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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food Culture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Dec 2009
Volume 24, Issue 5 - Oct 2009
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Aug 2009
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Jun 2009
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
Selecting the target year
Korean Restaurant Service Expectations and Customer Satisfaction with Korean Food among Chinese Tourists
Yoo, Young-Jin ; Choi, Yong-Seok ; Cheon, Hee-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 581~587
This study was conducted to establish basic data to improve the service quality of the Korean food service industry by evaluating the experience that Chinese tourists have at Korean restaurants. To accomplish this, we analyzed the common dining out style of Chinese tourists and how their expectations were influenced by the Korean culture and movies and dramas. We then compared the customer satisfaction of Chinese tourists before and after visiting Korean restaurants. The results of this study suggest that before and after visiting Korean restaurants. The results of this study suggest that advertising of the Korean culture and movies and dramas to Chinese who dine out on a regular basis should be accelerated. In addition, the Korean food industry must develop distinct marketing strategies and improve the food menu and service to satisfy Chinese tourists who visit Korea often.
Relationships between Intakes of Soybean Food, Dietary Isoflavone and Osteoporosis Incidence among Postmenopausal Women in Daejeon City
Woo, Soon-Sun ; Kim, Sun-Hyo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 588~596
To determine the relationships between soybean food intake, dietary isoflavone intake, and osteoporosis incidence, questionnaire surveys, bone mineral density measurements, and dietary surveys by food record were performed with 19 postmenopausal women (
yrs of age) in Daejeon city. The subjects were divided into two groups: an 'osteoporosis group' (OG, n=10) and a 'normal group' (NG, n=9). Mean age, height, and body weight were similar between the two groups but BMI was higher in OG than in NG. Mean age at menarche was not different between the two groups. However, mean number of childbirths was greater in OG than in NG and mean total period of lactation was shorter in OG. Mean exercise time per week was similar between the two groups, and mean time of sunlight exposure tended to be shorter in OG. Mean daily intake of calcium was lower in OG whereas sodium intake was higher in OG. Mean daily intakes of total soybean food (OG:
) and total dietary isoflavone (OG:
) were not different between the two groups. However, greater intakes of soybean food and dietary isoflavone were associated with higher bone mineral density, respectively. The above results indicate that osteoporosis incidence tends to be influenced by BMI, maternal factors, dietary nutrient intakes, soybean food intakes, and dietary isoflavone intakes in postmenopausal women; although no significant differences in soybean food and dietary isoflavone intake were found between the two groups. This tendency implies that greater intakes of soybean food and dietary isoflavone lead to lower incidence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
A Study on Perception and Globalization of Korean Food among University Students with Food-Related Majors
Kim, Tae-Hee ; Lee, Eun-Joo ; Lee, Eun-Jung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 597~606
The purpose of this study was to investigate perceptions and globalization of Korean food among university students with food related majors. Self-administer questionnaires were completed by 386 students, and data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA and regression analysis. The students in food-related majors had positive perceptions of Korean food. They had perceptions of Korean foods as 'fermented foods', 'seasonal foods', and 'medical foods' and have 'various spices'. Most students agreed that Korean foods need to be 'creatively transformed' and 'localized' in order to globalize successfully. Localization, fusion and creative transformation of Korean food are more important than simple adherence to traditional Korean food. There were statistically significant differences in perception between students in different majors. Students majoring in traditional Korean cuisine showed a more positive perception and attitude toward globalization of Korean food.
Consumer Test of Korean Food in Hawaii
Hong, Sang-Pil ; Lee, Min-A ; Kim, Young-Ho ; Shin, Dong-Bum ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 607~612
Sundubu, Pork-Bulgogi, Kimchi-pork, Pork rib, Samgyetang, Stir-fried squid, Stir-fried chicken, Braised potato, Braised tofu and Jabchae were selected as takeout-style Korean food items. Sensory evaluation using a 9-point hedonic scale was conducted with residents in Honolulu, Hawaii during a 2 month market test. Among the respondents in the sensory evaluation, Japanese and Americans constituted 32.8% and 25.3%, respectively, of total respondents, which reflect the residential races in the state of Hawaii. The sensory scores of each attribute were judged as follows : aroma 7.2~8.2, color 7.0~8.2, flavor 7.2~8.2, overall preference; pork rib 8.2, pork Bulgogi=braised potato 8.1, stir-fried chicken 8.0, kimchi pork 7.9, Sundubu 7.6, Jabchae and braised tofu 7.5, stir-fried squid 7.2, Samgyetang 7.0. In a satisfaction survey using a 5 point scale after a 2 month market test, the scores of each satisfaction attribute such as quality, price, convenience, difference, etc. were shown to range from 4.1-4.6, indicating that 10 take out-style Korean food items were very popular with Hawaiian consumers. These results suggest that Korean food items are competitive with other ethnic foods in the Hawaii market.
A Study on the Food-culture's Property of the Traditional Generation through the Oral Interview
Kim, Mi-Hye ; Chung, Hae-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 613~630
This thesis, which involves honest life stories of members of the ìtraditionalî Korean generation that lived through the turbulent times of the first half of the twentieth century, assesses the meaning and import of Korean cuisine during an individual Korean's lifetime, as well as the relevant properties of the culinary culture of the traditional generation and how those properties continue to influence the present generation of Koreans. Thus, traditional Korean culinary culture was subdivided into the following four aspects, each of which were exemplified by representative examples. The first of these is slow-food dietary life, which is exemplified by fermented foods. The development of side dishes (panchan) based on fermentation - kimchi, different types of soy and bean paste, salted seafoods, dishes of dried radish or cucumber slices seasoned with soy sauce, and so on - made the quantitative and qualitative supplementation of food possible for traditional Koreans. The second of these aspects, referred to as friendly dietary life, is exemplified by self-sufficiently produced foods. The system of many species and small production suitable with the season made it possible to produce food from sustainable ecological systems and to maintain locally grown food-cultures, each of which was distinguished from others by a local specialty product. The third aspect of the traditional Korean culinary culture involves the same use of medicinal roots and plant materials for foodstuff, and this is exemplified by the use of foods to cure and prevent diseases. The notion, for example, that 'boiled rice is an invigorant' is characteristic of the notion that diet can function in a preventative medical context, and other similar Korean notions illustrate the importance, also, of the curative properties of food. The fourth and final aspect of traditional Korean culinary culture identified herein is creative dietary life, which can be viewed essentially as a Korean adaptation to the turbulence of life during the early
century in Korea. This trend is exemplified by many Korean foods that were created in response to foreign influences, such as onions, cabbages, curry, etc. which found their place in overall Korean culture through the age of Japanese settlement, as well as the Korean war.
A Study on the Children's Eating Habits and Food Preference - focused on staple food and side dishes -
Chung, Hea-Jung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 631~640
This study aim to identify preference of main and side dishes of 681 children who lived in Seoul and Gyoung-gi (Incheon) in 2007. To accomplish this, we divided the children into three age groups, an infancy group (below 6 years of age), a middle years group (between 7 and 12 years of age) and a juvenile group (above 12 years of age). Specifically, 145 children were in the infancy group (boys 68, girls 77), 300 children were in middle years group (boys 138, girls 162) and 236 children were in juveniles group (boys 131, girls 105). The average body mass index (BMI) of the parents of the respondents appeared to be normal, and the majority of the parents had bachelor degrees. Across all age groups, most fathers were office workers and most mothers were housewives. The preference for staple foods showed that the infancy group and the middle years group preferred rice the most, while the juvenile group preferred stir-fried rice the most out of 5 grain items. Evaluation of the preference for different types of noodles showed that both boys and girls from the infancy group preferred jajangmyun, while those in the middle years group and the juvenile group preferred spaghetti. For breads, both boys and girls from the infancy group had the highest preference for cake, while boys and girls in the middle years group and boys in the juvenile group preferred pizza the most, and girls from juvenile group preferred cake the most. Evaluation of the preference for soups and pot stew revealed that both boys and girls in the infancy group preferred seaweed soup, while boys from middle years group preferred seol-long-tang and girls from middle years group preferred seaweed soup. Boys and girls from the juvenile group preferred seol-long-tang the most. For hard-boiled foods and stir-fried foods, members of all age groups preferred beef boiled in soy sauce the most and hard-boiled peppers the least. Finally, comparison of the preference for roasted foods, seasoned vegetables and kimchi revealed that the infancy group preferred roasted seaweed the most and that both the middle years and juvenile group had the greatest preference for roasted galbi.
A Qualitative Study of Food Consumer Behavior Using the Means-end Chain Method - Illustrating Research into Swede's Perception on Asian Food -
Lee, Kyung-Ran ; Mengoni, Mariangela ; Mayazi, Adja ; Pehrsson, Anders ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 641~648
The principal objective of this study was to analyze Swede's perceptions of Asian food using a means-end chain method, which may contribute to our understanding of new markets for a food industry interested in globalizing Korean food. With the Means-end chain method, one can determine the cognitive structures built in consumer's minds, which are developed by connecting attributes of product, consequences, and values. The attributes of Asian food that are most positively perceived by Swedes are 'fresh vegetables', 'low-fat', 'light meat and seafood', 'exotic ingredients', 'not expensive' and 'unknown food'. The consequences of eating Asian food connected to these attributes are 'healthy', 'tasty', 'good way to save money' and 'curious'. Finally, Swedes expect to enjoy a value of 'achievement' at the end. Based on the result that 'unknown food' attribute is connected to 'achievement' value, Swedes are assumed to be attracted by the fact that Korean food is 'unknown food'. However, the effect of the 'unknown food' attribute will fade away with time; therefore, stressing Korean food's status as a 'healthy' food, which can be attributed to its use of 'fresh vegetable' and 'light meat and seafood' ingredients and 'low fat' cooking method may be effective as a long-term strategy for making Korean food attractive. The 'healthy' consequence is connected to Swedes' perception of the value 'achievement' and simultaneously to their perception of the value 'belonging and love/sense of belonging'.
A Study on Preference according to Basic Image Divisions of Dining Space - Focused on the User aged 20's -
Kim, Sun-Young ; Park, Geum-Soon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 649~654
This study has a purpose of suggesting the basic data to achieve customer satisfaction by understanding the preference of each type of restaurant industry for the taste of customers in 20's referring to 8 images. In the preference for style of image in dining space, the participants responded that they prefer natural, modern and romantic image, and both male and female participants preferred natural image. Participants responded that they prefer natural, romantic and modern in sequence as their general preference for style of image in dining space, and male participants preferred modern and natural but female participants preferred romantic and natural. The survey that was conducted for different menus has suggested that the reasonable image for fast food is casual, hard casual and classic for hotel restaurant, casual for school restaurant, romantic for cafe, casual for western restaurant, simple for Japanese restaurant, classic and elegance for Chinese restaurant and natural for Korean restaurant. According to the result of the analysis of dining space image, factor 1 are called 'cold image (CI)' as they have simple and modern image, factor 2 are called 'soft image (SI)' as they have natural and romantic image, factor 3 are called 'warm image (WI)' as they have casual and elegance image and factor 4 are called 'hard image (HI)' as they have classic image.
Profile of Korean Restaurant Patrons in New-york City
Han, Kyung-Soo ; Sung, Heidi H. ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 655~665
Coupled with the international expansion of Korean culture in recent years, a number of restaurants from Korea have been trying to tap into the global market place. The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of non-Korean patrons in Korean Restaurants in New-york city. The survey was conducted at six popular Korean restaurants, all of which had been recognized in the Zagat Survey in recent years, located in prime business districts in Manhattan. The data collected from the six local Korean restaurants that participated in this study were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. After employing individual in-depth interviews with restaurant operators, a qualitative analysis identified demographic characteristics, Socioeconomic characteristics and segmentation of restaurant operation. Self-administrated survey questionnaires were used to acquire quantitative data. Primary data were collected from non-Korean patrons at the six participating Korean restaurants in New York City in 2008 (N=245). The patrons who answered the survey indicated that they were highly satisfied with the 'Food'; however, they were not satisfied with the 'Beverage' and 'Value'. In addition, older patrons (55<) were not as content with the 'Food' as the younger patrons. The most influential satisfaction variable that affected a patron's intention to revisit the Korean restaurant was 'Food' and 'Overall experience'. This study findings will help Korean restaurant operators and marketers better understand their patrons and formulate strategies to cater and target segments more effectively.
Symbolism of Food Expressed in Oral Folk Tale
Bae, Yun-Kyung ; Park, Bo-Kyung ; Park, Ah-Reum ; Lee, Soon-Min ; Cho, Mi-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 666~676
Oral folk tale, which are organized stories that have been handed down to each district, includes a lot of mention about local specialties related to food. In folk tales consisting of linguistic signs, food plays a role in expressing not only instinct and desire but also order, exclusion and communication of human beings. Understanding the matters of concern or consciousness that community members of the time have put an emphasis on through food included in folk tales can be useful for better understanding the culture of the time and the food in folk tales can be a symbolic code. In this study, food mentioned in folk tales were classified into six groups, medicine, love, god, livelihood, provision and power focused on both inland and coastal regions that are referred to in most of the sixteen volumes of Korean Oral Folk Tales. In addition, the symbolic meanings of these groups were examined. This study can contribute to establishing the foundation of the globalization of the Korean food by determining the way Korea food can become a world class food. This study aims to reinterpret and combine culture and art with the food of Korea based on six symbolic meanings of food expressed in Korean Oral Folk Tales.
A Comparative Study of Region's Communication Strategy for Food Culture PR Contents through Semiotic Analyses of the Official Websites of Seoul, Jeonju, and Jeju
Jeon, Hyeong-Yeon ; Kim, Jung-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 677~691
In this study, the symbols and visual expressions employed in the food culture content of official website designed to promote three cities in Korea, Seoul, Jeonju and Jeju, were subjected to semiotic analysis. In this study, it was assumed that these websites reflected the varying perspectives of the people behind the development and management of these routes of Internet communication, and the semiotic choices made in order to exemplify each city's food cultural image. The aim of the study was to analyze the communication strategies of food cultural branding in the terms of the online content regarding Seoul, Jeonju, and Jeju with a focus on the comparative points in these cities' official websites. This study included conducting semiotic content analyses of the aforementioned cities' official web pages in an attempt to determine the food branding strategies used to differentiation and produce more favorable perceptions of these three cities. Building upon the findings drawn from this comparative study, the present work can be used to determine more effective ways of strategically differentiating the images of local food culture associated with these cities from the view of brand communications. This study also demonstrates viable directions for designing web content for a city where the food cultural messages can be delivered in a thoughtful and effective manner.
Current Situation in Farm Restaurants and Improved Strategies for Rural Development
Chong, Yu-Kyeong ; Kim, Maeng-Jin ; Song, Hyon-Ju ; Lee, Myoung-Eun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 692~701
Green tourism has recently focused on an alternative plan for activating a rural economy and coping with an income inequality between urban and rural areas. The Rural Development Administration has supported farm restaurants with the aim of increasing the income of farmers, determined unique native local foods and developed programs based on the experience rural life since 2007. Farm restaurants, which are the new type of local food restaurants, have unique food and various experiencing programs that reflect their own regional characteristics. We would like to understand how the farm restaurants have been developed and what types of characteristics they have based on the currently operating farm restaurants. The management situations and value of farm restaurants as tourist attractions were investigated as well in the tools for rural development.
Impact of General Manager Competing Values Leadership on Employee Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention in the Restaurant Industry
Yoon, Ji-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 702~710
The purpose of this study was to identify the competing values leadership of restaurant general managers and to investigate the impact of their competing values leadership on employee job satisfaction and turnover intention. A sample of full-time restaurant employees (n=360, 36% response) completed an e-mail survey. The results showed that among the eight sub-dimensions of competing values leadership roles, the monitor (4.04), producer (4.01), and director (3.99) roles were perceived as the most frequently used leadership styles of managers compared to broker (3.78), innovator (3.83), and mentor (3.91) roles (p <0.001). Additional T-test results suggested that an employees' gender had an influence on how he/she perceived the leadership style of their manager. Male employees were more likely to perceive that the director and mentor roles (4.19) were performed very well by their managers, while female employees perceived that their managers concentrated more on monitor (3.98) and producer (3.96) roles rather than on broker (3.73) and innovator (3.79) roles (p<0.05). It was found that manager competing values leadership had a significant correlation with employee job satisfaction, and the mentor, coordinator, and innovator manager roles explained the relationship with 42.1% based on multiple regression analysis (p<0.001). In further findings, the manager competing values leadership roles had an effect on employee turnover intention. The results of the data were as follows: mentor and facilitator roles promoted a decrease in employee turnover intention and the director role caused employee turnover intention to increase. Ultimately, this study will be useful for restaurant managers to guide the application of appropriate competing values leadership roles in order to strengthen employee job satisfaction and to reduce turnover intention.
The Effects of Hotel Employees' Physical Attractiveness on Person-job Fit - Focused on the Mediating Roles of Self-esteem and Self-efficacy -
Jung, Hyo-Sun ; Choi, Soo-Keun ; Yoon, Hye-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 711~720
The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of hotel employees' physical attractiveness on person-job fit and to empirically analyze whether self-esteem and self-efficacy play a mediating role in the causality between an employee's physical attractiveness and person-job fit. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 345 employees and the data were analyzed by frequency analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. The primary results were as follows: Multiple regression analysis showed that hotel employee physical attractiveness had a positive significant influence on self-esteem (
, p<.001) and self-efficacy (
, p<.001). Also, employee selfesteem (
, p<.001) and self-efficacy (
, p<.001) each had a positive significant influence on person-job fit. As a result of analyzing the mediating role, the effect of hotel employees' physical attractiveness on person-job fit was partially mediated by self-esteem and self-efficacy.
Comparison of Customer Satisfaction by Operation Types of Business Foodservice in Chungbuk Province
An, Kwang-Bok ; Yon, Mi-Yong ; Lee, Yu-Jin ; Kim, Woon-Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 721~727
In this study, the current status of the business foodservice industry, evaluation of leftover food and customer satisfaction with foodservice at direct operation and consignment foodservice businesses in Chungbuk were examined. This study has managerial implications in terms of improving the quality and effectiveness of the business operation of the foodservice industry. The sample size of this study included 800 customers who use foodservices provided by 11 selected businesses including 6 direct operation and 5 consignment foodservice businesses. From these 800 customers, a total of 692 were used (direct operation foodservice (n=361) and consignment foodservice (n=331) businesses). The results were as follows; First, as for the main reasons for using the employee restaurants in types of direct operation and consignment foodservice business, 'the close location' had the high percentage. Approximately 41% of respondents were not satisfied with the foodservice in the employee restaurants. Second, leftover food from consignment foodservices was higher than that for direct operation foodservices. Third, there were significant differences in customer satisfaction with five areas of foodservice between the two types of food service businesses: food, sanitation, feeding environment, mealing process and information and service. Customer satisfaction in the direct operation foodservice was higher than that of the consignment foodservice. In terms of the satisfaction level of foodservices, mealing process was the highest, followed by sanitation, food, and information and service in the direct operation and consignment foodservice businesses. Overall, satisfaction with the business foodservice was affected by the customers' satisfaction in five areas of foodservices (e.g., food, sanitation, feeding environment, mealing process, information and service). Especially, 'food' and 'information and service' were important areas for determining overall customer satisfaction with foodservice. In addition, the overall satisfaction was negatively correlated with the quantity of leftover food in the direct operation and consignment foodservice business.
A Study on the Job Stress Factors according to the Working Years of School Food Service Nutritionists in Gangwon Area
Noh, Mi-Ah ; Kim, Ji-Sang ; Lee, Young-Soon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 728~738
The purpose of this study was to evaluate job stress factors of school food service nutritionists according to the number of years they have worked. The subjects of this survey included 125 nutritionists (69 from full-time employees and 56 from part-time nutritionists) from elementary school, middle school, and high school in the Gangwon area. The results showed that stress related to duty was the top job stress factor, followed by environment-related stress, personal stress, organization-related stress and stress caused by human relations. In terms of the degree of stress, part-time nutritionists have more stress compared to full-time nutritionists. This was especially true for nutritionists that had been employed for one year. In this case, the degree of stress was much higher than long time employed nutritionists. In terms of how to deal with job stress, school nutritionists eliminated stress directly (with direct countermeasures). In order to deal with stress, workers expected stable employment such as pay (wages), promotions, etc. In particular, part-time school nutritionists had stronger expectations. When correlation between job stress factors were examined, environment-related, duty-related, organization-related, human relations-related and personal stress were all shown to be mutually related.
The Effect of Mentoring Functions in Foodservice Company on Organizational Commitment - Focused on Mediating Effect of Trust toward Supervisor -
Kim, Ji-Eung ; An, Ho-Ki ; Lee, Eun-Jun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 739~748
The aim of this study was to better understand the factors of the mentoring function in the foodservice industry that improve the organizational commitment of subordinates, and to asses the roles that trust towards supervisors play in the relationship between the mentoring and organizational commitment. A survey was of subordinates who were conducting the mentoring in foodservice companies (hotels, family restaurants) located in Seoul and Gyeonggi area was conducted from May 1 to May 30, 2008. The questionnaires were distributed to 400 employees in 50 restaurants and, 341 of them were received and a total of 320 were finally analyzed. The results were as follows. First, the effect of mentoring functions on the organizational commitment of subordinates indicated that the career developing function and psychosocial function had a significant positive effect on the emotional commitment and normative commitment (p<.01), and the career developing function, psychosocial function and role modeling function had a significant positive effect on the enduring commitment (p<.01). Second, the mediating roles of supervisory trust in the relationship between mentoring functions and organizational commitment of subordinates indicated that supervisory trust mediated the relationship between the career developing function of the mentoring functions, and enduring commitment and normative commitment in addition, it met the mediating requirements in terms of the relationship between the role modeling function, and the emotional commitment, enduring commitment and normative commitment. Consequently, the high career developing function, psychosocial function and role modeling function in mentoring raised the level of organizational commitment;thus, the mentoring system should used as on of the mentoring functions in the foodservice industry and mentoring functions should be also established.
Chemical Components and Biological Activities of Red Onion Powder
Jang, Joo-Ri ; Kwon, Sun-Jin ; Lim, Sun-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 749~755
We investigated the chemical components of red onion powder dried using the low temperature vacuum method and the inhibitory effects of solvent extracts of the dried red onion powder on the growth of HT-1080 human fibrosarcoma and HT-29 human colon cancer cells and
-induced oxidative stress. The moisture content of the dried red onion powder was 17.95%, while the vitamin C content was 96 mg/100 g and the total phenols content was 39.1 mg/mL. The inhibitory effects of acetone with methylene chloride (A+M) and methanol (MeOH) extracts of the red onion powder on the growth of HT-1080 and HT-29 cancer cells increased in a dose dependent manner (p<0.05). The inhibitory effect was greater on the growth of HT-29 cells, while the A+M extracts had a higher inhibitory effect than the MeOH extracts. Treatment with the hexane, 85% aq. methanol, butanol and water fractions of the extract led to significant inhibition of the growth of both cancer cell lines (p<0.05). Among the fractions, the hexane and 85% aq. methanol fractions showed a greater inhibitory effect. To determine the protective effect on
-induced oxidative stress, a DCFH-DA (dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate) assay was conducted. All fractions, including the crude extracts of dried red onion, appeared to lead to a significant reduction in the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and these reductions occurred in a dose dependent fashion (p<0.05). Among the fractions, the 85% methanol fraction showed the greatest protective effect on the production of lipid peroxides.
Quality Characteristics of Almond Dasik with Added Purple Sweet Potato Powder
Jang, Jung-Suk ; Chung, Hai-Jung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 756~761
The objective of this study was to assess the quality characteristics of almond Dasik prepared with the addition of purple sweet potato powder (PSPP). Five different levels (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%) of PSPP were added and the physicochemical properties of the Dasik were examined. Crude protein and crude fat contents decreased as the level of PSPP increased (p<0.05). The Hunter L-value decreased while the a-value increased as the PSPP level increased. Texture measurements showed that the addition of PSPP increased hardness, cohesiveness, and brittleness. Total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity were assessed in terms of estimating the functionality of the Dasik. The results showed that incorporating PSPP into the Dasik provided higher polyphenol content and antioxidant activity compared to the control Dasik (p<0.05). The results of a consumer acceptance test revealed that the Dasik sample made with 15% PSPP was most preferred and the 20% sample was the least preferred. Therefore, it is suggested that purple sweet potato powder can be incorporated into Dasik up to 15% without reducing its quality.
The High School Student' Perception of Seaweed and Its Preference in School Meal Service; a Seoul Metropolitan Area Case
Park, Sang-Mi ; Lee, Young-Soon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 762~769
In this investigation, 480 high school students attending school in Seoul, Incheon were surveyed for their knowledge of seaweed and their preference of seaweed products provided during school meal service. Female students answered that they preferred seaweed more than male students. When asked to explain their preference for seaweed, most students who preferred seaweed responded 'it is tasty' (82.9%), while those that did not like seaweed responded 'I don't like the texture when chewing it and it is not tasty' (47.8%). Most students reported that they usually eat 'laver', and the number of times that they at seaweed was '3-4 times a week'. The primary place in which they ate seaweed and the place where they feel it had the best taste was a 'house'. The primary source of information regarding seaweed was mass media including TV, newspapers, magazines and the internet (48.8%). With regard to seaweed in school meals, which is offered twice a week, most students reported, 'I eat seaweed and leave it to some extent.' They perceived 'laver' to be most often provided in school meals, and 57.7% reported that their favorite seaweed meal was 'laver'. When asked why they dislike seaweed in school meals, the most common responses were 'I didn't like seaweed the first time I tried it' (27%) and 'Its taste is different from what I eat at home' (24.6%). The most common request regarding seaweed provided in school lunches was for the taste to be improved (48.2%). Evaluation of the preference for seaweed menus in school meals revealed that both males and females had higher preferences of more than 4 points for 'fried laver' and 'broiled laver'.
A Study on Sensory Properties of the Saury (Cololabis saira) Fishmeat Nuggets
Kim, Tae-Soon ; Kim, Gi-Ryoon ; Kim, Hyun-Ah ; Lee, Kyung-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 770~777
The purpose of this study was to test the overall preference of Saury fishmeat nuggets. In order to remove off-flavor of Saury and to improve the sensory properties of Saury fishmeat nuggets, different concentrations of vegetables (onion, 0-20%), different types of spices (ginger powder, white pepper powder, garlic powder) and different types of vegetables (onion & hot pepper, onion & pimento, mushroom & hot pepper, and mushroom & pimento) were added and the sensory properties were evaluated. Different types of herbs (Anthemis nobillis, Rosemarinus offcinalis L) and oriental herb (Angelica gigas Nakai, Acanthopanax sessiliflorus Seed) extracts were included as well to preserve the antioxidants in the nuggets after reheating. The main ingredients included saury mince, mild pizza cheese, hydrated textured soy protein, and egg white powder. The samples were molded (dia. 4.5 cm, thickness 1.5 cm, 20 g), lightly battered and fried for 2 min (2 time) at
. The samples were then frozen, reheated (
, 20 min) and subjected to a sensory evaluation. In the sensory evaluation, Saury nuggets made with a vegetable concentration of 15% had the highest flavor, taste, and overall preference (V5). In addition, Saury nuggets made with 1 g of ginger powder and garlic powder scored the highest in the preference test (S2). Saury nuggets made with onion and pepper had the highest score in the preference test relative to all the other tested vegetables (SV1). Finally, in terms of the herb and oriental herb extracts, the nuggets made with the condensed extracts at a 1/20 ratio of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus Seed (AS) scored the highest in the preference test, since AS had the lowest off-flavor taste.
A Study on the Nutritional Habit, Nutritional Knowledge, Functional Health Status of the Aged People in the Hall for the Aged in Sungnam Area
Kang, Nam-E ; Chu, Su-Kyung ; Yoo, Jang-Hak ; Yi, Seung-Hoon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 778~783
The purpose of this study was to determine the basic materials needed for nutrition and health programs for aged people. In order to set up these programs, the nutritional habit, nutritional knowledge and functional health status (mobility, functional assessment, and falls efficacy) of the aged were measured, and their relationships were determined. Data was collected on 57 aged individuals that participated in the 'Exercise Program for the Aged' conducted by the National Health Insurance Corporation. These 57 subjects were interviewed and tested by direct measurement prior to conducting the program. The data was analyzed using the SPSS 13.0 Package. According to the results, the nutritional habit ranged from 24-50 out of 50, and the average was 37.2, which was above the middle level. The average nutritional knowledge was of 4.02 out of 5, which was considered reasonably high. Especially, more than half of these subjects were uneducated, but they had a high interest in nutrition. The average mobility was determined to be 9.2 seconds and the falls efficacy was 64.2 out of 100. In addition, subjects answered that they had a fear of falling due to low confidence, which indicates that safety education for the prevention of falls should be provided to aged individuals in the future. The results showed that notable counter-relations between nutritional habit and functional health status existed.
Effects of Weight Control Programs on Limiting Obesity and Improving the Eating Behaviors of Adult Obese Women
Kim, Kyung-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 784~792
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of weight control programs on BMI, serum profiles, nutrition knowledge and eating behaviors of adult obese women. The subjects of this study were 33 adult obese women aged 30-65 years residing in Seoul. The weight control program for obese women included nutritional education, cognitive behavioral therapy and exercise for 12 weeks. The weight control experience of the subjects was 60.6%. They preferred physical exercise and diet restriction to weight control and 72.7% of subjects answered that the reasons for wanting to control their weight was health. The BMI of test subjects significantly decreased (p<0.001) from 28.3 to 27.1 after the 12 weeks of the weight control program. In addition, the % body fat significantly decreased (p<0.001) from 36.4% to 34.5% after completion of the weight control program. SGPT levels in the serum were also significantly decreased (p<0.05) after the program. Triglyceride levels significantly decreased from 194.9 mg/dL to 98.1 mg/dL (p<0.01) and the HDL cholesterol level significantly increased (p<0.01) from 55.8 mg/dL to 60.0 mg/dL after completion of the weight control program. Nutritional knowledge and eating behavior scores were significantly increased (p<0.001). In addition, the eating self-efficacy of the subjects was significantly increased (p<0.01); however, the food diversity scores were not changed after the program. These results suggest that the weight control program for adult obese women may be effectively used to promote weight reduction and improve nutritional knowledge and eating behavior.
Changes in the Obesity Index, Nutritional Knowledge, Food Habits and Nutrient Intakes in Obese Children after a Weight Control Program of Nutritional Education
Lee, Eun-Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 793~804
This study was conducted to investigate the change in the anthropometric values, biochemical index, nutritional knowledge, food habits and nutrient intakes in obese children after a weight control program. The subjects of the study were 22 obese children with an obesity index over 120%. The children that participated in this study took nutritional education for weight control along with exercise once a week. The weight control program was conducted for 10 weeks. The BMI, WHR (Waist-Hip ratio), body fat (%) significantly decreased at the end of the weight control program. Total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were also significantly decreased. The nutritional knowledge scores and knowledge score about obesity were slightly improved. Energy intake significantly decreased from 1768 to 1421 kcal. Intake of Ca, Na, K, vitamin A, vitamin
, vitamin C and folate increased, while intakes of P, Zn, vitamin
, vitamin E and niacin decreased. The distribution of energy intake was significantly changed for the better. The percent fat consumed decreased from 26.5 to 19.7%. In addition, the distribution of energy intake in the meals was changed, where the percent calories consumed during lunch significantly increased from 31.4 to 40.1% and the calorie percentage consumed from snacks significantly decreased from 17.6 to 10.7%. In conclusion, the nutritional education in the weight control program, which was conducted for 10 weeks, was effective in improving the anthropometric values, biochemical index and nutrient intake although nutrition knowledge and eating behaviors only changed slightly. Thus, nutritional weight control programs for obese children should be continuously provided under the proper cooperation of a nutritional teacher at elementary schools.
Developing an Attitude Scale for Korean Style Flavors
Kim, Jin-Young ; Cha, Sung-Mi ; Chung, La-Na ; Kim, Kwang-Ok ; Chung, Seo-Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 805~812
The consumer acceptance of food is not only affected by the sensory characteristics of food but also by the non-food factors, including food experience, consumption frequency, and food attitudes. Therefore, food attitude scales such as the food neophobic scale, VARSEEK scale, Dutch restrained eating scale, health taste attitude scale, etc. have been developed and effectively used to predict consumer liking and behaviors. Since the globalization of Korean food is currently one of the hottest topics in the Korean food industry, the aim of this study was to identify the tastes and flavors that may represent Korean cuisine. Additionally, an attitudinal scale for Korean taste and flavors was developed, which can then be utilized to predict a consumer's liking of Korean food. In the first stage of the experiment, the representative taste and flavors of Korean cuisine was surveyed by a Korean culinary expert group (n=23) and general consumers (n=62). As a result of these surveys, 4 types of flavors, hot pepper flavor, 'goso' flavor, garlic flavor, and fermented flavor were shown to be the most representative flavors of Korean cuisine. Based on these results, the second stage of the experiment was carried out to develop an attitudinal scale for Korean style flavors. Eleven to 17 questionnaires were developed for each of the 4 types of flavors. The survey consisted of a total of 53 questionnaires and 154 female consumers and 158 male consumers participated in the survey. The data was analyzed by factor analysis. For each type of flavor, the final attitudinal questionnaires were selected based on the following criteria: 1. high absolute factor loading value, 2. carrying clear meaning of the corresponding flavor attitude, and 3. delivering the meaning sufficiently when translated into other language. The final Korean style flavor attitude scale consisted of 7 hot pepper flavor, 6 'goso' flavor, 6 garlic flavor, and 7 fermented flavor questionnaires. In the next step of this study, experiments will be carried out to validate the Korean style flavor attitude scale.