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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Ecological Architecture and Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 10, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 10, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 10, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
Selecting the target year
Methodological study on the High Dynamic Range Imaging Processing
Lim, Hong Soo ; Kim, Gon ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 3~8
Recently, various daylight evaluation methods for visual environment have been developed; simulation analysis methods, numerical calculation, and data monitoring methods. However, it is impossible for simulation analysis to make real scenes and visualize real images exactly. Also, a numerical calculation is considered as an out of date and time-consuming mean. Therefore, for acquisition of accurate results, many studies often use the monitoring data methods. Especially, most studies regarding discomfort glare are evaluated by measuring the physical quantity of luminance through traditional measuring Minolta Luminance meters as an instrument. But, this method has a difficulty in measuring several points at the same time because of the limitation of spaces and time when mapping. So, this study focused on the potential usefulness of High Dynamic Range photography technique as a luminance mapping tool. In order to evaluate the accuracy of proposed programs such as webHDR, Photomatix and PHOTOLUX, this paper has conducted an experiment by using Canon EOS 5D and NICON Coolpix8400 digital camera.
Assessment of Criteria for selecting Rainwater Management Strategies
Lee, Tae-Goo ; Han, Young-Hae ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 9~17
The purpose of this study is to draw out objective bases for selecting various applicable facilities in case of the establishment of rainwater management strategies. To do so, sixteen facilities were selected from decentralized rainwater management systems that induce rainwater infiltration and detention as well as centralized end-of-pipe type infiltration and detention facilities in local areas. With these facilities, it attempted to evaluate them in terms of sustainability, pollutant elimination, flood control capacity and costs and subsequently analyzed correlations between each characteristic. The outcomes of the analysis were as follows: First was the analysis of characteristics between decentralized rainwater management systems and end-of-pipe rainwater management systems. From the decentralized rainwater management systems, the mulden-rigolen system and grass swale at street level had the highest in the total of the four items while the totals of the underground detention tank and temporary detention site were highest in end-of-pipe rainwater management systems. After analyzing the correlation between different types of facilities and each variable, it can be said that decentralized rainwater management systems have a higher correlation than end-of-pipe rainwater management systems in terms of sustainability whereas the latter are better in flood control capacity than the former. Second, the analysis of correlation in variables of each facility is as follows: first, there is a negative correlation between sustainability value and flood control capacity value; and there is a positive correlation between flood control capability and pollutants elimination. In addition, it revealed that the higher the flood control and pollutant elimination capability the higher the facility costs. Based on these assessments, it is possible to use them as objective selection criteria for facility application in case of site development project or complex plan.
A Study on Comparison and Analysis of Revision Building Rating System for Environment-friendly Residential Building
Park, Kyung Soon ; Kim, Chul ; Kwon, Moon Hee ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 19~28
As design tools, building performance certification systems can be applied to provide adequate guidelines on design process to create environment-friendly buildings. Domestic certification systems of residential building took effect by doing supply to designers and contractors from affiliated organization of governments in the early 2000s. As a result, Building Energy Rating System, Apartment Performance Rating System, Green Homes and other means to promote green designs have been operated. International trends of applying certification systems were started in the early 1990s as forms of LEED in USGBC, BREEAM in BRE, GBTool Canada. These systems aim to evaluate building performance in line with the Climatic Change Convention and realize sustainable building design. In 2009, residential buildings accounted for the largest portion of the internal real estate market with 67.9 percent according to the National Statistical Office data. And for 18 years since 1991, apartments among constructed residential buildings have ranked top taking up 77.7% as of 2009. Apartment performance evaluations accordingly are to promote to constitution of improving tenant quality of life, the residential environment and saving energy and resources in the internal building market. The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze valuation bases of each sector in evaluation systems of residential buildings at home and abroad to upgrade current systems through reflecting the characteristics of residential buildings. Implementation of this study basically include comparison of valuation bases and partial analysis on properties of rating systems to suggest requisites for improvement in building performance certification.
Study on Promotion of the Maintenance Engineers for Multiple Dwellings
Park, Sang Hoon ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 29~37
The industrialized countries have promoted the rehabilitation of existing housing units as a national agenda, such as green policies, whereas korea, although having a housing stock as huge as that of world countries, have focused on the growth of housing by constructing new units rather than rehabilitating existing ones. Today, it has been so long since many multiple dwellings in Seoul and in the vicinity of Seoul were constructed. There were, however, very few political efforts to encourage the rehabilitation of housing. Today, substantial time has passed since multiple dwellings in Seoul and the first-stage new cities such as Bundang and Ilsan were constructed. What is required to maintain the quality of the existing housing and use it with safety is to promote the engineer of maintenance for multiple dwellings to work the maintenance of existing multiple dwellings. The objective of this study is to compare and analyze the maintenance qualification system of multiple dwellings of Japan, and then to propose to raise engineers of maintenance for multiple dwellings in korea.
Characteristics of Interior Noise at University Reading Room and User's Consciousness on the Noise
Park, Hyeon Ku ; Jong, Hye-Ran ; Kim, Sun-Woo ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 39~44
Reading room in the university is one of necessary facilities that university student must use. It is, therefore, very important to make reading room comfortable acoustically not only to minimize the annoyance to the users but also to provide efficiency in studying. Present study aims to investigate the current situation of reading room in terms of acoustics and moreover to find out the relationship between the indoor noise and users' satisfaction through questionnaire survey. As a result, the indoor noise level is quite higher than the 1st grade, 35 dB(A), that the Ministry of land, transport and maritime affairs suggests as certificate regulation for environment friendly building and there were lots of noise sources that can provoke users in studying or concentrating. Questionnaire survey illustrates that the sound when opening and closing door, and airborne sound from outdoor transmitted through window are most annoying, which affected users' dissatisfaction.
A Study on Analysis of Energy Consumption of the Middle School Facilities in Korea
Yoon, Jong-Ho ; Shin, U-Cheul ; Cho, Jin-Il ; Park, Jae-Wan ; Kim, Hyo-Jung ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 45~50
This study for middle school facilities is second following the study of the energy consumption of primary school facilities. There is not on the analysis of the current energy usage for middle school facilities in nations to set goals of energy reduction. Therefore, The purpose of this study is to present various analysis result of energy consumption which is a statistical analysis of domestic middle school facilities in South Korea. As a consequence, each average energy consumption at the domestic middle school facilities analyzed as following after changing as unit 'kWh' only for comparison with every energy source. It represents that the energy consumption of electric power was 183.7MWh(70.2%), gas consumption for heating was 46.5MWh(17.8%), oil consumption was 26.5MWh(10.1%), district energy was 5.1MWh(1.9%). This result describes that consumption of electric power was large greatly and it reflects the expectation that it will climb the demand regarding this energy in the future. In additionally, it analyzed average energy consumption with
by the unit area of air-conditioning and the district which has large energy consumption was Seoul with
Design Patterns for the Soundscape of an Elementary School
Jo, Ga-Eun ; Han, Myung-Ho ; Oh, Yang-Ki ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 51~57
The built environment of the elementary school influences on the character and the social skill of children in that childhood development stage. In this regard, sound environment in the elementary school is also important as the other environmental factors. Soundscape design is a design attitude for a better sound environment what landscape design targets a visual one. Four soundscape factors in elementary schools are extracted in this study from surveys on existing elementary schools. They are abstracted and characterized to related design patterns which denote the intended sound environments. The design patterns can be converted into design ideas and applied to an actual design project. There are possible advantages in the proposed elementary school design, environmentally and educationally, especially with the 'designed' soundscape.
Evaluation of the Indoor Thermal Comfort in Naturally Ventilated Apartment During Summer
Lee, Seung-Jae ; Cheong, Chang Heon ; Hwang, Suckho ; Kim, Taeyeon ; Leigh, Seung-Bok ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 59~66
Natural ventilation is major strategy of 'sustainable building'. It aims to supply fresh air to the indoor, and to remove heat from the indoor during summer. In the latter point of view, natural ventilation can be grouped into two main strategies, daytime ventilation and night cooing. If we take advantage of these two natural ventilation strategies, indoor thermal comfort can be significantly improved. This study focused on grasping the current situation and problem of indoor thermal comfort of the naturally ventilated residential buildings to seek for direction of later studies. Additionally, thermal comfort of residence where the interior blind and exterior insulation were applied was analyzed. It was analyzed that the percentage of the time which satisfy the indoor acceptable operative temperature during summer was 90 ~ 95% and the heat control performance of natural ventilation has a limitation. When the interior blind and exterior insulation were applied, indoor thermal comfort was significantly improved. However, it still need more improvement.
Evaluation of the Thermal Environment and Comfort in Apartment complex using Unsteady-state CFD simulation
Jeon, Mi-Young ; Lee, Seung-Jae ; Kim, Ji-Yoeng ; Leigh, Seung-Bok ; Kim, Taeyeon ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 67~73
As more and more people desire to live in an apartment complex with a comfortable outdoor space, many construction company became interested in outdoor design. In order to increase the use of outdoor space and create the most pleasant environment, outdoor thermal environment and comfort should be evaluated quantitatively from the design stage. This study utilized ENVI-met 3.1 model to analyze outdoor thermal environment in apartment complex, and evaluated outdoor thermal comfort in 6 points of apartment complex. The physiologically equivalent temperature(PET) was employed as a outdoor thermal index. Playground B had a poor thermal environment with the maximum PET
(Very hot). Because shading by building and tree didn't affect outdoor thermal environment of playground B. To design comfortable outdoor space from the view point of thermal environment, the factors influencing Mean radiant temperature(MRT) and wind speed should be considered in design stage. Since it is difficult to control outdoor thermal environment compared with indoor environment, we should take into account an assessment for outdoor thermal environment and comfort in outdoor design stage.
A study on the Heat Transfer Performance according to Ground Heat Exchanger Types
Hwang, SuckHo ; Song, Doosam ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 75~80
Generally, ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems have a higher performance than conventional air-source systems. However, the major fault of GSHP systems is their expensive boring costs. Therefore, it is important issue that to reduce initial cost and ensure stability of system through accurate prediction of the heat extraction and injection rates of the ground heat exchanger. Conventional analysis methods employed by line source theory are used to predict heat transfer rate between ground heat exchanger and soil. Shape of ground heat exchanger was simplified by equivalent diameter model, but these methods do not accurately reflect the heat transfer characteristics according to the heat exchanger geometry. In this study, a numerical model that combines a user subroutine module that calculates circulation water conditions in the ground heat exchanger and FEFLOW program which can simulate heat/moisture transfer in the soil, is developed. Heat transfer performance was evaluated for 3 different types ground heat exchanger(U-tube, Double U-tube, Coaxial).
Field Measurements of Indoor Air Quality in Apartment Units at Medium-size Cities
Yoon, JaeOck ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 81~86
The main sources of the new house syndrome(sometimes it called sick building syndrome) are a concentration of formaldehyde (HCHO) and a concentration of total volatile organic compounds(TVOC). I had field measurements of indoor air quality in the apartment unit at medium-size cities(Y city, C city). I measured indoor air temperature, HCHO concentration in 16 units, TVOC concentration in 6 units and air tightness in 7 units. And I measured outdoor air quality, HCHO concentration and TVOC concentration. Mean concentration of HCHO was
), mean concentration of TVOC was
and mean effective air leakage area was 193 cm2. There was a close relation between the indoor air temperature and HCHO concentration, between the indoor air temperature and TVOC concentration. Air tightness also had relation.
A Comparative Study of Building Energy Simulations for Building Types in Multiple Stock Housing based on BIM(Building Information Modeling)
Lee, Byeongho ; Lee, Geonwon ; Yeo, Youngho ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 87~100
The energy efficient design of the multiple stock housing is very important not only to save energy but also to increase sustainability in a whole city because the multiple stock housing type is dominated in the major residential supply markets in Korea. During the early design phase of the multiple stock housing type, the architect need convenient and accurate tools for evaluating energy consumptions based on building types rapidly. Building Information Modeling(BIM) is introduced as useful tool systems providing interoperability between 3rd dimensional modeling tools and environmental engineering analysis tools, and could reduce time and cost for unnecessary modeling works in the analysis. However, it is still hard to apply to building design practice and integrated energy simulation techniques because interoperability using industrial standard file formats such as IFC and bXML is still underdeveloped. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to perform the building energy simulations, to compare the results on typical building types in multiple stock housing based on BIM, and to clear the problems using industrial standard file formats between 3rd dimensional modeling and building energy simulation software. In addition, through comparisons with simulation results according to the typical building types such as building forms, orientations, and building stories, the interrelation ship and characteristics of BIM based building energy simulation software are analysed and evaluated.
A Study on Energy Consumption and Estimation of CO
from Re-bar Production
Choi, Jae-Hwi ; Lee, Dong-Hoon ; Kwon, Gi-Deoc ; Kim, Sun-Kuk ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 101~109
As global warming progresses, nations around the world are trying to reduce emission of
that accounts for the greatest portion of greenhouse gases. To reduce
emission, it is first necessary to estimate
emission of each industry. Government authorities estimate basic unit of
emission from re-bar that is one of the key materials of construction industry with LCA technique (Life Cycle Assessment). However, basic unit of
emission varies from organization to organization. The Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs (2004) publishes it 3.48(
) and 0.30(
) with input-output analysis while the Korea Environmental Industry & Technology Institute (2008) defines it as 0.34(
) with process analysis, which indicates ambiguity in application of basic unit of
emission. Based on the analysis of conventional methods used for estimating the
emission, therefore, this research suggests existing problems on the methods and focuses on proposing an strategy to effectively estimate the basic unit of
emission according to the energy consumption limited to the re-bar production in steel mill in order to overcome the problems. The result of this research is expected to be helpful in calculating and reducing
Comparative Analysis of the Environmental Management Cost in Building Construction Sites
Koo, Jakon ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 111~116
The environmental management is essential for construction projects. The environmental management cost for construction projects is used for various purposes to control the environmental pollution and treat the wastes generated from the construction sites. Six construction cases were analyzed to compare the environmental management cost. The proportion of environmental management cost for total construction budget should be higher than 0.70% in redevelopment projects and 0.30% in newly constructed buildings, respectively, but every six construction cases did not meet the legal requirement. Redevelopment projects expanded more environmental management cost than the newly constructed projects especially in noise control and wastes treatment. In case of apartment construction projects, the proportion of environmental management cost of redevelopment buildings is 2.4 times higher than the newly constructed buildings, but in all cases, paid more attention to the noise and waste controlling measures than the wastewater treatment. It is needed to ensure the cost-effectiveness of environmental management for achieving the eco-friendly construction sites.
A Building Heating and Cooling Load Analysis of Super Tall Building considering the Vertical Micro-climate Change
Kim, Yang-su ; Song, Doosam ; Hwang, Suk-Ho ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 117~122
In these days numerous super tall buildings are under construction or being planned in Middle East and Asian countries. Some of them are planned as an ultra high-rise building that goes over 600m tall, including Burj Khalifa, the tallest building in the world. External environment such as wind speed, temperature and humidity of the super tall building varies due to its vertical height. Therefore, it is necessary to consider these environmental changes to estimate building heating and cooling load. This paper analyzes how vertical microclimate difference affects building heating and cooling load in super tall building by simulation using radiosonde climate data. Besides, the correlation between air-tightness of building envelope and building load was analyzed for a super tall building.
A study on the Analysis of Building Information Modeling Factors of Construction Firms Using an Analytic Hierarchy Process
Shim, Jin Kyu ; Yi, Hye In ; Kim, Jae Jun ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 123~130
A lot of construction companies in overseas markets of construction try to change 2D CAD to 3D CAD for improving business ability and change to Building Information Modeling(BIM) for integrating information produced from construction life cycle. In America, GSA(General Service Administration) requires a design drawing planed by BIM and in Singapore and Europe, the government encourages architectures to use this tool. Recently in the domestic market, many organizations related construction industry are aware of importance of 3D CAD integrated information, and try to use BIM. Therefore, this research would analyze how does BIM affect construction industry and derive influence factors and provide basic data for using BIM.
Impact of Green Building Rating System on an Apartment Housing Price
Shon, Young Jin ; Lee, Sang Hyo ; Kim, Jae Jun ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 131~136
Because energy consumption of the construction part is very high, there is a growing need to introduce environment-friendly buildings. Therefore Green Building Rating System is enacted in Korea. Though environment-friendly factors such as green area affect the apartment housing price, there's no saying whether Green Building Rating System directly affect the apartment housing price. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the impact of Green Building Rating System on an apartment housing price. The analysis result demonstrated that Green Building Rating System don't affect the apartment housing price. This result means that there is a problem with the effectiveness of Green Building Rating System. The government ought to institute incentive program to ctivate the market of environment-friendly building.
Indoor Illuminance Evaluation on a Mirror Sunlighting System Applied to the Apartments under Real Sky Condition
Jung, Joo Hee ; Kim, Jeong Tai ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 137~145
Active sunlighting systems have been applied to deliver sunlight into the indoor space where natural light is insufficient, mainly because of the congested high-rise buildings in urban areas. Among various active sunlighting systems, a mirror sunlighting system which is simple structure and economically reasonable has been widely used in different types of spaces such as underground, north facing place and atrium. This study was to evaluate the mirror sunlighting systems, which were consisted of the first mirror of
, the eight sets of the second mirrors of
and a sun tracker. Ten sets of the systems were installed for 40 apartment living rooms, the configuration of
where sunlighting were not possible due to high retaining walls located in the front of the living rooms. The 45 HOBO data logger sensors for the indoor illuminance were equipped and 2 Li-cor photometers for outdoor illuminance. Both indoor and outdoor horizontal illuminances were monitored every second from 9am to 3pm on 17 January 2010 under clear sky condition. The results showed that the indoor illuminance of installed mirror sunlighting system was significant relationship with outdoor illuminance and increased the indoor illuminance level by 4.2 times on the whole floor space, by 8 times on the sun patch space of 6m2 and even by 2 times on the no sun patch space. In addition, the luminous conditions of the living room under real sky conditions met the KS recommendation for difficult task (600-1000-1500 lux) such as sewing and reading on whole floor space and sun patch space. It was proved that the benefits of mirror sunlighting systems included an effective technology for penetrating daylight into indoors where sunlighting was not possible and improving occupants' satisfaction and health, and contributing to energy saving in apartments during daytime.