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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Journal of Ecology
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Journal DOI :
The Ecological Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Aug 1995
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Jun 1995
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Apr 1995
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Feb 1995
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Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Two Geologically Different Streams in Alabama, U.S.A.
Joo, Gea-Jae ; Ward, Amelia K. ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 18, issue 1, 1995, Pages 1~15
Alakline phosphatase activity (AP A) as a phosphorus deficiency measurement in flowing waters and of microhabitats (rocks, wood, leaves, and sediments) was measured and its relationship to flux of nutrients and response to rainfall events were determined for two geologically different streams in west Alabama from August to November. Results indicated water column AP A in both streams had a low correlation with levels of orthophosphate, total organic phosphorus, nitrate, ammonia, dissolved organic carbon, and discharge (r=0.075-0.583; n=g-IU. Communities on rock surfaces showed a higher AP A level than those on wood and leaves. Sediment passed through a
sieve showed 2-9 times higher AP A level than material passed through
sieve. The first storm after drought at Yellow Creek introduced substantial quantities of DOC (2.5 times baseflow concentrations) and
(5.8 times baseflow concentrations) which did not affect AP A significantly. The second storm at Little Schultz Creek caused minor changes in nutrient cocentrations; however
levels and AP A were drastically lower due to the dilution effect. Retention of stream water AP A at Yellow Creek and Little Schultz Creek on
filter (54 and 43%, respectively) and
(83 and 77% of total APA. respectively) indicated more free dissolved portion of the enzyme was present at Little Schultz Creek. Little Schultz Creek (with carbonate and with a higher productivity and biomass) showed a consistantly greater AP A activity
than Yellow Creek
, with a sandstone substrate; n=l1,
. Overall, a greater APA on all microhabitats and the presence of more dissolved enzyme in Little Schultz Creek during the study period may indicates it is more P deficient than Yellow Creek.
Effects of Methylglyoxal on the Growth Dynamics of Secenedesmus quadricauda
Rhie, Ki-Tae ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 18, issue 1, 1995, Pages 17~30
The growth of Scenedesmus quadricauda (Trup.) Breb. is enhanced by methylyoxal (MG), a general inhibitor of cell division, at threshold concentration in conjunction with reatment timing relative to growth stage. The stimulatory effect of MG on algal cell growth was most significant with 2.27-fold of untreated algal culture in cell number when 0.5 mM of MG was added to the algal culture at the beginning of logarithmic phase with an initial MG concentration of 0.535 mg
. A Specific growth rates (SGRs) of MG-treated cultures were rapidly increased at the beginning of logarithmic phase with 1.89-fold of untreated algal culture. Cultures inoculated with high cell numbers of 2.4 to 4.8 X
cells/ml were less sensitive to 0.5 mM of MG treatment. The algal cell division was ranged from 0.392 to 0.924 mg MG/106 cell. If the cell number of an algal culture at the time of inoculation was low (0.6 X
cells/ml) and MG was added before logarithmic phase, the cell number of 0.5 mM of MG-treated cultures were lower than those of controls. In algal cultures treated with high concentrations of MG (1.0 mM and 2.0 mM), the algal growth was inhibited. Photosynthetic rate of growth-enhanced algal by 0.5 mM of MG was significantly higher than that of untreated or 1.0 mM of MG-treated algal cell, while there was no significant difference among those groups in respiratory rate. Pyruvate concentration in 0.5 mM of MG-treated culture was incrcased agter methylglyoxal trcatment.
Floral Analysis in the Kimpo Landfills and Its Peripheral Region
Kim, Jong-Won ; Yong-Kyoo Jung ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 18, issue 1, 1995, Pages 31~41
Floral analysis about vegetation of Kimpo landfills and its periphery region was carried out. The study area was defined to a square
of which center was located at 250m in front of Andongpo, Komdan-myon, Kimpo-gun in the northwest part of the Kyunggi Province. This study was accomplished by analyzing five qualitative traits such as ecological strategy, reproductive strategy, distribution type, native/foreign division and life-form throughout actual investigation of the flora. The flora was composed of 536 taxa which comprise 105 families, 343 genera, 458 species, 1 subaspecies, 70 varieties and 7 forms (including 92 species of horticultural plant). Lythrum salicaria community, Spiraea salicifolia community, ottelia alismoides community and woods of Alnus japonica were recorded ？ 새 retrictive distribution according to habitat characteristics. Owing to severe anthropogenic interferences such as construction of the Kimpo landfills in the study areas, a high proportion of ruderal plants and neophytes in the floral composition was recognized. The proportion of individual distribution type and therophyte was very high throughout whole study areas, and plant communities in the reclaimed areas were characterized by high proportion of phalanx plant species. Analysis of the correlations between meshes with ecological traits of plant species showed that Kimpo landfills and its periphery region was divided into two vegetation types, coastal type and inland type, as a result of possible saline effects.
Effects of Environmental Factors on Growth and Nitrogen Fixation Activity of Kummerowia striata
Song, Seung-Dal ; Jung-Sook Park ; In-Sook Kim ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 18, issue 1, 1995, Pages 43~54
Effects of environmental factors of N, P, pH, moisture, temperature and oxygen on growth and nitrogen fixation activity of kummerowia striate (Thunb.) Schindler seedling, bearing symbiotic root nodules, were quantitatively analyzed during the growing period. The specific nitrogenase activity (ARA) of nodules showed the maximum value of 187 μmol C₂H₄g fr wt-1 h-1 6 weeks after seeds were germinated. The total nitrogenase activities per plant attained as 1.56, 0.85, 0.09 and 4.0, 1.11, 0.04 μmol C₂H₄hr-1, respectively for the treatments of 1, 3 and 5 mM NO₃￣and NH₄＋ on the 60th day. While the plant grown in N-free media for 20 days after treatments of 5 mM NH₄+for 40 days resulted in 30 mg fr wt of nodule formation and exhibited the relative activities of 152％ and 162％ for total and specific ARA in comparison with those of control plant grown with N-free for 60 days. Total biomass and ARA was by 70％ and 86％ lower in N and P deficiency, respectively. The N and P deficient plot showed 70％ and 86％ decreases of total biomass and ARA in comparison with those of control. The plant grown with N-free for 20 days after pretreatment with N and P free media for 40 days showed the relative values of 77％, 118％ and 150％, respectively for nodule biomass, total and specific ARA in comparison with those of control. The treatment with acid or alkali gradients resulted in significant decreases of nodule biomass and ARA. The optimum temperature and pO₂for ARA were 30°C and 40 kPa, respectively. Two peaks of diurnal variation appeared at 11:00 and 23:00 o'clocks by the continuous light condition. The plants with water stress by temporary wilting point rsulted in 95~97％ inhibition for nodule respiration, transpiration and specific ARA. Transpiration and ARA ware recovered to 88％ and 38％ of those of water unstressed plants, respectively, 6 hours after the plants were rewatered from water stressed condition.
A Study on the Distribution of Streamside Vegetation in Kyonganchon
Cho, Do-Soon ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 18, issue 1, 1995, Pages 55~62
This study was conducted to investigate the distribution pattern of plants on streamside of Kyonganchon, which is a tributary of the Han River, and to determine the relationships between plant distribution and environmental factors. Fifteen study sites were selected along the Kyonganchon, and vegetation distribution pattern and soil environmental factors were determined. The most frequently ocurring species in the study sites were Persicaria thunbergii, Persicaria hydropiper, Echinochloa crus-galli and Bidens frondosa, and among them the two Persicaria species were dominants of the community. Many species showed different distribution along the stream:Chenopodium album, Equisetum arvense and Setaria viridies occurred in the upstream region, while Rumex crispus, Leonurus sibiricus and Rorippa islandica occurred in the middle and downstream regions. Analysis of soil properties showed that organic matter and clay content were higher in the upstream region while sand content was higher in the downstream region. The results of DCA ordination showed that axis one was positively correlated with organic matter and clay content and negatively correlated with sand content, indicating that the distribution pattern of vegetation along the Kyonganchon was determined by elevational gradient from upstream to downstream region or gradient of stream width and water level, and by soil organic matter content and soil texture related to these gradients.
A Phytosociological Study of Quercus mongolica Forest on Mt. Sobaek by Ordination and Classification Techniques
Song, Jong-Suk ; Seung-Dal Song ; Jae-Hong Park ; Bong-Bo Seo ; Hwa-Sook Chung ; Kwang-Soo Roh ; Kwang-Soo Roh ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 18, issue 1, 1995, Pages 63~87
The present study was undertaken to classify and describe the Quercus mongolica forest on Mt. Sobaek (36°50'∼ 37°07'N, 128°25'∼ 128°35'E), Korea by a reciprocal averaging methol (RA ordination) and the methodology of the ZM school of phytosociology. Atemporal vegetation tabel was prepared by the RA ordination. As a result it showed that the RA ordination on the first axis is very applicable for selecting the character and differential species of vegetation units of the Quercus mongolica forest. The phytosociological investigations were carried out in 34 stands on the mountain. The field data obtained were classified by the tabel comparison method. For the establishment of new vegetation units, the floristic composition of the Quercus mongolica forest was compared with those of the other vegetation units of the Mt. Sobaek, Considering the candidates of the character and differential species derived from RA ordination. As the result, the forest vegetation was classified into the following vegetation units; Fagetea crenatae Miyawaki et al. 1968 Acero-Quercetalia mongolicas Song 1988 em. Takeda et al.1994 Lindero-Quercetalia mongolicae Kim 1990 1. Lindero-Quercetum mongolicae assoc. nov. 1-1. quercetosum serratae subassoc. nov 1-2. typicum subassoc. nov. Rhododendro-Qurcion mongolicas Song 1988 em. Takeda et al. 1994. It is inferred that the Lindero-Quercion mongolicae and the Rhododendro-Quercion mongolicae corresponded to the cool-temperate forests of central and northern areas, respectively, in Korean Peninsula. Syntaxonomical synonyms were also rearranged based on the result of the present study. On the other hand, the RA ordination of stands and species on the first and second axes revealed some environmental gradients such as altitute, human impact and species richness between the vegetation units. However, the RA ordinations is considered to be less indicative for the gradients of the lower vegetation units than association. With the present study. some phytosociological problems in Korea we
Succession and Heterogeneity of Plant Community in Mt. Yongam, Kwangnung Experimental Forest
You, Young-Han ; Kwang-Je Gi ; Dong-Uk Han ; Young-se Kwak ; Joon-He Kim ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 18, issue 1, 1995, Pages 89~97
In order to study the successional trend and the heterogeneity of forest community, we investigated DBH frequency distribution of dominant tree species and the changes of several community indicies including
along a belt transect in Mt. Yongam, Kwangnung Experimental Forest, which has been preserved for about 530 years. Quercus serrata, Carpinus laxiflora, and C. cordata were the three dominant species and their DBH frequency distribution showed a reverse J-shaped form, so these species seem to maintain by themselves. Dominancediversity curve had a lognormal distribution. d and H'for pooled quadrats were 0.13 and 1.09, respectively, but these indices within each quadiat varied with the range of 0.13 to 0.57 and 0.5 to 1.09, respectively. The value of
along the belt transect ranged from 0.14 to 0.42. These results suggest that this forest community is in the stable climax stage but the components experience a heterogeneous microsuccession.
An Analysis of the Vegetation-Environment Relationships in Major Hardwood Communities by TWINSPAN and CANOCO
Song, Ho-Kyung ; Kyu-Kwan Jang ; Ki-Won Kwon ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 18, issue 1, 1995, Pages 99~108
Deciduous hardwood communities were ecologically analyzed in order to determine their distributional characteristics. The quadrats were sampled in Mt. Chiri, Mt. Deokyu, Mt. Kyeryong, Mt. Sokri, and Mt. Jungwang, and their environmental factors including topographical features as well as soil properties were investigated. The computer program TWINSPAN and CANOCO were used to elucidate the relationship between environmental factors and species composition. In the relations of communities and environmental factors, the optimal ecological habitats of Carpinus tschonoskii community could be the sites at low latitudes such as the regions of southern part of Korea in which total nitrogen and organic matters are rich, while those of Fraxinus mandshurica community, Acer mono community, and Betula costata community could be the sites which are wet and have high total nitrogen and organic matters in soil. The quercus mongolica community is distributed widely throughout Korea, and its ecological habitats could be the sites which have high soil nutrient and moderate soil moisture in central and northern parts of Korea, while those of Quercus variabilis community could be the sites which is dry and have high Mg and C.E.C. value.
Molecular Ecological Stabilities of Genetically Modified 4CB-Degrading Bacteria and Their Gene DNAs in Water Environments
Park, Sang-Ho ; Myong-Ja Kwak ; Ji-Young Kim ; Chi-Kyung Kim ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 18, issue 1, 1995, Pages 109~120
As the genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs) and their recombinant plasmid DNAs could be released into natural environments, their stabilities and impacts to indigenous microorganisls have become very importhant research subjects concerning with environmental and ecological aspects. In this study, the genetically modified E. coli CU103 and its recombinant pCU103 plasmid DNA, in which pcbCD genes involving in degradation of biphenyl and 4-chlorobiphenyl were cloned, were studied for their survival and stability in several different waters established under laboratory conditions. E. coli CU103 and its host E. coli XL1-Blue survived longer in sterile distilled water (SDW) and filtered autoclaved river water (FAW) than in filtered river water (FW). A lot of extracellular DNAs were released from E. coli CU103 by lytic action of phages in FW and the released DNAs were degraded by DNase dissolved in the water. Such effects of the factors in FW on stability of the recombinant pCU103 plasmid were also observed in the results of gel electrophoresis, quantitative analysis with bisbenzimide, and transformation assay. Therefore, the recombinant plasmids of pCU103 were found to be readily liberated from the genetically modified E. coli CU103 into waters by normal metabolic processes and lysis of cells. And the plasmid DNAs were quite stable in waters, but their stabilities could be affected by physicoKDICical and biological factors in non-sterile natural waters.
Syntaxonomy and Analysis of Interspecific Association on the Forest Vegetation of Mt.Ch분ongnyang
Lee, Ho-Joon ; Heung-Lak Choung ; Byung-Ho Bae ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 18, issue 1, 1995, Pages 121~136
The forest vegetation on Mt. Ch’ongnyang was investigated for phytosociological analysis of the vegetation types and interspecific association. The forest was classified into seven vegetation units; A: Quercus Mongolica community, A-1: Group of Quercus variabilis, A-1-a: Subgroup of Pinus densiflora, A-1-b: Typical subgroup, A-2: Group of Aconitum trilobum, A-3: Group of Quercus dentata, B: Zelkova serrata communty. The group of Quercus variabilis was distributed on southeast- and southwest-facing slopes in 400~830 m above the sea level, and organic matter in the soil was 3.36~4.67％. The group of Aconitum trilobum was distributed on northeast- and northwest-facing slopes in 650~830 m above the sea level, and organic matter in the soil was 7.18％. The group of Quercus dentata was distributed on southwest-facing solpes in the vicinity of 810 m above the sea level, and organic matter in the soil was 9.7％. The Zelkova serrata community was distributed in the vicinity of ravines, and organic matter in the soil was 7.6％. The contents of Mg and Ca, and electric conductivity in the Zelkova serrata community were relatively high, 11.82 me/100mg, and 11.27 me/100mg, 102.2 μ mos/cm, respectively. In the results of polar ordination, environmental gradient of axis Ⅰ and axis Ⅱwere correlated with moisture, inclination and azimuth, respectively. Group of Quercus variabilis has occurred in xeric, group of Aconitum trilobum in submesic, and the Zelrova serrata community in mesic sites. In the meantime the interspecific association analysis based on chi-square yielded three species groupings with high positive affinity(p<0.01), i.e.group Ⅰ consisted of 18 species, including Acer pseudo-sieboldianum, Ansliaea acerifolia, Aconitum trilobum and group Ⅲ consisted of 19 species, in cluding Zelrova serrata, Oplismenus undulatifolius, Acer truncatum var. barbinerve, respectively.
Seasonal Changes of Chlorophyll Contents and Photosynthetic Rates in Four Species of Maple Trees in Korea
Choe, Hyun-sup ; Hye-Jeong Lee ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 18, issue 1, 1995, Pages 137~146
Acer pseudo-sieboldianum, A. ginnala, A. negundo and A. saccharinum were selected as materials for the studies on the seasonal fluctuation of chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rates. In all the four species during the growing season except in October, the principal component that determined the total chlorophyll content was chlorophyll a. Content of chlorophyll b increased with leaf age, but that of chlorophyll a decreased. In contrast to A. saccharinum and A. pseudo-sieboldianum which showed their maximum chlorophyll content in June, A. negundo, which showed the highest chlorophyll content of the four species, exhibited its maximum chlorophyll content in July, whereas September in the case of A. ginnala. The fluctuation of chlorophyll content was similar to that of air temperature, and it increased till July. But chloprophyll content showed a significant relationship in early stage of leaf development, and there could be any interdependence between them in accordance with the seasonal change, no longer. In all four species light compensation points decreased in accordance with the seasonal change, and the maximum photosynthetic rates were obtained in August. Respiratory rates were shown no significant difference among species, and they decreased according to the adbance of season.
A Study on the Heavy Metal Tolerance in Several Herbaceous Plants
Cho, Do-Soon ; Joon-Ho Kim ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 18, issue 1, 1995, Pages 147~156
Restoration of ecosystems degraded by heavy metal pollution can be accomplished by soil amendment and selection and utilization of plants tolerant to heavy metals. Two former zinc mine sites, Sambo Mine in Hwasung, Kyonggi-do and the Second Yonhwa Mine in Samchuk, Kangwon-do, were selected for collection of plant samples and for determination of heavy metal tolerant species. Dominant species on mine waste deposits in Hwasung site were Panicum bisulcatum and Echinoch/oa crus-galli, while those in Samchuk site were Aster yomena, Setaria viridis, Artemisia lavandulaefolia and Oenothera odorata. Mean contents of zinc, lead and cadmium in Hwasung soil were 103, 117 and 1 ppm, respectively, while those in Samchuk soil were 23, 6 and 4 ppm, respectively, Zinc contents were higher in Echinochloa crus-galli from Hwasung and in Artemisia lavandulaefolia from Samchuk, while lead contents were higher in Panicum bisulcatum and Echinochloa crus-galli from Hwasung and Lactuca sonchiJolia and Pinus densiJolia from Samchuk. Plant species with higher cadmium contents were Panicum bisulcatum and Lactuca sonchiJolia. Comparison of metal contents between roots and shoots showed that Echinochloa crus-galli was a zinc accumulator, while Panicum bisulcatum, Persicaria hydroPiPer, Pinus densiJlora and Lactuca sonchiJolia were zinc excluders. In addition, Panicum bisulcatum and Persicaria hydroPiPer were proved to be lead excluders. When both heavy metal contents in plant tissues and biomass of individual plants are considered, it can be concluded that Echinochloa crus-galli and Panicum bisulcatum from Hwasung and Artemisia lavandulaefolia and Aster yomena are heavy metal absorbing plants. The effect of heavy metals on seed germination showed that Artemisia princeps var. orientalis had higher germination rates, but no significant difference in concomitant decrease of germination rates among the species investigated were found by increasing heavy metal contents.
Monthly Changes in Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities in Different Saprobities in the Suyong and Soktae Streams of the Suyong River
Kang Da Hyeung ; Tae-Soo Chon ; Young-Seuk Park ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 18, issue 1, 1995, Pages 157~177
Monthly changes in communities of benthic macroinvertebrates collected in the Suyong and Soktae stream of the Suyong river were investigated from September 1993 to August 1994. The total number of species collected during the study period ranged from seven to seventy six species according to pollution levels at the study sites. Monthly changes in species richness appeared differently in different taxonomic assemblages. In chironomids differences in species richness responding to different levels of saprobity were shown consistently as time proceeded. In Ephemeroptera species richness at the relatively clean sites responded sensitively to slight enrichment. In connection with species richness the monthly changes in densities in taxonomic assemblages also appeared to effectively represent environmental impacts. Species diversity generally represented the pollution status also, however the monthly variations at the study sites appeared to be relatively high. The clustering analysis showed that the communities collected at polluted sites were grouped closely, and the communities collected at the relatively clean sites were clustered to the same stream although the degree of community association was low, Through the Principal Component Analysis, the impact of Pollution was reflected in a great degree in overall community variations.
Disturbance Regime of the Pinus densiflora Forest in Korea
Lee, Chang-Seok ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 18, issue 1, 1995, Pages 179~188
Death patterns of gap-makers and changes of environmental factors in gaps formed by disturbance were studied in Pinus densiflora forests of Youngwol, Mt, Mansu, Mt. Songni, Uljin, and Mt, Obong in Korea. Death pattern of gap-makers showed that standing deat type was the most frequent in all the study areas. Longevity of Pinus densiflora was about 140 years, which was about half of that of the temperate deciduous broad-leaved trees. size of gaps were distributed from
, more than 80% of those were gaps created by death of two or more trees. Relative light intensity and water content of soil in gap area were higher than those in non-gap area and those in the central part of gap were the highest.
Regeneration Process after Disturbance of the Pinus densiflora Forest in Korea
Lee, Chang-Seok ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 18, issue 1, 1995, Pages 189~201
In order to clarify regeneration processes and mechanisms of the disturbed Pinus densiflora forest, responses of Pinus densiflora to gap formed by disturbance were analysed by growth of saplings and mature and growth equations were obtained from branch growth of mature trees and height growth of saplings, and age distribution of saplings and young trees recruited within gap was analysed in relation to gap age. Height growth of saplings within gaps was accelerated after gap formation. Such abrupt increases of growth of saplings after the gap formation might be resulted in the difference of growth of saplings between gap and non-gap areas. In fact, height and diameter of saplings in the central part of gap were larger than those of saplings in marginal parts of gap and non-gap area. However, density of saplings was not different in both parts. In addition, growth of annual rings of mature trees bordering on gap also increased after gap formation. Branch growth of mature trees bodering on gap was 6.3 - 6.5 cm /year and the mean radius of gaps created by death of only one canopy tree was about 3 m. Therefore, for those gaps to be closed by branch growth it will take 46 years. Growth of saplings within gap showed exponential equation. Fifty years will be required for the saplings to enter the forest canopy by the exponential growth equation. Therefore, gap created by only one tree might be closed by branch growth of surrounding canopy trees in advance of being done by height growth of saplings. But gaps created by death of trees more than 2 will be closed by the growth of saplings. Among the regenerating saplings and young trees within gaps, individuals established in advance of gap formation were more than those established after the gap formation. From these results, it was assumed that the disturbed Pinus densiflora forests in these sites were regenerated by height growth of saplings recruited in advance of gap formation.