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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Korean Journal of Ecology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Ecological Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Aug 1994
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Jun 1994
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Apr 1994
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Feb 1994
Selecting the target year
Moisture Content of Litter Layer and Its Combustibility by Cigarette Light in Forests
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 17, issue 1, 1994, Pages 1~9
This study focuses on forest fires attributed to cigarette light, the main source of wild fires, by examining the characteristics of the fire types. It aims to present useful data for preventive measures. Statistics show that the average length of cigarette butts left after smoking is 30mm excluding filter for domestic cigarette smokers. Also the average thickness of litter layer in forests is 58.2mm throughout the nation. The value varies according to how often leaves were trodden by hikers : the accumulation amount of Mt. Sunchi. which is relatively protected from human disturbances, is 29.6% more than that of Mt. Kye-Ryong National Park. Aged trees such as Pznus rzgidu, Quercus acutissima and Larix leptolepis have relatively large inflammable contents, 2.43kg in 15 year-old stand and 2.55kg in 10 year-old stand. This study found out the following fact with regard to the start of lighting and the out-break of fire. Fire breaks out within five minutes in the sample(C), in which Zoysza gaponica and Populus X tomentiglandulosu has been tramped when the sample has 2~6 percent of moisture contents. Coniferous trees such as Pinus rigida and Larzx leptolepis do not burn easily while leaving charcoal. In contrast, deciduous trees with Zoysia japonzca and Populus X tomentiglandulosu are quick to catch fire. As a result of the experiments, it is proved that cigarette light is a very dangerous cause of wild fire especially for dry grass like Zoysia gaponica.
Allelopathic Effect of Chamaecyparis obtuaa on Understrory Vegetation in C. Abtusa Plantation
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 17, issue 1, 1994, Pages 11~22
The understory vegetation of a Chamaecyparis obtusa plantation is relatively sparse at a valley in Sangkwan-my6n, Wanju-gun, Chiinbuk, Korea, and that of the pure C. obtusa plantation is more sparse than in the C, obtusa-Larix leptolepis plantation. In order to investigate the causes of this difference, this study was carried out both in the field and in the laboratory. Total of 109 taxa, comprising 90 genera and 53 families, were identified in the plantation. But the average number of species above 10% frequency was only 27, and both the number of species and plants per quadrat in the pure C. obtusa plantation were lower than those in the C, obtusa-L. leptolepis plantation. Light intensity, soil pH, and the difference of soil minerals were supposed to be parts of the causes. Soils, litter extracts of C. obtusa and L. leptolepis, and leachates collected by vermiculite beneath C. obtusa canopy for 1 year were tested for the effect on germination and seedling growth of both inside species and outside species in the laboratory. Germination and seedling growth of outside species were more suppressed than those of inside species. Therefore it was found that allelopathic effect of C. obtusa would be responsible for the sparse understory vegetation in the C. oblusa plantation.
In Fluence Chemicals From Artemisis argyi on the Growth of Selected Species of Plants and Microorganisms
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 17, issue 1, 1994, Pages 23~35
To investigate phytotoxic substances in Artemisia argyi, the donor plant, and their biological activities, seed germination and seedling growth of receptor plants such as Arundinella hirta, Echinochloa crus-galli, Rumex crispus and Lactuca sativa were examined at different concentrations of aqueous extracts of the donor plant. Germination of four receptor species was inhibited by the extracts, while seedling growth was decreased to a lesser degree than in the germintion test. Germination, seedling growth and dry weight growth of Achyranthes japonica grown in pot were proportionally inhibited by the extracts. Volatile substances emitted from A, argi plant caused slight inhibition in the germination and seedling growth of the receptor species. Essential oil of the plant extracted by Karlsruker's apparatus inhibited growth of microorganisms and callus growth of Pinellia ternata and Oryza sativa. The GC /MS method was employed for analysis and identification of allelochemicals from A. argyi leaves. Sixty-one chemical substances such as a-pinene, camphene, 1. 8-cineol, etc. were identified from essential oil of A. argyi. The results of this experiment on seed germination, seedling growth, microorganism culture and tissue culture indicated that naturally occurring chemical substances from A. argyi would be responsible for the growth inhibition of plants studied.
수종 목본식물의 개엽 특성에 관한 연구
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 17, issue 1, 1994, Pages 37~47
A study was conducted to examine the leaf expansion forms and to analyze the leaf growth in early growing season of 1992 in a temperate deciduous forest in central region of Korea. After the winter bud scale fell off, the expansion forms of 11 woody species were divided into 3 groups, spreading fan form, opening form from half folding, and unrolling form from main vein. The ratios of leaf area at the end of growing season to that of leaf expantion time varied among species, and were related closely to expansion forms. The leaves reached to full size between the third ten days of April and the middle ten days of May, except for a few species. Leaf weight, however, increased steadily during the growing season. Specific leaf area (SLA) increased rapidly for 10-20 days after leaf expansion and decreased rapidly for 10 days after reaching maximum values, and thereafter decreased slowly. The SLA values of trees were smaller than
, but those of subtree and shrub were larger than
Air Temperature And Leaf Growth of Several Woody Plants in Early Gruwing Season
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 17, issue 1, 1994, Pages 49~58
To investigate the relationship between leaf growth of several woody plants and ait tempera ture in early growing season (from April to June) in deciduous forests, I surveyed the changes of leaf area (LA), leaf weight (LW) and specific leaf area (SLA) of 19 specles, in two areas Namhansansung (NA) and Taegwallyong (TA) area in which that the latitudes are similer (
at NA and
an TA), but annual mean-temperatures were different (
in TA) for two years, 1991 and 1992. In the same species, the plants of NA began to grow 10-25 days earlier than those of TA, but the latter grew faster than the former. On 10 June the values of LA and LW per leaf were similar in the two areas but the maximum values of SLA were higher in NA. In the same plant, the values of LA and LW were constant year by year, except for PYIOLUS leveilleana, Quercus mongolica, Symplocos chznensis for. pilosa and S t y a r ubussiu. In N A , the leaves be gan to grow during the first ten days of April, and eariler in 1992 than in 1991, and daily mean temperature (DMT) of the former from 27 March to 6 April were higher than those of thc latter. But the LA increased faster in 1991 than in 1992. and DMT from 10 April to 16 April were higher in 1991 than in 1992.
Comparison of Shoot Growth in the Populations of Zizanis latifolia along Water Depth
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 17, issue 1, 1994, Pages 59~67
Differences in physicochemical characteristics of sediment and changes in density, height and dry matter of shoots along different water depths were investigated in the stands of Zizania latifolza populations of the littoral zone of Lake Paltangho, Korea. Any significant differences in sediment chemistry were not found along water depth, although sand content decreased slightly with increasing depth. Shoot density of Zizania latqolia decreased with increasing water depth. In shallower water, many of the short shoots died in the early growth stages. The morphology of shoots was taller and heavier in deeper water. The distributions of shoot heights became negatively skewed and leptokurtic as plants grew, and these changes occurred in the earlier growth stages in deeper water. The standing crop of shoots increased with increasing water depth. These results suggest that Zizania lattfolia has a growth strategy for adjustment to deep water through decreasing shoot density and increasing height.
The Effect of Acidic Deposition on Nitrate Reductase Activity and Photosynthesis of Hypnum plumaeforme
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 17, issue 1, 1994, Pages 69~78
The acidic deposition (wet) was collected at three different locations; representative industrial (Kun-Jang industrial areas), semiindustrial (Kunsan City) and nonindustrial (Daeya areas) region between March, 1991 and June, 1993. Samples were analyzed for major chemical components along with pH. Also the responses of Hypnum filunzaeforme to the acidic deposition adjusted to pH 4.6, 3.6 and 2.6 with 1:4 molar ratio of nitric to sulfuric acid were investigated. Seasonal variation of pH showed the lowest in early spring and the highest in summer. The annual mean concentrations of
were 2.94 (81.0%), 0.48 (13.2%) and 0.21 (5.78%) mg/l in industrial region and 0.61 (64.21%), 0.25 (26.3%) and 0.9 (9.5%) mg /I in nonindustrial region, respectively.
contents of industrial region was 4 times higher than those of nonindustrial region. The ratio of
was 4.75~7.35 in industrial region and 0.69-6.36 in nonindustrial region. The acidic deposition near industrial region was associated with excess ions, expecially
. Nitrate reductase activity(NRA) of mosses was inhibited by acidic deposition in both regions. The time required for the maximum NRA induction by 2mM
was shortened in mosses collected from industrial region. Photosynthesis of H. plumaejorme began to decrease with acidic deposition by pH below 4.6, and was completely inhibited at pH 2.6 in both regions. Water potential of mosses treated with acidic deposition was almost constant during 18 days, however after withholding the supply of acidic deposition, it was rapidly decreased.
Distribution, Biovolume and Extracellular Enzyme Activities of Heterotrophic Bacteria in the Sea near Kunsan,Korea
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 17, issue 1, 1994, Pages 79~90
Water samples were taken at 6 stations from the mouth of Keum River to Kogunsan Archipelago of West Sea during December, 1991 to August, 1992, to determine the distribution of heterotrophic bacteria, their biovolumes and heterotrophic activities. Heterotrophic marine bacteria ranged from
/ml. As for morphological distribution measured by epifluorescence microscopy, rod-shaped bacteria were between 45% and 72% of all cells during investigation period. Average biovolume of sampled bacteria ranged from
for coccoid bacteria, and from
for rod-shaped ones. The activities of extracellular enzymes ranged from 0.01 to 2.6
/l /hr for glucosidase, from 0.01 to 2.6
/l /hr for amylase, from 0.01 to 8.86
/I /hr phosphatase and from 0.01 to 0.94
/l /hr for chitinase. Extracellular enzyme activities were higher in summer season than in other sampling periods, and phosphatase showed the highest activity among measured extracellular enzymes. Bacterial distribution and their extracellular enzyme activities were associated with water temperature and organic nutrients, but bacterial cell volumes showed no direct relationship with extracellular enzyme activities.
환경 스트레스, 활성산소와 스트레스-에틸렌 간의 상호관계
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 17, issue 1, 1994, Pages 91~100
Although the types of stress are various, environmental stresses generally increase the amounts of reactive oxygen species in plants. These reactive oxygen species stimulate stress-ethylene synthesis and accelerate senescence of plants. However, when stress-ethylene synthesis is suppressed through antioxidative enzymes and antioxidants, the resistance of plants against stress could be induced by limited production of ethylene.