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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Ecological Architecture and Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Aug 2016
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Jun 2016
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Apr 2016
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
Selecting the target year
Development of Impact Table and optimum combination dedication module for green-remodeling advance business value assessment
Choi, Jun-Woo ; Kim, Gyoung-Rok ; Ko, Jung-Lim ; Shin, Jee-Woong ; Lee, Keon-Ho ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 16, issue 3, 2016, Pages 5~12
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2016.16.3.005
Purpose: In case of existing building, A lot of attempts are being made like changing thermal system or using high efficiency products to decrease energy load and increase energy efficiency. However, (1) Absence of systemed database of green-remodeling technology and products. (2) Absence of comparative analysis system and qualitative/quantitative evaluation method of energy performance and energy reduction cost. (3) Existing remodeling was very hard to access for non-experts. So, in this paper, the authors developed data base for green-remodeling(Impact Table A, Impact Table B) and optimum combination dedication tool for user convenience. Accordingly, purpose of this paper validate usefulness of Impact Table and optimum alternative dedication tool. Method: For validate the usefulness of Impact Table and optimum combination dedication tool, the authors selected five test model office buildings. Next, through research investigation, the authors diagnosed the present state of buildings. In base of diagnosis results, select technologies for remodeling by qualitative comparison (Impact Table A). Next, evaluate quantitative price and performance technologies that selected in Impact Table A (Impact Table B). Lastly, through final evaluation of Impact Taba A and Impact Table B, determine the direction of the green-remodeling. Result: Impact Table and optimum combination dedication tool can use relative indicator for green-remodeling, especially through ROI by detail field.
Application of the Public Buildings for the Korean-style houses in the availability of R&D technologies - Focused on Drawings of Agricultural Education and Experience Center in Na-Ju, Korea
Kim, Young-Hoon ; Peck, Yoo-Jung ; Park, Joon-Young ; Chun, Kuk-Chun ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 16, issue 3, 2016, Pages 13~23
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2016.16.3.013
Purpose: In this paper, based on the design drawings of Naju Agricultural Technology Learning Center by focusing on features of New-Hanok applied technology in the design and construction process of New-Hanok Type Public buildings by looking at the characteristics of the whole building is planned to be presented in the future development direction and value of public architecture applied to public buildings. Method: we first review the Phase 1 study results of technology development and application technology to look at the type and characteristics of the technologies applied in Naju Hanok Experience Agriculture Learning Center. As construction designs through the consultation suggestions reflect changes were seven times. By analyzing the changes in the basic design and conduct design in the process were organized for the new technologies applied and whether the application of existing technology hanok. Result: (1) Complements the shortcomings of technology and R & D to offer an alternative to the reinforcement was omitted modify the construction method or irrational process. (2) Implementation of a technique aiming to apply new-hanok workability and economic efficiency is based on a combination of the modern construction techniques and materials. (3) The use of modern materials to the extent that can assist in the purpose and function of the building are to be accommodated. (4) There is sufficient historical study and design plan for establishing identity is necessary in order to reflect the history and tradition of new-hanok public buildings.
Design and Analysis of Heat Exchanger Using Sea Water Heat Source for Cooling
Kim, MyungRae ; Lee, JuHee ; Yoon, JaeOck ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 16, issue 3, 2016, Pages 25~34
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2016.16.3.025
Purpose: The temperature in Seoul has risen 3 times more than the average global temperature increase for the past 100 years. Today, summer starts 15 days earlier than the early 20th century and is 32 days longer. This tendency causes rapid increase of cooling energy demand. Following this effect, seawater heat resources are to be used as an countermeasure for global warming. Incheon Port near the Western Sea has the lowest water temperature in the winter in South Korea in which it is suitable to use seawater cold heat resources. Method: The cold heat resource is gained from seawater when the water temperature is the lowest in the winter time and saved in a seasonal thermal storage. This can be used as cold heat resource in the summer time. A heat exchanger is essential to gain seawater cold energy. Due to this necessity, sea water heat resource heat exchangers are modeled by heat transfer equations and the fluid characteristics are analyzed. Also, a CFD (computational fluid dynamics) program is used to conduct simulation on the fluid characteristics of heat exchangers. The analyzed data of deducted from this process are comprehensively analyzed and discussed. Result: Regarding the performance of the heat exchanger, the heat exchanger was operated following the prediction within the range of heat transfer rate of minimum 3.3KW to maximum 33.6KW per device. In the temperature change analysis of the heat exchanger, fluid analysis by heat transfer equations almost corresponded to the temperature change by CFD simulation. Therefore, it is considered that the results of this study can be used as design data of heat exchangers.
Design Parameter Structure for Architectural Elements of External Kinetic Facade
Ji, Seok-Hwan ; Lee, Byung-Yun ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 16, issue 3, 2016, Pages 35~46
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2016.16.3.035
Purpose: This paper aims to analyse the composition system of architectural elements including shape, kinetic and material elements of kinetic facades and establish the design parameter system as a common conceptual and practical knowledge sharing platform with mechanical and electrical experts. Method: This research has been conducted in a three steps. At first, 120 cases of external shading devices are analyzed and their classification criteria have been established. Secondly geometric, kinetic and material elements are categorized in a common kinetic facade coordinates system considering environmental effects and operation method, and the applicability of combination of each element are tested. Lastly core design parameters for each element have been established in a common office building installation coordinate. Result: Geometry elements are categorized into seven geometric shapes and kinetic elements is categorized into basic linear and rotational motion and combinational folding and rolling motion. The combined set of parameters for three elements composes the whole design parameters for architectural elements of kinetic façade. Design parameters of shape elements are composed of shape, installation and arrangement parameters; design parameters for kinetic elements are composed of axis and range parameters; and design parameters of material elements are composed of thermal, lighting and color parameters.
A Basic Study on the Checklists for Crime Risk Assessment in Physical Environment of the Pedestrian Passage at Residential Area
Lee, You-Mi ; Park, Hyeon-Ho ; Kang, Boo-Seong ; Sung, Gi-Ho ; Lim, Dong-Hyun ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 16, issue 3, 2016, Pages 47~55
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2016.16.3.047
Purpose: This study was aimed at providing the basic checklist as a means to assess the crime risk in physical environment of the pedestrian passage at residential area. Method: For this purpose, the preliminary checklists were selected according to the review of the precedent studies of checklists in exterior pedestrian passage. The usefulness and the importance of the preliminary checklists were analyzed through the seven expert group meetings, the 87 questionnaires survey of the crime experts & the architectural/urban experts, preliminary assessment and field survey. Results: The assessment categories of checklists were sorted into six types, i.e. spatial structure & function, lighting, landscaping, security facilities, other facilities and cleaning & maintenance. The 49 checklists were proposed according to the assessment categories. The final checklists were divided key checklists and general checklists based on the results of experts` weighting of each list item. There were significant differences between crime experts` weighting and architectural/urban experts` weighting in several checklists, i.e. dividing between pavements and streets, the brightness of light, white light.
Environmental Impact Assessment at a School Building using Input-output Table - Focused on Elementary School in Gyeonggi-do -
Choi, Doo-Sung ; Jeon, Hung-Chan ; Cho, Kyun-Hyong ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 16, issue 3, 2016, Pages 57~62
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2016.16.3.057
Purpose: A lot of active researches have addressed the impact of a building on global environment, but most of the researches focus on a residential building and a large office building. Hereupon, this study assessed the impact on environment quantitatively through the analysis of input materials targeting a school building. Method:This study calculated embodied energy of input materials suggested in a construction statement on a school building using the input-output analysis. This study finally carried out environmental impact assessment by applying LCIA DB shown in the preceding researches to the calculated embodied energy. Result: The analysis result revealed that the environmental impact per unit area(/
) at a school building was
, among which Construction was found to be
, being analyzed to account for about 87% of the total environmental impact. Also, as a result of detailed environmental impact, the impact on global warming among the total environmental impact was analyzed to be high, accounting for about 76%.
The Spatial Characteristics and Light presented in the Works of Laurant Beaudouin
Kim, Chang-Sung ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 16, issue 3, 2016, Pages 63~70
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2016.16.3.063
Purpose: This paper tried to understand the architectural philosophy of Laurant Beaudouin who is one of Neo Corbusian architects. They were in succession to Le Corbusier`s principles of modern architecture, and developed his concept of modern architecture with their own creative architecture, and formed a big achievement in the contemporary architecture. As a representative Neo Corbusian architect, the design concepts and principles of Laurant Beaudouin were analyzed in relation of nature, light and space. Method: Three step study was conducted for the paper; Firstly, investigated significant his architectural characteristics as a neo corbusian architect in the point of view of plan libre, architectural promenade and light; Secondly, analyzed his architectural philosophy on light, gravity and color, Finally, deducted relation light and space through analysis 5 works of Beaudouin. Results: According to the results of the study, Laurant Beaudouin has greatly developed of Corbusier`s principles and philosophy of modern architecture, and then, created his own originative architectural works by combining nature, light and space and presented architectural promenade with the change of time.
The Field Survey of Indoor Environment of the Office Building
Yang, Young Kwon ; Kang, In Sung ; Chung, Min Hee ; Moon, Jin Woo ; Park, Jin Chul ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 16, issue 3, 2016, Pages 71~76
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2016.16.3.071
Purpose: This study aimed at improving the indoor environment of the office building by measuring the indoor environment and conducting a survey. Method: The measurement was conducted from January 13 to March 16 in 2012, targeting 44 sites in same office building located in Seoul, South Korea. The lists of measurement such as dry-blub temperature, relative humidity, formaldehyde (HCHO), asbestos, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particle pollution (PM10) were measured. In addition, illuminance which belongs to light environment and noise in sound[acoustical] environment were measured respectively. Result: The buildings showed overall pleasant conditions. In terms of the thermal, air, sound, and visual environment, each measurements were satisfied with the requirements in standard, within pleasant ranges, except several sites. However, the survey results were revealed that the office workers were mostly dissatisfied with their indoor environment. Given that the measured values were mostly within standards, the results of survey might have resulted from a compensation mentality biased toward the subjects in psychological terms.
A comparative analysis of the simulation results of total window thermal transmittance(U
) according to the evaluation method - Focused on comparison of the single window simulation results -
Lee, Yong-jun ; Oh, Eun-joo ; Kim, Sa-kyum ; Choi, Hyun-jung ; Kim, Yu-min ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 16, issue 3, 2016, Pages 77~82
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2016.16.3.077
Purpose: The aim of this study is to calculate U-factor of the window using international standard methods and compare quantitative and tendency difference focused on ISO standard 15099 and ISO standard 10077. And the result of ISO standard calculation methods is verified using thermal performance experiment to evaluate applicability of domestic certification system. This study is utilized a basis for activation of domestic window certification system. Method: First, 16 cases are selected that is combined a variety of frame, Glazing, spacer, etc. The selected cases were simulated using WINDOW&THERM based on ISO 15099 and 10077 calculation method. Second, experiment was conducted based on Korean standard condition. Then, it was compared the error of experiment and simulation results. Through this process, ISO 15099 and 10077 calculation methods were evaluated accuracy and utilization. Result: The results show that the difference of ISO 15099 and ISO 10077-2 is maximum 5.4%. The results of comparing U-factor errors based on the Korea standard experiment test found 2.4%. Consequently, it will be possible to combination calculation methods of ISO 15099 and ISO 10077 for a single window.
Surface Hardness and Water Repellet of Earth Paint
Hawng, Hey-Zoo ; Roh, Tea-Hak ; Lee, Jin-Sil ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 16, issue 3, 2016, Pages 83~88
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2016.16.3.083
Purpose : This study aimed to verify the surface hardness and water repellency of earth paint manufactured with earth, a natural material, and provide the results as basic data for paint made with natural materials. Method : After presenting the accurate manufacturing methods for basic materials for paint, the authors conducted and analyzed experiments to evaluate surface hardness and water repellency, fundamental performance indicators for paint, based on different mixture ratios. From the results of the experiment to assess the surface hardness of flour-based earth paint, we observed high surface hardness only after painting the specimen three times. Since potato starch-based earth paint has higher viscosity than its flour-based counterpart, the former did not paint well on the first occasion, resulting in low surface hardness. After painting two or more times, however, it was observed to have higher surface hardness than flour-based earth paint. Result : It was found that at least three iterations of painting was required to obtain high surface hardness of potato starch-based earth paint. Furthermore, the results of the water resistance experiment of earth paint suggest that the use of environment-friendly finishing materials coupled with boiled linseed oil will mitigate the drawbacks of earth paint. The experiment with one-year-old specimens also demonstrated similar water repellent characteristics, which indicates that the performance will improve once the paint has dried for a sufficient period of time.
Development of Artificial Neural Network Model for Predicting the Optimal Setback Application of the Heating Systems
Baik, Yong Kyu ; Yoon, younju ; Moon, Jin Woo ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 16, issue 3, 2016, Pages 89~94
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2016.16.3.089
Purpose: This study aimed at developing an artificial neural network (ANN) model to predict the optimal start moment of the setback temperature during the normal occupied period of a building. Method: For achieving this objective, three major steps were conducted: the development of an initial ANN model, optimization of the initial model, and performance tests of the optimized model. The development and performance testing of the ANN model were conducted through numerical simulation methods using transient systems simulation (TRNSYS) and matrix laboratory (MATLAB) software. Result: The results analysis in the development and test processes revealed that the indoor temperature, outdoor temperature, and temperature difference from the setback temperature presented strong relationship with the optimal start moment of the setback temperature; thus, these variables were used as input neurons in the ANN model. The optimal values for the number of hidden layers, number of hidden neurons, learning rate, and moment were found to be 4, 9, 0.6, and 0.9, respectively, and these values were applied to the optimized ANN model. The optimized model proved its prediction accuracy with the very storing statistical correlation between the predicted values from the ANN model and the simulated values in the TRNSYS model. Thus, the optimized model showed its potential to be applied in the control algorithm.
Analysis of impact factors affecting on the stack effect in high-rise building
Oh, Jin-Hwan ; Song, Doo-Sam ; Yoon, Sung-Min ; Nam, Yujin ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 16, issue 3, 2016, Pages 95~101
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2016.16.3.095
Purpose: Recently, high-rise buildings are popular in korea due to high rate of land usage and cost performance in urban area. However, high-rise building causes several problems such as safety issues, cooling/heating load, stack effect, disaster prevention etc. The stack effect is one of the representative problems. Even though there are many researches on stack effect, there are few studies on design guideline considering local condition. Method: This study focuses on the change of pressure distribution according to the design factors which affects the airflow in high-rise residential buildings by simulation analysis. In this study, city, building floor, stairwell door leakage area, elevator door leakage area and changes of layout were considered ad the design factor. Result: The simulation results indicate that building height and ambient air temperature are significant design factor for stack effect.
Thermal Performance Evaluation at corners of the External wall of Modern New Han-oks using Temperature Difference Ratio inside
Lee, Ju-Yeob ; Song, Min-Jeong ; Lee, Tai-Gang ; Kim, Sun-Woo ; Cheon, Deuk-Youm ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 16, issue 3, 2016, Pages 103~112
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2016.16.3.103
Recently, many New Han-oks have been constructing in all over the country to popularize as a type of green house. But, achievement of thermal performance of external wall is still the very important issue to become popular. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to verify the thermal performance level of modern New Han-ok through Temperature Difference Ratio inside(TDRi) analysis at corners of the external wall in Han-ok. Method: To achieve this goal, measurements were carried out in 12 Han-oks(experimental mock-up(1), exhibition Han-ok(1), happy village Han-oks(10)) by taking a infra-red thermography using thermal video system. Following are analysis items about connection joint between wall and wood columns of external wall conditions; the part between external wall and external wall(2D), external wall and ceiling(or floor)(2D), 2 external walls and ceiling(or floor)(3D) and so on. Result: It was analyzed that the probability of condensation at most of connection joint appear high and TDRi of 3D corners is higher than that of 2D corners in general. It means that the development of construction techniques about connection joint between wood columns and external wall is still required. The results of this study may be used to improve the construction technology of new Han-ok and as a basis for the specifying the desired thermal comfort environment of dwelling.
Annual Energy Performance Evaluation of Zero Energy House Using Metering Data
Lim, Hee-Won ; Yoon, Jong-Ho ; Shin, U-Cheul ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 16, issue 3, 2016, Pages 113~119
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2016.16.3.113
Purpose: In this study, we evaluate the annual energy performance of the detached house which was designed with the aim of zero energy. Method: The experimental house which was constructed in Gonju Chungnam in 2013, is the single family detached house of light weight wood frame with
of heating area. Thermal transmittance of roof (by ISO 10211) and building external walls are designed as
respectively and low-e coating vacuum window glazing with PVC frame was installed. Also grid connected PV system and natural-circulation solar water heater was applied and 6kWp capacity of photovoltaic module was installed in pitched roof and
of solar collector in vertical wall facing the south. We analyzed the 2014 annual data of the detached house in which residents were actually living, measured though web-based remote monitoring system. Result: First, as a result, total annual energy consumption and energy production (PV generation and solar hot water) are 7,919kWh and 7,689kWh respectively and the rate of energy independence is 97.1% which is almost close to the zero energy. Second, plug load and hot water of energy consumption by category showed the highest numbers each with 33% and 31%, with following space heating 24%, electric cooker 8%, lighting 3% in order. Hot water supply is relatively higher than space heating because high insulation makes it decreased.
A Comparative Experiment on Thermal Stress Failure of Vacuum Glazing applied in Curtain Wall at Spandrel area
Kim, Seung-Chul ; Yoon, Jong-Ho ; Shin, U-Cheol ; Ahn, Jung-Hyuk ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 16, issue 3, 2016, Pages 121~128
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2016.16.3.121
Purpose: The vacuum glazing should constantly retain the gap in vacuum state to maintain high thermal performance. To do so, pillars are used to prevent the glazing from clinging to each other by the atmospheric pressure and therefore surface of the vacuum glazing is consistently affected by residual stress. The vacuum glazing could be applied to curtain wall systems at spandrel area to fulfill a rigorous domestic standard on U-value of the external wall. However, this can lead to high glazing temperature increase by heat concentration at a back panel and finally thermal stress breakage. This study experimentally determined weakness of the vacuum glazing systems on the thermal stress breakage and investigated effect of the residual stress. Method: The experiment first built two scale-down mock-up facilities that replicate the spandrel area in curtain wall, and then installed single low-e glass and vacuum glazing respectively. The two mock-up facilities were exposed to outside to induce the thermal stress breakage. Result: The experiment showed that the temperature occurred the thermal stress breakage was
for the single low-e glass and
for the vacuum glazing respectively. The result also showed the vacuum glazing reached the critical point earlier than the single low-e glass, which means that the vacuum glazing has high potential to occur the thermal shock breakage. In addition, the small temperature difference between two glazing indicates that the residual stress scarcely affects breakage of the vacuum glazing.
Repair Cost Estimation Model of the Building Exterior and Outdoor Facilities in Apartment Housing
Lee, Kang-Hee ; Chae, Chang-U ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 16, issue 3, 2016, Pages 129~135
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2016.16.3.129
Purpose: Building figuration is imperative to perceive the its value, environmental clean status and form. Therefore, maintenance activities of the building exterior are required to keep the housing condition and value. Each household should pay the repair cost which is brought out in the future. For this repair cost, the estimation model would needed to forecast and provide the required cost. This study aimed at providing the estimation model of the repair cost, using the repair survey data between the 2011 and 2014 in Seoul. Method: For these, it took various estimation function of repair cost such as 1st function, inverse function and so on. These above functions would be applied into the building exterior and outdoor facilities which figure the building shape and characteristics. Result: Results of this study are shown ; First, among 11 estimation models, the power function has a better statistics and goodness-of-fit than any other models. Second, the estimation model with a variable of household has a pattern in upward to the right. On the contrary, the model with management area is little downward to the right. Both of them are depended on the estimated parameter of the power function and the parameter smaller than 1.
Repair Accumulation Cost for the Long-Term Repair Plan in Multifamily Housing Using the Forecasting Model of the Repair Cost
Lee, Kang-Hee ; Chae, Chang-U ;
KIEAE Journal, volume 16, issue 3, 2016, Pages 137~143
DOI : 10.12813/kieae.2016.16.3.137
Purpose: Apartment housing should conduct a cyclic repair to keep and maintain the building performance since they are constructed. Therefore, the repair plan would be provided for long term period which explains the repair time, items and repair cost. Residents of apartment housing are responsible to pay for the repair activities. For repair cost, residents would reserve the money for repair little by little continuously until the required repair time because the repair cost takes a big burden for residents and lots of money a time. But, there is no systematic approach to provide the long term repair cost because it is no proper forecast of the repair cost to the upcoming repair time. In this study, it aimed at providing the monthly accumulation of the long term repair cost with the survey data in Seoul. Method: For these, the surveyed data are classified into 6 categories and number of data are 1,918. In addition, it developed the repair cost model for the 24 repair works and the cumulation function which is reflected with the each cost model. Result: This study are shown as follows : First, among the various estimation for the repair cost, the power function has a goodness of fit in statistics. Second, the monthly accumulation would be 12,840 won/household in size of
management area and
in size of the 1,000 household number during 40 years.