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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Ecological Architecture and Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 15, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
A Study on Strategies of Smart Green City - The Priority Analysis and Application of Planning Technique -
Lee, Seo-Jeong ; Oh, Deog-Seong ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 15, issue 2, 2015, Pages 5~17
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2015.15.2.005
Purpose: The goal of this research is to identify the planning techniques of Smart Green City with Ubiquitous method and carbon-neutral city planning techniques and to induce the main planning techniques through the analysis of relative importance and practical adaptation. Method: First of all, eighteen planning techniques were derived and categorized into three organization systems and six sectors through literature review and FGI analysis considering the applicability of Ubiquitous service for carbon-neutral city planning techniques. Secondly, based on expert surveys and AHP analysis, the importance of Smart Green City planning techniques was evaluated. Thirdly, using case study, six cases related to Smart Green City were analyzed for the current status of application of planning techniques. Lastly, considering the importance of planning techniques and practical aspects, the characteristics of Smart Green City and its implication were estimated. Result: Energy, Resource and Waste and Transportation sector were identified as important sectors for Smart Green City. In addition, `Construction of Smart Grid`, `System for Utilization of New & Renewable Energy`, `Smart Resource Circulation Management System`, `Establishment of Public Transportation Information System basis`, `Construction of Pedestrian / Bicycle oriented Road Environment` are essential planning techniques to create Smart Green City.
Testing The Healing Environment Conditions for Nurses with two Independent Variables: Visibility Enhancement along with Shortening the Walking Distance of the Nurses to Patient - Focused on LogWare stop sequence and space syntax for U-Shape, L- Shape and I-Shape NS-
Shaikh, Javaria Manzoor ; Park, Jae Seung ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 15, issue 2, 2015, Pages 19~26
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2015.15.2.019
Purpose: Maximizing human comfort in design of medical environments depends immensely on specialized architects particularly critical care design; the study proposes Evidence-Based Design as an apparent analog to Evidence-Based Medicine. Healthcare facility designs are substantially based on the findings of study in an effort to design environments that augment care by improving patient safety and being therapeutic. On SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) t-test is applied to simulate two independent variables of PDR (Pre Design-Research) and POE (Post- Occupancy Evaluation). PDR is conducted on relatively new hospital Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital to analyse visibility from researchers` point of view, here the ICU is arranged in I-Shape. POE is applied on Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital to simulate walking on LogWare where two NS are designed based on L- Shape and Seoul St. Mary`s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea where five NS are functional for ICU Intensive Care Unit, Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU), Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU), Critical Care Unit (CCU), Korean Oriental Medical Care Unit which are mostly arranged in U-Shape, and walking pattern is recognized to be in a zigzag path. Method: T-Test is applied on two dependent communication variables: walkability and visibility, with confidence interval of 95%. This study systematically analyses the Nurse Station (NS) typo-morphology, and simulates nurse horizontal circulation, by computing round route visits to patient`s bed, then estimating minimum round route on LogWare stop sequence software. The visual connectivity is measured on depth map graphs. Hence the aim is to reduce staff stress and fatigue for better patients care by minimizing staff horizontal travel time and to facilitate nurse walk path and support space distribution by increasing effectiveness in delivering care. Result: Applying visibility graph and isovist field on space syntax on I- Shape, L- Shape and U- Shape ICU (SICU, MICU and CCU) configuration, I-shape facilitated 20% more patients in linear view as they stir to rise from their beds from nurse station compared to U-shape. In conclusion, it was proved that U-Shape supply minimum walking and maximum visibility; and L shape provides just visibility as the nurse is at pivot. I shape provides panoramic view from the Nurse Station but very rigorous walking.
A Study on Pattern Recognition to Compute Guidelines Based on Evidence for Ecological Healing Environment at Agha Khan Hospital in Karachi - Focused on Human Thermal Comfort Model (HTCM), for Karachi, using Climate Consultant Program
Shaikh, Javaria Manzoor ; Park, Jae Seung ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 15, issue 2, 2015, Pages 27~35
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2015.15.2.027
Purpose: Healthcare is on the whole a personal and critical service that consumer`s use, whereas hospitalization is as a rule painful, because nature nurtures and Sun Light Luminosity for healthcare settings is considered healing. The performance and design of climate responsive buildings such as AKU requires a detailed study of attributes of climate both at micro as well as macro level. The therapeutic value of contact with nature through window view, greenery and landscape is calculated there. Method: A two prong strategy is been devised for this article, at micro level three typical morphologies are analysed by creating same environment of neighboring building on sun shading chart, radiation and temperature range. Since the analysis of local climate helps to determine the design strategies for hospital Healing Environment which is suitable for Karachi climate; in order to track the macro climatic behaviour, a considerable analysis of psychometrics chart for AKU Karachi are designed on Climate Consultant (CC) and analysed by Machine Learning. Climate Consultant proposes different design strategies suitable for Karachi. And on the other hand time wise illumination sources for clinical area which are then measured on psychrometric chart- according to singular space: multi patient admission, secondly: acute ambulatory ward, and tertiary: multi windowed space according to the mushrabiyah and sky light pattern. Result: Our findings support the hypothesis that windowed wall is 75-80% more healing wall; an accelerated evidence was found for healing at macro level if the form of the hospital is designed according to the climatologically preferences, whereas at micro level: the light resource becomes the staff attentiveness determinant. In Conclusion evidence was provided that the actual form of luminosity results consequently in satisfaction while light entering from several set of windows and other sources might be valued if design according to the healing environment. The data added on the sun shading chart to calculate rays entraining into space in patient room equal to 124416.21 Watts/ meter
is calculated as precise healing rate-and is confirmed by questionnaire from patients belonging from each clinical stage having different illnesses.
The Effect of Illuminance and Color Temperature of LED Lighting on Occupants` Perception and HRV
Seo, Han Suk ; Kim, Jeong Tai ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 15, issue 2, 2015, Pages 37~43
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2015.15.2.037
Purpose: It is crucially important that indoor luminous conditions of built environments be carefully studied so as to promote comfort and occupants` well-being. Method: The current study therefore focuses on the lit aspect of an enclosed space considered to be a resting room (
). Particularly, on the effect that light levels and light color temperatures have on the physiological and psychological responses of resting occupants. To do so, a questionnaire survey was carried out on 50 subjects. The independent variables for the experiment included 9 different luminous environment conditions setup using 3 different levels of illuminance (50 lx, 150 lx, 300 lx) and 3 different color temperatures (2000 K, 3800 K, 5600 K). A questionnaire was utilized in determining which conditions were preferred by occupants. Result: As it turns out, indoor luminous environment designed for relaxation purposes should display luminance levels of at least 150 lx and 3800 K of color temperature in order to provide a visually comfortable environment suitable for the occupant`s relaxation while at the same time promoting the psychological and HRV well-being of resting occupants.
Correlation Analysis between Energy Exclusive Dwelling Area and City Gas in Apartment Building - Focused on Cases in Ulsan, Korea-
Lee, Young-A ; Park, Hung Suk ; Son, Kiyoung ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 15, issue 2, 2015, Pages 45~52
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2015.15.2.045
Purpose: Currently, since the energy consumption of apartment buildings is on the rise, it is necessary to reduce the total amount of the energy through the survey and analysis of energy consumption data. Although various studies for energy efficiency have been conducted, studies are more focused on the measurement of energy by using analysis tools. In addition, the studies are sufficient to analyze real data of the city gas in apartment buildings. Therefore, the objective of this study is to identify the property of annual and
city gas amount according to the exclusive dwelling area. Method: To achieve the objective, this study used the statistics such as descriptive, correlation, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis. Result: As a result, there is positive relationship between the annual average of city gas and the exclusive dwelling area. However, in the case of
city gas amount, a negative relationship is mored. In the future, the findings of this study can be applied to develop the prediction model of the city gas consumption and implement it as basic data for energy efficiency of apartment buildings of future.
Recommendations for Improving Incentive Systems in the Building Sector of South Korea
Han, Hyesim ; Kim, Jonghun ; Jeong, Hakgeun ; Jang, Cheolyong ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 15, issue 2, 2015, Pages 53~59
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2015.15.2.053
Purpose: Reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions is a primary concern throughout the world, and the building sector is a particularly efficient area for making these reductions. In South Korea, the government has recently enacted policies for "Green Growth" that, among other things, enforce regulations in the building certification rating system (BCRS) and reorganize existing incentive systems. Method: In this study, we examined regulations and incentive systems used in the United Kingdom, Germany, and the United States that encourage the use of energy efficient technologies in construction and compared these policies to those used in South Korea. We also disseminated surveys to experts in the fields of architecture, planning and design, and engineering to better understand their knowledge and perception of the BCRS and its incentive systems. Additionally, we sought their recommendations for improving these incentive systems. Result: Based on our comparative case studies of regulations and incentives in other countries, alongside recommendations from experts in South Korea, we concluded that incentive systems in South Korea are limited and require improvement. We make recommendations for strengthening existing regulations and incentives and for implementing new incentive programs.
Airborne Sound Insulation Performance of Window and Indoor Noise Level in the Balcony Expanded Apartments
Park, Hyeon Ku ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 15, issue 2, 2015, Pages 61~67
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2015.15.2.061
Purpose: The balcony in the apartment is important space not only as a fire escape but also as a buffer for heat and sound insulation. However, with the legalization of balcony expansion for residential apartments in Korea in 2006, many households have eliminated the balcony space altogether to increase the inner space, often without sufficient consideration for the effects on the indoor environment. This study examined the sound insulation performance of exterior-facing windows in enclosed balconies and the changes in the indoor acoustic environment due to expansion to provide a basis for appropriate balcony expansion. The apartments for the field test were chosen where two balcony types can be compared, and the sound insulation performance for the eighteen balcony windows was measured. The windows installed were typical double window with thickness 16 mm or 22 mm. Measurements of the weighted standard sound pressure level difference showed a decrease of about 3 dB in sound insulation performance due to expansion. For common exterior noise levels of 70-85 dB(A), the indoor noise level can exceed 45 dB(A), the limit level regulated in Korea. However, it was found that the sound insulation performance of the window and the quality of the construction have more influence on indoor noise levels than balcony expansion itself.
The Study on the Elementary Schoolchild`s the Fear of Crime in Pedestrian Environment around Elementary School in Detached Housing Area - Focused on the Pedestrian path around 5 Elementary School in Ilsan New Town -
Lee, You-Mi ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 15, issue 2, 2015, Pages 69~78
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2015.15.2.069
Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the elementary schoolchildren`s the fear of crime in pedestrian environment of elementary school for providing the basic design resource. Method:In order to deal with that, the questionnaire survey on the elementary schoolchildren`s the fear of crime were conducted in 5 elementary schools in Ilsan new town. The results of the 293 questionnaires survey were analyzed through SPSS program. Result: The main results were as follows. The level of fear of crime in pedestrian environment differed in these 5 elementary schools because of the width of pedestrian path, the concealed place around pedestrian path, the nearness of park, the height/shape/interval of trees, the number of car and the closure-watching in the school caused by fence and trees and so on. The level of fear of crime in pedestrian environment differed between that of boy groups and that of girls groups because of the number of emergency bell/telephon, the shape of pedestrian path, the number of security office, the number of car and the concealed place around pedestrian path and so on.
The Tectonic Characteristics in the Works of Santiago Calatrava and the Role of Light
Kim, Chang-Sung ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 15, issue 2, 2015, Pages 79~86
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2015.15.2.079
Purpose: The concept of the tectonic has researched to find out the identify of modern architecture. The meaning of traditional tectonic knowledge to emphasize structural joints and attention to detail in creativity has developed in various ways in contemporary architecture. The purpose of this study is to analyze the tectonic characteristics and architectural expressions of the light appeared in the works of Santiago Calatrava. Major features in his works could be found is to maximize structural beauties through deducing the architectural images from the nature and expressing the material properties and the kinetic structures, and thus, to ultimately create the functional space and form by connecting the light to the tectonic structure. Method: Accordingly, I tried to analyze the three works of Santiago Calatrava (the Milwaukee Art Museum, the Bodegas Ysios Winery and the City and Arts and Sciences) as following categories - the structural aesthetics, the expression of material properties, the relationship between he kinetic structures and the light. Result: According to the results of the study, Santiago Calatrava tried to create his own architectural aesthetic by combining structural tectonic with nature, material, regional place and culture. He also sought to express the tense and dynamic tectonic rather than the stable one in his works.
A Study on the Spatial Composition Characteristic in Housing Development of Domestic and Foreign through the Mixed Use Development of Railroad Site
Kim, Young-Hoon ; Baek, Seung-Kwan ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 15, issue 2, 2015, Pages 87~94
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2015.15.2.087
Purpose: Lately, The mixed use development on railroad site came up in government policy about securing development available land for public rental housing and social cohesion. The Purpose of this study is to analyze the spatial composition characteristic in housing development example of domestic and foreign through the mixed-use development of railway depot. Method: Site cases are as follows: Shimura Depot(Japan), Kowloon Bay Depot(Hongkong), Chai Wan Depot (Hongkong), Tsuen Wan Depot(Hongkong), Montparnasse Station(France), Euralille Depot(France), Sin Jeong Depot (Korea), Tai Wai Depot(Hongkong), Tseung Kwan O Depot(Hongkong) and Rive Gauche(France). Railway Depot caused various problems such as the lacking of the feeling of solidarity of local inhabitants and the sense of community. In the case of Hong Kong and a France development example to solve these problems, the architectural characteristics appears. Result: At first it is located facilities together such as commerce, duties, the culture. Further, the publicity of the house place is strengthened because an open space, a park are developed on the railroad site. And a variety of connection systems appear between the outside space with a house housing complex built on the artificial ground. Particularly, the development example has an approach and convenience, and it was confirmed that publicness was considerably high.
Study on the Analysis Performance of PVT system using the Dynamic Simulation
Kim, Sang-Yeal ; Nam, Yujin ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 15, issue 2, 2015, Pages 95~101
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2015.15.2.095
Purpose: A photovoltaic/thermal system is a solar collector combining photovoltaic module with a solar thermal collector, which produces electricity and heat at the same time. PVT system removes heat from PV module through air or liquid that would help to raise the efficiency of the PV systems performance. Many innovative systems and products have been put forward and their quality evaluated by academics and professionals. However, even though various of PVT system were developed and several systems were applied to practical use, there have been few researches for the performance analysis using the dynamic simulation. Method: In this study, the review of recent research and development trend for PVT systems were conducted. Furthermore, in order to develop the optimum design method, the performance analysis for PVT system was conducted by a dynamic simulation. Result: In the results, it was found that the performance of PVT system significantly depends on the ambient temperature and solar radiation. Moreover, in the weather condition of Seoul, average efficiency of electricity and heat in heating season were 13.79 and 41.85%, and they in cooling season were 14.39% and 26.18%, respectively.
Comparing the actual heating energy with calculated energy by the amended standard building energy rating system for apartment buildings
Lee, A-Ram ; Kim, Jeong-Gook ; Kim, Jong-Hun ; Jeong, Hak-Geun ; Jang, Cheol-Yong ; Song, Kyoo-Dong ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 15, issue 2, 2015, Pages 103~107
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2015.15.2.103
Purpose: Since September 1st, 2013, subjects of the evaluation have been expanded, and the evaluation standard has been detailed to enable Building energy rating system for all buildings. Accordingly, the new evaluation program (ECO2) has been developed, and therefore, apartment applied after September 1st, 2013 were evaluated with the new evaluation program. Therefore, this research suggests the improvement plan to figure out reasons for the evaluation result calculation and to calculate the evaluation results close to the actual energy usage by analyzing and comparing primary energy consumption as a result of the new evaluation program (ECO2) and actual heating energy usage on the same building. Method: When comparing evaluation results of the new evaluation program (ECO2) and actual heating energy usage, the tendency was similar but different. Also when comparing seasonally, the tendency was similar, but the different between actual heating energy usage and primary energy consumption during winter is greater than during spring or fall, and when comparing seasonal electric usage, heating alternatives were used through increased electrical usage during winter compared to during spring or fall. Result: Therefore, when evaluating apartment with the new program (ECO2) in the future, evaluation items relevant to the use of heating alternatives should be added, and the modification factor should be added according to the region. Based on the evaluation results of the research and actual energy usage, the Modification factors of the central part and the southern part were calculated respectively as 0.5 and 0.8.
An Analysis of the Airtightness Performance and Heating Energy Demand According to Building Structural Characteristics -Focused on Newly Apartment Houses-
Lee, Su-In ; Kim, Jeong-Gook ; Kim, Seo-Hun ; Kim, Jong-Hun ; Jeong, Hak-Geun ; Jang, Cheol-Yong ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 15, issue 2, 2015, Pages 109~115
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2015.15.2.109
Purpose: The importance of building airtightness is increased as the demand and expectation of building energy efficiency is growing. Previous research only focused on airtightness of building openings only to improve building airtightness. However, the analysis of difference of airtightness performance according to the characteristic of building structure has not been performed. Therefore, this study analyzed the difference of airtightness performance according to building structural characteristics in a number of ways. Method: Airtightness that are classified as rigid-frame type or wall type are measured and analyzed the difference of airtightness performance between rigid frame type apartments and wall type apartments. This study calculated the heating energy demand and quantitatively analysis using ISO 13790. Futhermore, this study compared research trend of domestic airtightness performance with airtightness standards of the developed countries based on the field measurement. Result: Airtight performance of wall type is better than rigid frame type in terms of energy saving. The difference of heating energy demand between wall type and rigid frame type was
Interior heating effect in an office building according to heat properties of light fixture
Lee, Yoon-Jin ; Ahn, Byung-Lip ; Kim, Jong-Hun ; Jeong, Hak-Geun ; Jang, Cheol-Yong ; Kim, Tae-Yeon ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 15, issue 2, 2015, Pages 117~122
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2015.15.2.117
Purpose: Generally, 30% of the total energy consumption in office building is used for artificial indoor lightings, and almost 75-85% of electric power in fluorescent and Light-Emitting Diode (LED) lightings can be dissipated as a form of heat into indoor environment. The heat generated by indoor lightings can cause the increase of cooling load in office buildings. Thus, it its important to consider indoor lightings as a heat and light source, simultaneously. Method: In this study, we installed two kinds of indoor lightings including fluorescent and LED lightings and measured surface temperature of both indoor lightings. In addition, we obtained ambient temperature of indoor space and finally calculated total heat dissipated from plenum area and surface of lightings. Result: Total indoor heat gain was 87.17Wh and 201.36Wh in cases of six 40W-LED lightings and 64W-fluorescent lightings, respectively.
The Analysis on the Variation of the Ventilation Rates by Wind Pressure and Temperature Difference between Indoor and Outdoor in the Multi-Story Type Double Skin Facade applied to the Office Building
Song, Chi-Ho ; Kim, Teayeon ; Leigh, Seung-Bok ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 15, issue 2, 2015, Pages 123~131
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2015.15.2.123
Purpose : Improvement of indoor thermal comfort and reduction of the energy consumption in building can be obtained by applying a double skin facade system. In order to achieve effectively this purpose, design team would have to perform easy and appropriate performance analysis for making better design decision during the design process. Method : This paper focus on the natural ventilation performance of a multi-story type double skin facade with main causes which are pressure difference according to the wind and temperature difference between indoor and outdoor (Buoyancy Effect). Using this main causes, the natural ventilation ratio of wind effect-to-buoyancy effect in cavity of multi-story type double skin facade were analyzed through the performance analysis results of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation. Result : When the wind velocity was 2m/s, the ventilation rate in the cavity was highest. If wind velocity was slower than 2m/s wind velocity, buoyancy effect has more influence on the ventilation rate in the cavity, and if wind velocity was faster than 2m/s wind velocity, wind effect has more influence on the ventilation rate in the cavity.