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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Ecological Architecture and Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 14, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
Comparisons and Analysis on Architectural Features of Seven Typical Traditional Dwellings in China
Tang, Si-Yi ; Lee, Yeun-Sook ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 14, issue 1, 2014, Pages 5~13
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2014.14.1.005
The ancestors of China created various proper dwellings in the vast Chinese lands, according to distinct geographical environment, climate, and special local products. The purpose of this study is to compare features of 7 typical traditional Chinese dwellings in different areas from historical, geographical, structural and tinctorial aspects, in order to see what the differences are and rearrange them by these 4 different scales as estimate standards. By Comparing features between 7 traditional dwellings, advantages and disadvantages of them were found out. Not only natural terrain but also cultural mentality is an important factor that effected on the changes of regionality. The result showed that historical length in a certain extent reflected the differences between dwellings in different areas; there are more regular type dwellings in the northern China; dwellings in different structural material types following their regions; and, southern dwellings prefer natural and simple exterior colors. Also From construction aesthetics and culture perspective, Different cultures have cultivated and brought out different dwelling styles. Thus, protecting on traditional dwellings is of great necessities and this study will bring benefits in many aspects. For a further research, the result of this study can be utilized as the base data that suggest directions for effective Chinese residence planning in different areas meeting different demands.
The Visual Performance Evaluation of the Work planes with the Automated blind Control in Small Office Spaces
Park, Doo-Yong ; Yoon, Kap-Chun ; Kim, Kang-Soo ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 14, issue 1, 2014, Pages 15~22
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2014.14.1.015
Among the various building envelope elements, the glass area takes up the largest portion in the office building design. However, a large area of glass can cause problems such as excessive solar radiation, thermal comfort, and glare. Thus it is important to install the glass area to an appropriate level, and control solar radiation and inflow of daylight with blind devices. This study aims to improve the visual performance of the work plane through the automatic control of the venetian blinds. A total of eight kinds of control strategies were chosen; Case 1 does not control the blinds, Case 2 with the blind slats fixed at the angle of 0 degree, Case 3 to 6 using the existing blind control programs, and Case 7 and 8 with improved blind control. Case 3 with 90 degrees had the best energy performance, but the average indoor illuminance was 113lux, which is below the standards. Cases 4 and 5 showed higher levels of interior daylight illuminance with the average of 281lux and 403lux respectively. However, the fixed angles may have difficulties controlling excessive direct sunlight coming into the room and may cause glare. Cases 6 and 7 used sun tracking angle control and cut-off angle control, and the average interior illuminance was measured 250lux and 385lux respectively. Case 8 used the cut-off angle control in an hourly manner, satisfying the standard illuminance of 400lux with an average interior illuminance of 561lux. It was evaluated to be the best method to control direct solar radiation and to guarantee proper level of interior illumination.
The Effects of Illuminance and Correlated Color Temperature on Visual Comfort of Occupants' Behavior
Yoon, Gyu Hyon ; Kim, Jeong Tai ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 14, issue 1, 2014, Pages 23~30
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2014.14.1.023
The preferred illumination environment in accordance with the actions taken by the occupants of the rooms in residences differs significantly between different cultures and circumstances in and out of the country. In this regard, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the visual performance of various illumination environments in residential spaces by allowing the participants of the experiments to select the kind of illumination environment they prefer as the occupants of the room. For this purpose, we prepared a mock-up residential space of
, where the experiments for this study were conducted. Then, three illuminance settings (30lx, 100lx, and 150lx) and three color temperature settings (2700k, 4000k, and 6500k) were selected as the properties of the physical environment where the tests were to be conducted. The survey was conducted with 30 study subjects, with whom the level of visual comfort and the lighting adjustment evaluation by different activities were carried out. The level of visual comfort in lighting in a residential context turned to be more influenced by the color temperature and illuminance compared to other factors. Except for the test item, 'comfort,' all test items showed positive reactions when the illuminance was 150lx, which was rather light. In 'comfort,' the test subjects appeared to prefer warm color temperature of 2700k. As we allowed the occupants to adjust the lighting environment in accordance with the conditions of the subjects and the activities they performed, the subjects regarded 150lx - 4000k setting as comfortable, while they preferred 150lx-5400k configuration for working. In case of resting, the subject answered that the configuration of 30lx -2700k setting to be visually comfortable.
A Multiplex Housing Energy Conservation Strategy through Combining Insulation Standard Based Green Roof Systems and Passive Design Elements
Son, Hyeongmin ; Park, Dong Yoon ; Chang, Seongju ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 14, issue 1, 2014, Pages 31~38
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2014.14.1.031
Recently, the coverage of urban forests has been rapidly decreasing as the cities are created and expanding. Consequently, there arise urban problems such as heat island effect, urban flooding, urban desertification and so on. In this context, green roof systems is considered to be an efficient alternative to deal with these problems. However, it is difficult to apply green roof to new buildings since the majority of the buildings in cities are already constructed and the demand for new building constructions is not high enough. Therefore, it should be considered to apply green roof system to existing buildings for resolving various problems. This study evaluates heating and cooling energy consumption based on the combination of passive design factors such as wall, roof, window insulation in addition to a green roof system applied to an existing house by using an energy simulation program. Total 8 potential improvement cases are developed. Each case is applied to the same house with different insulation standard for simulations. Through the analysis of the simulated cases with the chosen test house, it is confirmed that heating energy consumption decreases as improvement cases are applied, but cooling energy consumption is relatively not much affected by each improvement case. In addition, when each improvement case is applied to already highly insulated house, the effect of thermal energy improvement decreases while the same improvement that is applied to the case with low insulated house tends to yield higher improvement rate.
Comparison of the Standard Floor Impact Sound with Living Impact Source by Subjective Evaluation
Park, Hyeon Ku ; Kim, Kyeong Mo ; Kim, Sun-Woo ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 14, issue 1, 2014, Pages 39~48
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2014.14.1.039
In the previous test, the verification of the standard floor impact source was carried out comparing the physical characteristics with living impact sources. The result was appeared the validation of the standard impact source was very low because of differences of physical characteristics. This study aims to evaluate annoyance and loudness of standard impact source which is used for the measurement of floor impact sound, and to compare the annoyance and loudness of living impact sources which are produced in real life. The impact sources considered are tapping machine, tire and impact ball as standard sources, and nine real sources which were chosen from the existing researches. The result showed differences of annoyance and loudness between standard impact sources and living impact sources, which means the standard impact sources may rate the performance of floor system inappropriately. In the future, the rating method should be examined how the standard impact sources are similar with real sources in the point of rating the performance of floor system.
Study on the introduction and assessment of the Life Cycle Carbon Emissions in Office Buildings
Park, Mincho ; Lee, Byeongho ; Shin, Sung-Woo ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 14, issue 1, 2014, Pages 49~57
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2014.14.1.049
Global warming has become a major issue all over the world. Noting the carbon dioxide emissions as a main contributor to global warming, we studied on the methods to reduce the life cycle building carbon emissions. Green Building Certification Criteria(GBCC) has been implemented since 2002 in Korea, but it doesn't estimate the quantities of the
emissions. Therefore, we studied the ways to implement the
emissions in quantity to GBCC. We select a government building which was rated excellent by the GBCC. This office building was regarded to excellent building by GBCC but not good for energy consumption. It was found energy glutton buildings for research by the Ministry of Public Administration and Security in 2010. This part of GBCC is need to be improved.. Also LCA (Life Cycle assessment) was carried out to estimate on carbon footprint on this office building. So we need to implementing quantitative evaluation on the amount of carbon emissions by GBCC. And it is possible to implementing quantitative evaluation on the amount of carbon emissions. Through this study, we expect that quantitative assessment of life cycle carbon emissions of buildings by the GBCC. Also expect to reduce the carbon emissions of the building by improving the GBCC.
A Comparative Study on Office Building Criteria between G-SEED and LEED
Mok, Seon-Soo ; Cho, Dong-Woo ; Park, Ah-Reum ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 14, issue 1, 2014, Pages 59~66
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2014.14.1.059
G-SEED aims for establishing green environmental building with energy saving and has started for evaluating with multi-residential complex in 2002 by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure & Transport (MOLIT) and the Ministry of Environment to develop the current 10 building types and new & existing building types to be applied. Since G-SEED has been developed for more than 10 years, the strategy of globalization is needed with constant review itself and comparison between other assessments to understand current situation from the global perspectives. This study draws similarities and differences of G-SEED and LEED criteria by the comparison from re-constructed LEED criteria based on G-SEED. "Energy & Pollution" is the most concerned category in both assessments as the result of analysis on category rates. Next concerns are "Material & Resources", "Indoor Environment" and "Water Management". The unique categories in both criteria are "Ecological Environment" in G-SEED and "Innovation & Design Process" in LEED. The conclusion of this research is that two assessments are organized at different locations and with different strategies for developing green building but there are common concerns such as energy saving, material use, indoor environment. As a result, it is expected to use fundamental data for developing G-SEED for global standard.
Annual energy yield prediction of building added PV system depending on the installation angle and the location in Korea
Kim, Dong Su ; Shin, U Cheol ; Yoon, Jong Ho ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 14, issue 1, 2014, Pages 67~74
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2014.14.1.067
There have distinctly been no the installation criteria and maintenance management of BIPV systems, although the BIPV market is consistently going on increasing. In addition, consideration of the BIPV generation quantity which has been installed at several diverse places is currently almost behind within region in Korea. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to evaluate the BIPV generation and to be base data of reducing rate depending on regional installation angles using PVpro which was verified by measured data. Various conditions were an angle of inclination and azimuth under six major cities: Seoul, Daejeon, Daegu, Busan, Gwangju, Jeju-si for the BIPV system generation analysis. As the results, Seoul showed the lowest BIPV generation: 1,054kWh/kWp.year, and Jeju-si have 5percent more generation: 1,108.0kWh/kWp.year than Seoul on horizontal plane. Gwangju and Daejeon turned out to have similar generation of result, and Busan showed the highest generation: 1,193.5kWh/kWp.year, which was increased by over 13percent from Seoul on horizontal plane. Another result, decreasing rate of BIPV generation depending on regional included angle indicate that the best position was located on azimuth:
(The south side) following the horizontal position(an angle of inclination:
). And the direction on a south vertical position(azimuth:
, an angle of inclination:
) then turned out reducing rate about 40percent compared with the best one. Therefore, these results would be used to identify the installation angle of the BIPV module as an appropriate position.
Thermal sensation based humidity controls for improving indoor thermal comfort and energy efficiency in summer
Moon, Jin Woo ; Chin, Kyung-Il ; Kim, Sang-Chul ; Lee, Kwang Ho ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 14, issue 1, 2014, Pages 75~81
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2014.14.1.075
This study aims at investigating the benefit of actively controlling humidity to improve thermal comfort and energy efficiency in climate zones other than hot-dry. For this research purpose, three thermal control strategies, which adopted different initiative degrees in humidity control, were developed - i) temperature controls, ii) temperature and humidity controls, and iii) thermal sensation controls. Performance of the developed strategies were experimentally tested in a full scale mock up of an office environment. The study revealed that air temperature was better controlled in the occupied zone under the first two strategies than the thermal sensation based strategy. On the other hand, the thermal sensation-based strategy maintained thermal sensation levels more comfortably. In addition, energy consumption was significantly reduced when humidity was actively controlled for thermal comfort. The thermal sensation-based control strategy consumed significantly less electricity than the first two strategies. From these findings, this study indicated that adoption of an active humidity control system based on thermal sensation can provide increased thermal comfort as well as energy savings for summer seasons in climatic zones other than hot-dry.
Analysis of airborne sound insulation performance by the experiment using small size specimen
Kim, Hang ; Park, Hyeon Ku ; Goo, Hee Mo ; Kim, Sun-Woo ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 14, issue 1, 2014, Pages 83~89
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2014.14.1.083
The residents' demand for the comfortable life is promoting development of wall and window which has high sound insulation performance. To develop wall system, various aspects should be considered on the environment, material, construction and structure. Especially focusing on the acoustical view, the economical solution is one of the most critical point. Recently the interest on the partition wall is being increased, because it is useful for the Rahmen type apartment which is considered as an alternative to reduce floor impact sound. This study examines simplified measurement method of airborne sound insulation applied small size specimen, in order to save money to be used for the standard specimen then to promote the development process. The results showed that the simplified method could be effective for the wall system the sound insulation performance upto Rw 50 dB, and for the judgement of rank order of sound insulation performance of the similar wall type while developing.
A study on Problems of the G-SEED Process and their Improvements - Focusing on case studies of office buildings -
Jang, Hyun-Sook ; Lee, Sang-Ho ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 14, issue 1, 2014, Pages 91~99
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2014.14.1.091
Environmental issues have become gradually important around the globe, which has increased society needs for the environment-friendly construction. In an effort to realize the environmental protection and energy efficiency, the British BREEAM has been developed, which is followed by the USA LEED, Japanese CASBEE and other national certification systems based on their own conditions. In this end, the Republic of Korea has implemented its own certification system named GBCS(Green Building Certification System) in 2002, and now actively promoted the G-SEED(Green Standard for Energy and Environmental Design) after GBCS modifications and amendments. The purpose of this study is to identify possible problems to be encountered in the process of the G-SEED for office facilities and to provide relevant solutions. In this end, three office facilities have been selected, which had obtained the G-SEED. This study has analyzed reasons of change of assessment scores between the preliminary certification and the main certification phases, has identified problems through in-depth interviews with practicing professionals(design, construction, eco-friendly consulting firm) and then has reached a conclusion for improvements. This study will be possibly used as reference materials for improvements of the green building certification system, and further detailed studies on respective parts will be required for improvements.
The Study on Certification status and Carbon Emission Characteristic of Building Products among Carbon Labeled Products
Seo, Sung Mo ; Chae, Chang-U ; Lee, Kang Hee ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 14, issue 1, 2014, Pages 101~111
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2014.14.1.101
The Product Carbon Footprint Labeling has been run for more than four years by the Ministry of Environment and there are number of products labeled by KEITI(Korea Environmental Industry & Technology Institute), as for declaring products with their carbon emission during life cycle stages. There are several categories for certifying products by the characteristics of usage. Building products which are applied to a building as combined components or elements, are classified as production goods which means that the products are chosen by a business, not by a final consumer. In this paper, current status of PCF labeling has been reviewed focused on building products and the characteristics of carbon emission by a kind of product such as interior products, window products, structural products, system products and others. Until Dec. 2013, 82 products has been labeled and it covers about 53% among labeled product goods by the certification. Among the labeled building products, interior products are main products. From the results of comparison, variations of emission amounts by products have been found and the cause of variation could be explained by the purpose and material properties of products. However, the exact reason for variations cannot be acquired because of lack of information and the short operation period of the certification program. Further studies and more products are needed to be studied and analyzed focused on the emission characteristic by each product and to suggest reduction technologies for sustainable building products.
A Comparison Study on the Importance and Problems of Assessment Items of the G-SEED System
Jang, Hyun-Sook ; Lee, Sang-Ho ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 14, issue 1, 2014, Pages 113~120
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2014.14.1.113
The Green growth has been demanded in all industrial sectors due to environmental destruction and exhaustion of natural resources. Buildings have consumed 1/3 of the total energy and 40% of natural resources and have accounted for 50% of
emissions and 30-50% of waste materials. In 1991, BREEAM(Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method) of the British BRE(Building Research Establishment) had begun reduction of
emissions and energy saving movements, in which all the countries around the world have participated. The Republic of Korea has taken part in this trend by declaring a "National Vision in the Green Growth" in 2008 and implementing regulations on "Low Carbon, Green Growth" in 2010. G-SEED(Green Standard for Energy and Environmental Design) based on GBCS(Green Building Certification System) has been actively promoted for its application. This study has limited its scope to G-SEED office buildings. It has conducted surveys of problems and assessment items of the G-SEED identified in the preceding study by the AHP(Analytic hierarchy process) method. The purpose of this study is to conduct a comparison analysis of problems and ranking of evaluation items recognized in the survey and to be presented as reference materials for G-SEED system improvements at its next amendments.
A Comparative Study on Management Evaluation and Re-certification System of G-SEED, BREEAM, LEED
Hyun, Eun Mi ; Kim, Yong Sik ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 14, issue 1, 2014, Pages 121~129
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2014.14.1.121
As time passes, the aging of the plant building, the building's energy performance degradation than the initial plan does not express a situation could arise. This year, the certification of buildings certified in 2009 has expired for measures such as the situation required. In this study, management of national and international green building certification and re-certification was compared in two ways. First, the evaluation of green building certification system management assessments were compared. Second, the green building certification system for the re-certification analysis. As a result, G-SEED was not reflected life-cycle of building in management assessment and the commissioning of G-SEED is the UK and the U.S and other concepts of evaluation. In addition, the re-certification system is insufficient about substantial energy consumption of buildings. In this study, the revised the management assessments in conjunction with the re-certification system to manage the building is proposed to improve. In addition, the current evaluation of the existing building certification "existing building" and "building the first certified" as it is more efficient to separate the information into assessment was judged. Green building certification system to meet the purpose of management and operation, and disposal phases of the building to promote energy conservation and sustainability in order to the management a systematic and detailed evaluation and re-certification system developed for the revision of the specific items required and future research want to continue.
A Study on the Potential of CO
Emissions Reduction Recycled Aggregate according to Transportation Plan of Waste Concrete - Focused on Daegu City and Kyungpook Area -
Kim, Tae Hyun ; Cha, Gi Wook ; Hong, Won Hwa ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 14, issue 1, 2014, Pages 131~138
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2014.14.1.131
The recent interests in securing alternative resource have increased due to environmental issues and exhaustion of natural resources. The government notices production of recycled aggregate using waste concrete as the substitute of the natural aggregate. However, It's important to reduce environmental burden being inevitably made in the process producing recycled aggregate. In this study, the scenarios of transportation distance were set in the transportation phase of production of recycled aggregate. In addition, The possibility of emissions and reduction of carbon dioxide were studied depending on the scenarios. For this study, data about a amount of waste concrete, transportation distance, kind of vehicle, the number of required vehicle, fuel efficiency of vehicle and etc were gathered from 15 companies of intermediate treatment and 60 constructions sites located in Daegu city and Kyungpook area. Based on those data, fuel consumptions and
emissions according to the transportation scheme of waste concrete were calculated. As a result of the study, the emission of carbon dioxide was possible to be reduced by 27.8~75.4% depending on the scenarios of transportation distance.