees that feel there is better in-house ethical reliability leads to greater consistency between personal and organizational values, resulting in higher job satisfaction and ultimately organizational performance.
Expectation and Satisfaction of Foreign Customers Visiting Korean Restaurants Located in USA;Analysis for Food and Service Attributes through IPA Analysis
Lee, So-Jung ; Chae, In-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 2, 2008, Pages 152~162
The objectives of this study were to: a) examine foreign customers’ satisfaction and expectations for the food and service attributes of Korean restaurants located in the U.S., b) measure the gap between the satisfaction and expectations for food and service attributes, c) analyze through IPA analysis the crucial attributes needing improvement in order to minimize the discrepancy between customers’ expectations and performance, and d) analyze the effects of factors related to the food and service attributes on overall customer satisfaction in regard to Korean restaurant selection. A total of 255 American customers who had visited four Korean restaurants located within metropolitan and rural areas of the U.S. were surveyed for this study. Statistical analyses, including t-tests, factor analysis, and multiple regression, were performed using the SPSS statistical package (12.0). The American customers’ overall satisfaction of the food and services offered by the Korean restaurants was relatively high, with the exception of tangible service attributes such as comfortable chairs, restroom cleanliness, and restaurant interior. The urban foreign customers, however, were dissatisfied with the use of healthful ingredients in Korean food, because their expectation level toward this aspect exceeded their satisfaction level. In terms of Korean restaurant selection, tangible services related to the restaurant facilities were identified as the critical factor having an effect on American customer satisfaction.
A Canonical Correlation between Employee's Business Ethics Awareness and the Business Ethics Practice in Foodservice Industry
Jung, Hyo-Sun ; Yoon, Hye-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 2, 2008, Pages 163~171
The purpose of this study was to measure employee ‘awareness’ and ‘practice’ of business ethics in the foodservice industry, and to determine possible correlations between these two variables. Self administrated questionnaires were completed by 1003 employees and data were analysed to ascertain frequency, factor, reliability, correlation and canonical correlation. Two factors were obtained from factor analysis of business ethics(BE) awareness; “Organizational awareness”, and “Individual awareness”. Similarly, two factors were also obtained for business ethics practice; “Systematic practice”, and “Compensatory practice”. Canonical correlation analysis produced two significant functions. For canonical function 1, it was found that organizational awareness of BE was positively correlated with systematic practice. For canonical function 2, it was found that individual awareness of BE was negatively correlated with the compensatory practices of BE. The findings of this study demonstrate that higher organizational awareness of business ethics in the foodservice industry led to higher systematic practices of BE, while higher individual awareness of BE led to lower compensatory practices of BE. In conclusion, higher organizational awareness of BE places a higher priority on building an external system from an institutional perspective, while higher employees awareness of BE leads to higher expectation from the company, resulting in relatively low compensatory practices.
The Effects of Brand Personality on Brand Awareness/Association, Brand Emotion-Relationship, Brand Image and Brand Loyalty in Family Restaurant of Ulsan and Daegu
Lee, Soo-Boo ; Yoo, Young-Jin ; Ha, Dong-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 2, 2008, Pages 172~183
The present study assessed how restaurant brand personality affected customer’s awareness/association, emotional-relationship and image, and how these factors influenced brand loyalty. As well, the influence of restaurant brand personality to brand loyalty was assessed. The model was tested in family restaurants in the metropolitan cities of Ulsan and Daegu. Between January 1 and February 28, 2007, questionnaires were distributed to restaurant patrons. A total of 274 questionnaires were statistically analyzed. Empirical results confirmed that restaurant brand personality increased brand awareness/association, brand emotional?relationship and brand image, and that these attributes increased brand loyalty. Restaurant brand personality affected brand loyalty. The research findings indicate that managers of family restaurants should pay attention to the emotional reaction of customers to their establishment. This involves employee actions that make dining a pleasurable experience.
Basic Service Factors of Family Restaurants and Differentiation Strategy for Customer Service Management
Park, Jung-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 2, 2008, Pages 184~193
The purpose of this study was to determine the detailed customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction factors of family restaurants in Korea, and to then classify the factors into 3 groups, inlcuding core service, quality service, and basic service. ‘Core service’ represents the critical factors that generate both satisfaction and dissatisfaction; ‘quality service’ generates only satisfaction; and ‘basic service’ generates only dissatisfaction. This categorization is based on Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory (1976) as well as Cadotte & Turgeon (1988). Based on the characteristics of the three groups, differentiation strategies in managing customer service were suggested to the family restaurant managers. A qualitative research method, termed the critical incident technique (CIT), was used in the study. This method helps researchers find new factors or attributes by grouping key issues from the anecdotes (critical incidents) and then categorizing common factors from the key issues. This research categorized key satisfiers and dissatisfiers into 33 factors, which were from 402 critical incidents described by 261 respondents. Eleven factors (response to service failures, food taste and quality, attention paid to customers, coupon/mileage point/discount card, customer’s ordinary requests, waiting, food diversity, food price, facility sanitation, checking out, customer’s special requests) were classified into core service, which required maximum management not regarding the level of customer satisfaction. Six factors (employee attitude, event, education and explanation, complementary food, customer’s mistakes, attention paid to children) were classified into quality service, which required differentiation strategy management. Finally, nine factors (speed of food service, employee’s mistakes, food sanitation, atmosphere and interior, seating, forcing orders, parking, other customers, reservations) were classified into basic service, which required minimum management at the level of the industry standards.
Surveys of Domestic and Foreign Patents for Foods and Drugs Related to Improving Liver Function
Chun, Hyang-Sook ; Park, Heon-Jin ; Jeong, Ja-Kyeong ; Jang, Dai-Ja ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 2, 2008, Pages 194~203
In this study, 3,301 domestic and foreign patents, established from 1980 to June, 2007, were reviewed in order to examine the technological trends in treating or preventing liver disease. Primary focus was placed on countries such as Korea, Japan, and the United States - the leading nations with regard to liver function research. This paper explores the systematic search that utilized a research-focused database and research analysts. Since the year 2000, Korea has demonstrated increased developments in the area of diet and liver disease, as shown by an increase in relevant patent caseloads and submissions especially for medicinal preparations containing compounds or reaction products with undetermined constitutions. In addition, there was up to a 29% increase in themarket share and the frequency of patent submissionshad increased. Japan has shown a similar trend to Korea with an increase in research, but has focused more on medical preparations containing active organic ingredients. In the United States, an increase in the number of patents was shown after the year 2000.
A Study on Expression Characteristics of Indoor Spaces and Food related Elements in Fusion Korean Restaurants
Lee, Ji-Hyun ; Oh, Hye-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 2, 2008, Pages 204~213
In this age of information ruled by new technologies and knowledge, the world is interconnected as a single community, and within this trend of globalization, new cultural codes are emerging through temporal fusion between the past and the present and spatial fusion between different regions and countries. In this situation, it seems meaningful to review Korean fusion foods and restaurants serving such foods, as well as to consider their future directions. Thus, the objective of the present study was to survey and analyze Korean fusion restaurants representing Korean culture not only in Korea, but also in foreign cities, and to identify the expression characteristics of such restaurants. Based on restaurants recommended in relevant magazines and on Internet sites, 18 spaces were selected, visited, and surveyed, in which tradition and modernism were well-mixed. Data on the shapes, materials, colors, and patterns of spatial elements and food-related elements, including photographs, were collected and analyzed. The results are as follows. Of the 18 restaurants, 13 (72%) showed temporal fusion in both spatial and food-related elements, 4 showed temporal fusion in spatial elements and cultural fusion in food-related elements, and 1 showed cultural fusion in both spatial and food-related elements. In general, the spaces were mainly designed with modern elements and partially with traditional elements (ceilings, windows, furniture, articles), and the fusion of food-related elements was made in diverse forms that included temporal fusion restructuring traditional menus contemporarily, and cultural fusion harmonizing traditional food with Western cookery.
Eating Styles and Food Consumption Behaviors of College Students
Suh, Seong-Mu ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 2, 2008, Pages 214~221
This study analyzed the survey results of 302 college students from a coed university in Korea. The following three research components were examined: relationships among different eating styles, violation behaviors after unwanted eating, and consumption behaviors for three different food types. The analysis results showed that restrained eating was positively related to emotional eating, but negatively related to external eating. And emotional and external eating displayed a positive relationship. Body shape dissatisfaction was a significant variable in explaining restrained eating behavior. After unwanted eating, the restrained eaters expressed more regrets and stronger determination to diet than the less restrained eaters. The emotional eaters and external eaters responded that they could not stop eating and performed binge eating behaviors when they failed their diet. With regard to food attitudes and eating styles, snacks were favorably related to emotional eating. Fast food attitudes were negatively associated with restrained eating. Preference was the only significant variable in explaining snack consumption frequency; however sex, preference, and restrained eating were significant for fast foods. Finally, vegetarian foods were explained by preference and sex.
Study on the Chemical Composition of Lotus Root and Functional Evaluation of Fermented Lotus Root Drink
Bae, Man-Jong ; Kim, Soo-Jung ; Ye, Eun-Ju ; Nam, Hak-Sik ; Park, Eun-Mi ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 2, 2008, Pages 222~227
This study examined the chemical composition of lotus root and functionally evaluated a fermented lotus root drink. Electron-donating ability using DPPH along with nitrite-scavenging ability were used to compare the antioxidative activities of unfermented and fermented lotus root drinks. The electron-donating abilities of the unfermented lotus root drink (1%) and fermented lotusroot drink (1%) were 22.55% and 23.88%, respectively. At pH 6.0, the nitrite-scavenging abilities of the unfermented lotus root drink and the fermented lotus root drink (100%) were 27.64% and 40.3%, respectively, and their scavenging ability increased in a dose-dependent manner at all pH values. In order to study the anti-obesity effects of the two drinks, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (A: basal diet, B: high fat diet, C: high fat diet+unfermented lotus root drink, D: high fat diet+fermented lotus root drink). Net weight gains were not significantly different among the four groups. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations significantly decreased in the groups receiving the unfermented and fermented lotus root drinks. Also, plasma total lipid and triglyceride contents were lower in the groups receiving the unfermented and fermented lotus root drinks as compared to the high fat diet group; however, the differences among the three groups were not significant.
Effect of Astragalus membranaceus Powder on Yeast Bread Baking Quality
Min, Sung-Hee ; Lee, Bo-Ram ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 2, 2008, Pages 228~234
In this study, Astragalus membranaceus powder was added (3, 6, 9%) during yeast bread preparation and its effect on product quality was examined. The results showed that the dough pH increased as the Astragalus membranaceus powder content increased. However, dough volume during fermentation did not differ significantly among the samples. Bread volume decreased (p<0.001) with an increasing amount of Astragalus membranaceus powder. Also, as the Astragalus membranaceus powder content increased, the Hunter’s color ‘L’ value of the crust decreased and the ‘a’ value increased, and for the crumb, the ‘L’ value decreased and the ‘a’ value increased. Textural property analysis indicated that hardness increased with an increasing amount of Astragalus membranaceus powder. However, up to the 6% level, there were no sensory attribute differences among the samples.
Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Skate (Raja kenojei) Kimchi on the Market
Kim, Kyung-Hee ; Cho, Hee-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 2, 2008, Pages 235~242
In this study, the physicochemical and microbiological properties of market-available skate (Raja kenojei) kimchi were evaluated in comparison to long-term fermented Baechu kimchi. The comparative results for the skate (Raja kenojei) and Baechu kimchi products are as follows: salt concentrations = 3.40% and 3.95%, respectively; pH and acidity values = 4.01 and 3.90, and 0.65% and 0.82%, respectively; redox potential Eh values = 119.82 mV and 123.08 mV respectively; reducing sugars levels = 15.51 mg% and 13.23mg%, respectively; ascorbic acid levels = 24.21mg% and 22.18mg%, respectively; color L-values = 46.86 and 44.54, a-values = 15.46 and 12.28, and b-values = 29.94 and 28.36, respectively; hardness properties = 11.36 kgf and 10.23 kgf, respectively; hot water soluble pectin (HWSP) contents and sodium hexametaphosphate soluble pectin (NaSP) contents = 15.23% and 17.35%, and 32.51% and 29.64%, respectively; hydrochloric acid soluble pectin (HClSP) contents = 55.1% and 53.2%, respectively; total viable cell counts =
, respectively; lactic acid bacteria counts =
, respectively; and yeast levels =
The Optimization of Muffin with Yam Powder Using Response Surface Methodology
Joo, Na-Mi ; Lee, Sun-Mee ; Jeong, Hee-Sun ; Park, Sang-Hyun ; Jung, Ah-Ram ; Ryu, Seung-Yeon ; Lee, Ji-Hee ; Jung, Hyeon-A ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 2, 2008, Pages 243~251
This purpose of this study was to develop a functional muffin by adding yam powder in the shape of a muffin as a partial surrogate for wheat flour. The yam has been found to be effective for liver and kidney function, as well as the digestion of protein, since it produces glucuronic acid in the body. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the optimal mixing conditions of yam muffins by adjusting the amounts yam powder, butter, and sugar. The mixing conditions for the yam muffins included 3 categories: yam powder
, and butter
by Central Composite Design (CCD) which was optimized by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The effects of the three variable additions on muffin quality were examined via physical and chemical experiments, such as the analysis of texture (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess), coloration (lightness, redness, yellowness), and height. Lastly, we performed a sensory test, which revealed significant findings for gumminess, color, appearance, flavor, softness (p<0.05), redness, and overall quality (p<0.01). Consequently, the optimal mixing rate which best satisfied the sensory items were 34.35g of yam powder, 80.15 g of sugar, and 80.55 g of butter.
Quality Characteristics of Mandupi with Skate (Raja kenojei) flour
Cho, Hee-Sook ; Kim, Kyung-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 2, 2008, Pages 252~257
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of skate (Raja kenojei) flour on the functional and sensory characteristics of Mandupi. Mandupi samples were prepared with wheat flour along with the addition of different amounts of skate flour, followed by functional measurements and sensory evaluations. According to the amylograph data, the composite skate flour-wheat flour samples had increased gelatinization temperatures with increasing skate flour content; whereas initial viscosity at
, viscosity at
after 15 minutes, and maximum viscosity were reduced. In terms of color values, L and b values decreased, but the a-value increased with increasing skate flour content. Furthermore, the addition of skate flour increased hardness, springiness, chewiness, and adhesiveness in the samples. Overall, based on sensory evaluations, the Mandupi containing 5% skate flour was preferred over the other samples.
Effects of Body Composition, Nutrient Intakes and Biochemical Indices on Skin Health Status of Female University Students with Sensitive Skin
Kim, Mi-Young ; Cho, Kyung-Dong ; Baek, Ok-Hee ; Lee, Bog-Hieu ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 2, 2008, Pages 258~267
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects that body composition, nutrient intake, and biochemical indices have on skin status, as well as their associations with skin health status, by assessing 44 female university students. The subjects were classified into 3 groups according to skin sensitivity: sensitive skin (n=11), slightly sensitive skin (n=24), and normal skin (n=9). The study included anthropometric measurements and body composition analyses, dietary intake evaluations, blood chemical analyses, and skin health status assessments. Based on % body fat, the results indicated the subjects were moderately obese (29.6%). Obesity indices were not different among the groups, but the sensitive skin group tended to have higher skinfold thickness. Dry skin was determined as the skin type of all subjects. In the sensitive skin groups, U-zone and T-zone sebum were significantly lower (p<0.05), and spots were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the normal skin group. In terms of nutrient intakes, the sensitive skin groups consumed significantly lower amounts of P and vitamins A and E (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in serum lipid fractions or total antioxidant status among the groups. In correlation coefficients analysis, skin elasticity had significant negative correlations with subscapular and midaxillary skinfold thickness, body protein, and body minerals (p<0.05). Wrinkling had positive correlations with triceps and thigh skinfold thickness (p<0.05). Skin evenness had negative correlations with energy intake, vitamins A,
, C, E, niacin, and zinc (p<0.05), as well as folate and P (p<0.01) and vitamin
(p<0.001). A similar correlation tendency was observed for spots and nutrient intake, showing negative correlations with vitamins A,
, and E, as well as folate, Fe, and P. U-zone sebum showed significant positive correlations with serum levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides. From these findings, skin health status appears to be affected by both nutrient intake and body composition. Therefore, having a proper balance between dietary intake and body composition may influence skin health status in females with sensitive skin.
A Study on Knowledge on Breast Feeding of College Students by Their General Characteristics
Song, Byeng-Chun ; Cho, Ji-Hyun ; Lee, In-Yul ; Kim, Mi-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 2, 2008, Pages 268~272
The breast feeding habits of 507 college students were evaluated between March 27 to April 26 (2006). Data were collected from self-administered questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS for Windows V.12.0. The study population consisted of 245 (48.3%) male and 262 (51.7%) female college students that answered ‘yes’ when asked whether they had been breast feed. A total of 52.7% of the study population were fed with breast milk (most frequent answer), as opposed to 11.0% that were fed with infant formula (least frequent answer) during their infancy. When asked whether they ever got educated on breast feeding, 78.1% of the college student subjects answered ‘no’. A total of 95.1% of the female college students replied ‘yes’ when asked if they intended to breast feed their child. Moreover, 62.2% of the college student subjects indicated that their parents had an influence on their decision to breast feed. A comparison between male and female college students indicated that female college students had a superior knowledge level of the general characteristics of breast feeding over the male subjects (p<0.05) . Moreover, a comparison of the different levels of college attained suggest that freshman college students had the highest knowledge level, followed by senior, sophomore and junior college students in terms of advantage, BF Tabu (p<0.05). Also, students provided with education on breast feeding had a higher knowledge level than college students with no formal education. In summary, the results suggest that the knowledge on breast feeding in college students were different by general characteristics such as gender, major and school year, and education on breast feeding in advance was appeared to be an important factor, therefore nutritional education course on breast feeding is recommended for the college students.
The A Literary Investigation on Mandu (Dumpling);Types and Cooking Methods of Mandu (Dumpling) During the Joseon Era (1400's
Bok, Hye-Ja ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 2, 2008, Pages 273~292
Among all the ingredients usedin mandu, the following types were used:, 13 types of grains were used (12.38%), 30 types of vegetables, fruits, bulbs,and nuts were used (28.57%), 32 types of marine products, birds, meats, fishes, and shellfishes were used (30.48%), 10 types of functional ingredients were used (9.52%) and. For spices, 20 types of spices were used (19.05%). 2. Cooking Methods offor Mandu. The mMandu eaten at in the early Joseon era had was primarily made ofusedbuckwheat that contained boiled tofu or egg uiijuk in the kneaded dough for the most part and while kneading with buckwheat, the tofu or egg uiijuk has been boiled down to knead the dough, and and starch powder, bean powder, or rice powder, etc were mixed to make the mandu coating. Buckwheat powder was mixed toadded to the flourwer or was used by itself, while meat, vegetables, tofu, and shiitake mushroom, etc were also addedincluded. From the 18th century, the host plant, or cabbage kimchi, were prepared and combined had been sliced to be used as filling together while red pepper powder was mixed combined withto spices or vinegar soy sauce to be used together. Also, Radishes had beenwere also used as filling, but shown as not being used fromafter the start of the 1900's. For the shape of mMandu, it was madeinto different shapes such as as triangle, rectangle, date plum, gwebul, half moon, or pomegranate shapes, and then shapes to be boiled in simmering water, baked, or cooked as soup in clear broth for soup., In the 17th to 18th century, boilingthen in a steamer gradually became a cooking style, assumed the style of boiling in a steamer in
century while in the 16th century,the an essay ofn fermenting flour in ‘Food Dimibang’ in 16th century had indicated it was cooked as the style ofby steaming in a rice steamer. Also, Mandu may have also contained the following: the thin-cut and boiled fish was cut out thin to put into the filling and boiled down, made by putting in added pine nuts after making bbeef jerky or boiled- down meat, fish, or shellfish itself to extractsand mold mandu only the ingredients combined withto put on starch powder, and then boiled down and put on pine nut powder finally, after it or cooled it wasdown to be eaten by dipping in vinegar soy sauce. In conclusion, many different types of mandu were made during the Joseon era using a variety ofwhile the ones using such various ingredients. are also one type of mandu.
Discuss on the Historical Development and Change of Chinese Piquancy Addiction
Zhao, Rong-Guang ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 23, issue 2, 2008, Pages 293~300
It determines Chinese addiction to piquancy that the Chinese traditional food production laid excessively particular stress on agriculture coming into being long before in the history and the state of Chinese food living was that the people were very difficult to live. The history of Chinese addiction to piquancy could be traced back to prehistory. And in Chinese “hot” is separated from “peppery” and it refers in particular to the piquancy more than general peppery. The character of “Hot” appeared after Han Dynasty in Chinese. Capsicum was brought to China from the sea in the middle of Ming Dynasty. Then it surpassed the formers soon and became the most popular and addictive piquancy food in China. Capsicum has many names in China, such as “
”, etc., and they indicate the geographical and humanistic character of the distribution.
(eight books on preserving one’s health) is the earliest history record about capsicum in existent Chinese history record that was finished in 1591. In this article the author puts new opinion forward on the record in this book. It is because the hottest piquancy of capsicum, capsicum’s better adaptability and low cost to plant combine with Chinese piquancy addiction at large that capsicum can replace the status of pepper and other traditional peppery flavorings soon and cause worldwide attention to the Chinese piquancy addiction finally. The human common characters of unchangeable inertia, depending to fully grow addiction and aggrieved delight are the most important reasons to cause piquancy addiction that has formed a custom through long-repeated practice and this custom do not change with condition change. The unbalanced spread process of capsicum in China shows that the region is poorer and the addictive degree is deeper.